Advances and Applications of Sport Physiology

A special issue of Life (ISSN 2075-1729). This special issue belongs to the section "Physiology and Pathology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 5689

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: performance analysis; biomechanics; injuries; strength and conditioning; sport demands
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split, Split, Croatia
Interests: strength and conditioning; handball; performance analysis; biomarkers in sport; exercise-induced stress

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Modern sport, including the field of sport and exercise physiology, has progressed in many ways thanks to the development of science. The analysis of physiological parameters in the background of sports training and competition has ensured advanced and optimal training systems that have brought athletes' capacities to exceptional limits.

Knowledge in the fields of sport diagnostics, training effects on athletes’ bodies, fatigue, stress, recovery and many other aspects of sport physiology is crucial for athletes’ development, improving their performance and reducing injuries. This knowledge is applied by athletes, coaches, sport practitioners and medical professionals.

The aim of this Special Issue is to publish high-quality, multi-disciplinary studies related to following topics:

  • Diagnostics in sport;
  • Biochemical markers in sport;
  • Load monitoring;
  • Sport injuries—risk factors, prevention and diagnosis;
  • Training effects;
  • Physiological sport demands;
  • Performance analysis.

We invite authors to submit original scientific research or systematic reviews for the further development of sports physiology. All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field.

Dr. Sime Versic
Dr. Nikola Foretic
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Life is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sports medicine
  • strength and conditioning
  • diagnostics
  • sport injuries
  • performance analysis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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12 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Blood Morphological and Biochemical Indicator Characteristics in Men Performing Different Physical Activities in the Cold—A Preliminary Report
by Aneta Teległów, Wacław Mirek, Bartłomiej Ptaszek, Marcin Maciejczyk, Dorota Godawska and Jakub Marchewka
Life 2024, 14(4), 474; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14040474 - 4 Apr 2024
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Abstract
This descriptive study determined whether winter swimming (WS) and outdoor amateur running (RUN) affect blood morphological and biochemical indicators in men during midseason winter swimming from November to April. There were three groups of participants, with 10 male amateurs each: RUN + WS, [...] Read more.
This descriptive study determined whether winter swimming (WS) and outdoor amateur running (RUN) affect blood morphological and biochemical indicators in men during midseason winter swimming from November to April. There were three groups of participants, with 10 male amateurs each: RUN + WS, WS, and control. The research was performed in the middle of the winter swimming season of 2020/2021. This time period was chosen in consideration of the respondents’ adaptation to winter conditions. The study involved only 10 male amateurs in each study group owing to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions, which confined people to their homes. In the RUN + WS group compared with the WS group, significant decreases in the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (within standard limits) (p = 0.04) and platelet distribution width (p = 0.006) were observed, with a significant increase in the red blood cell distribution width (p = 0.008) (within standard limits). The renal function, as expressed by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, was higher in the RUN + WS group (p = 0.02) (within standard limits) compared with the WS group, and the uric acid concentration was reduced (p = 0.01). In the RUN + WS group compared with the control group, significant decreases in the leukocyte count (p = 0.02) (within standard limits), monocyte count (p = 0.04) (within standard limits), and platelet distribution width (p = 0.005) were reported. The remaining indicators presented a p-value > 0.05. The two investigated forms of physical activity had no negative effect on blood morphological or biochemical indicators in male amateurs during the winter swimming midseason. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Sport Physiology)
11 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
A Short-Term Evaluation of Foot Pronation Tendency in Healthy Recreational Runners
by María José Galloso-Lagos, María Luisa González-Elena, Ana Juana Pérez-Belloso, Manuel Coheña-Jiménez, Mar Elena-Pérez, Juan Manuel Muriel-Sánchez and Aurora Castro-Méndez
Life 2023, 13(11), 2202; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13112202 - 12 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Running is a highly physical activity, and it is related to injuries when there is an excessive pronation of the foot. This study evaluates, from a sample group of healthy recreational runners, if the foot tends to pronate after a period of running [...] Read more.
Running is a highly physical activity, and it is related to injuries when there is an excessive pronation of the foot. This study evaluates, from a sample group of healthy recreational runners, if the foot tends to pronate after a period of running activity and when, with respect to a period of running compared to walking, evaluated during several phases: after 30, 45, and 60 min. This quasi-experimental study has been carried out on a total of 36 healthy recreational subjects. The subjects were evaluated during two different activities: running activity for a period of an hour with respect to normal walking activity. The main outcome measures were the foot posture index (FPI) and the navicular drop test (NDT), which were evaluated at p1 (the screening day), after 30 min of activity (p2), after 45 min of activity (p3), and finally after 60 min (p4) during running or walking activity. The analysis showed significant differences for the FPI and NDT variables in both groups and on both feet, comparing p1 and p4. These changes showed a significant relationship comparing p1 and p3 for the FPI variable, and for the NDT variable (p < 0.001) of the left foot and, with respect to the right foot, significance was shown to the FPI comparing the p1 and p2. A significant difference was found in the tendency to pronate the foot after a period of running compared to the same period of walking after 60 min of activity. Running produced an excessive pronation of the foot after 45 min of activity, evaluated with the FPI for both feet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Sport Physiology)
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15 pages, 835 KiB  
Case Report
Evolutionary Echoes: A Four-Day Fasting and Low-Caloric Intake Study on Autonomic Modulation and Physiological Adaptations in Humans
by Pedro Belinchón-deMiguel, Eduardo Navarro-Jiménez, Carmen Cecilia Laborde-Cárdenas and Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Life 2024, 14(4), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/life14040456 - 29 Mar 2024
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Abstract
This study evaluates the psychophysiological response to a simulated hunter–gatherer endurance task with restricted caloric intake over four days. It assesses changes in body composition, autonomic modulation, and physical and cognitive performance. Participants underwent daily 8 h fasted walks followed by a 150 [...] Read more.
This study evaluates the psychophysiological response to a simulated hunter–gatherer endurance task with restricted caloric intake over four days. It assesses changes in body composition, autonomic modulation, and physical and cognitive performance. Participants underwent daily 8 h fasted walks followed by a 150 kcal meal to replicate hunter–gatherer activity and dietary patterns. Measurements of metabolic, respiratory, and subjective well-being, along with heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring, were conducted pre- and post-activity to evaluate the impact of endurance activity under caloric restriction. We found weight loss, decreased body and visceral fat, and reduced skeletal muscle mass and water percentage. High sympathetic activation and stable urinary markers, except for increased proteinuria, indicated stress responses and muscular degradation. Elevated perceived exertion post-exercise with good adaptation to prolonged effort underlines the body’s adaptability to ancestral lifestyle conditions, highlighting the connection among endurance, nutrition, and psychophysiological health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Sport Physiology)
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12 pages, 2533 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Different Training Modalities on Static Balance in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Noé Labata-Lezaun, Sergi Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos López-de-Celis, Jacobo Rodríguez-Sanz, Max Canet-Vintró, Guillermo R.-Oviedo, Vanessa González-Rueda and Albert Pérez-Bellmunt
Life 2023, 13(5), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/life13051193 - 16 May 2023
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Abstract
(1) Background: aging is associated with functional changes such as balance, which plays a critical role in older adults. Physical exercise has been established as a factor capable of modulating these age-related alterations. (2) Methods: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was [...] Read more.
(1) Background: aging is associated with functional changes such as balance, which plays a critical role in older adults. Physical exercise has been established as a factor capable of modulating these age-related alterations. (2) Methods: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was conducted. The systematic search was performed in the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, the SPORTDiscus and Cochrane Library databases. Articles were included if participants were 65 years or older, healthy and performing resistance training, aerobic training, balance training or multicomponent training. Studies were excluded if there was a combination of training with other types of intervention. The protocol of this systematic review was published in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) with the code CRD42021233252 (3) Results: the search strategy found a total of 1103 studies. After removing duplicates and the inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight articles were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 335 healthy older adults analyzed. The results showed no significant differences between the intervention groups and the control groups after the exercise programs. (4) Conclusions: interventions based on different types of exercise improved static balance in elderly population, but without statistically significant difference in comparison with the control groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances and Applications of Sport Physiology)
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