Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Coastal Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 July 2021) | Viewed by 35846

Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editors

1. Flanders Hydraulics Research, Berchemlei 115, 2140 Antwerp, Belgium
2. Dept. of Hydraulic Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: wave-structure interaction; wave-vegetation interaction; wave hydrodynamics; coastal safety; numerical modeling; physical modeling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Maritime Engineering Laboratory (LIM), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya—BarcelonaTech, C/Jordi Girona 1-3, Campus Nord, Edifici D1, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
Interests: coastal engineering; computational fluid dynamics; smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the ongoing rise in sea level and changing wave climate, coastal structures such as sea dikes and seawalls are expected to be more frequently exposed to more severe wave climates. Even though much research related to wave–structure interactions has been carried out, it still remains one of the most important topics in the field of coastal engineering. The outcomes of research will lead to improvements in safety, environmental impact, and the cost efficiency of construction.

For this Special Issue, we invite papers which present theoretical/mathematical, experimental, or numerical work related to wave interactions with coastal structures. This Special Issue is dedicated to the topic of wave interactions with conventional coastal hard structures. However, details and new outcomes related to constructions located in wave-affected zones, such as apartment buildings on dikes or other infrastructures, and also with soft structures such as nature-based solutions, are also welcome.

Dr. Tomohiro Suzuki
Dr. Corrado Altomare
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • waves
  • coastal structures
  • hydrodynamics
  • wave overtopping
  • wave force
  • infrastructures
  • nature-based solutions

Published Papers (11 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research

4 pages, 186 KiB  
Editorial
Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(12), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9121331 - 26 Nov 2021
Viewed by 1476
Abstract
Due to the ongoing rise in sea level and increase in extreme wave climates, consequences of the changing wave climate, coastal structures such as sea dikes and seawalls will be exposed to severe and frequent sea storms [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

32 pages, 64154 KiB  
Article
Coupled SPH–FEM Modeling of Tsunami-Borne Large Debris Flow and Impact on Coastal Structures
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101068 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 4839
Abstract
Field surveys in recent tsunami events document the catastrophic effects of large waterborne debris on coastal infrastructure. Despite the availability of experimental studies, numerical studies investigating these effects are very limited due to the need to simulate different domains (fluid, solid), complex turbulent [...] Read more.
Field surveys in recent tsunami events document the catastrophic effects of large waterborne debris on coastal infrastructure. Despite the availability of experimental studies, numerical studies investigating these effects are very limited due to the need to simulate different domains (fluid, solid), complex turbulent flows and multi-physics interactions. This study presents a coupled SPH–FEM modeling approach that simulates the fluid with particles, and the flume, the debris and the structure with mesh-based finite elements. The interaction between the fluid and solid bodies is captured via node-to-solid contacts, while the interaction of the debris with the flume and the structure is defined via a two-way segment-based contact. The modeling approach is validated using available large-scale experiments in the literature, in which a restrained shipping container is transported by a tsunami bore inland until it impacts a vertical column. Comparison of the experimental data with the two-dimensional numerical simulations reveals that the SPH–FEM models can predict (i) the non-linear transformation of the tsunami wave as it propagates towards the coast, (ii) the debris–fluid interaction and (iii) the impact on a coastal structure, with reasonable accuracy. Following the validation of the models, a limited investigation was conducted, which demonstrated the generation of significant debris pitching that led to a non-normal impact on the column with a reduced contact area and impact force. While the exact level of debris pitching is highly dependent on the tsunami characteristics and the initial water depth, it could potentially result in a non-linear force–velocity trend that has not been considered to date, highlighting the need for further investigation preferably with three-dimensional models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 7242 KiB  
Article
Interaction of a Solitary Wave with Vertical Fully/Partially Submerged Circular Cylinders with/without a Hollow Zone
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 1022; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8121022 - 15 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2500
Abstract
In this article, a three-dimensional, fully nonlinear potential wave model is applied based on a curvilinear grid system. This model calculates the wave action on a fully/partially submerged vertical cylinder with or without a hollow zone. As basic verification, a solitary wave hitting [...] Read more.
In this article, a three-dimensional, fully nonlinear potential wave model is applied based on a curvilinear grid system. This model calculates the wave action on a fully/partially submerged vertical cylinder with or without a hollow zone. As basic verification, a solitary wave hitting a single fully or partially submerged circular cylinder is tested, and our numerical results agree with the experimental results obtained by others. The influence of cylinder immersion depth and size on the wave elevation change on the cylinder surface is considered. The model is also applied to investigate the wave energy of a solitary wave passing through a hollow circular cylinder to determine the effect of the size and draft on the wave oscillating in the hollow zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6042 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Vertical Breakwater Stability under Extreme Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120986 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to perform a numerical simulation of caisson breakwater stability concerning the effect of wave overtopping under extreme waves. A numerical model, which solves two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the k−ε turbulence closure and uses the volume of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to perform a numerical simulation of caisson breakwater stability concerning the effect of wave overtopping under extreme waves. A numerical model, which solves two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations with the k−ε turbulence closure and uses the volume of fluid method for surface capturing, is validated with the laboratory observations. The numerical model is shown to accurately predict the measured free-surface profiles and the wave pressures around a caisson breakwater. Considering the dynamic loading on caisson breakwaters during overtopping waves, not only landward force and lift force but also the seaward force are calculated. Model results suggest that the forces induced by the wave overtopping on the back side of vertical breakwater and the phase lag of surface elevations have to be considered for calculating the breakwater stability. The numerical results also show that the failure of sliding is more dangerous than the failure of overturning in the vertical breakwater. Under extreme waves with more than 100 year return period, the caisson breakwater is sliding unstable, whereas it is safe in overturning stability. The influence of wave overtopping on the stability analysis is dominated by the force on the rear side of the caisson and the phase difference on the two ends of caisson. For the case of extreme conditions, if the impulse force happens at the moment of the minimum of load in the rear side, the safety factor might decrease significantly and the failure of sliding might cause breakwater damage. This paper demonstrates the potential stability failure of coastal structures under extreme sea states and provides adapted formulations of safety factors in dynamic form to involve the influence of overtopping waves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

37 pages, 11579 KiB  
Article
An Inter-Model Comparison for Wave Interactions with Sea Dikes on Shallow Foreshores
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(12), 985; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8120985 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3138
Abstract
Three open source wave models are applied in 2DV to reproduce a large-scale wave flume experiment of bichromatic wave transformations over a steep-sloped dike with a mildly-sloped and very shallow foreshore: (i) the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations solver interFoam of OpenFOAM® (OF), (ii) [...] Read more.
Three open source wave models are applied in 2DV to reproduce a large-scale wave flume experiment of bichromatic wave transformations over a steep-sloped dike with a mildly-sloped and very shallow foreshore: (i) the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations solver interFoam of OpenFOAM® (OF), (ii) the weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics model DualSPHysics (DSPH) and (iii) the non-hydrostatic nonlinear shallow water equations model SWASH. An inter-model comparison is performed to determine the (standalone) applicability of the three models for this specific case, which requires the simulation of many processes simultaneously, including wave transformations over the foreshore and wave-structure interactions with the dike, promenade and vertical wall. A qualitative comparison is done based on the time series of the measured quantities along the wave flume, and snapshots of bore interactions on the promenade and impacts on the vertical wall. In addition, model performance and pattern statistics are employed to quantify the model differences. The results show that overall, OF provides the highest model skill, but has the highest computational cost. DSPH is shown to have a reduced model performance, but still comparable to OF and for a lower computational cost. Even though SWASH is a much more simplified model than both OF and DSPH, it is shown to provide very similar results: SWASH exhibits an equal capability to estimate the maximum quasi-static horizontal impact force with the highest computational efficiency, but does have an important model performance decrease compared to OF and DSPH for the force impulse. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 6071 KiB  
Article
SPH Simulations of Real Sea Waves Impacting a Large-Scale Structure
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100826 - 21 Oct 2020
Cited by 33 | Viewed by 4512
Abstract
The Pont del Petroli is a dismissed pier in the area of Badalona, Spain, with high historical and social value. This structure was heavily damaged in January 2020 during the storm Gloria that hit southeastern Spain with remarkable strength. The reconstruction of the [...] Read more.
The Pont del Petroli is a dismissed pier in the area of Badalona, Spain, with high historical and social value. This structure was heavily damaged in January 2020 during the storm Gloria that hit southeastern Spain with remarkable strength. The reconstruction of the pier requires the assessment and characterization of the wave loading that determined the structural failure. Therefore, a state-of-the-art Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code was employed herein as an aid for a planned experimental campaign that will be carried out at the Maritime Engineering Laboratory of Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-BarcelonaTech (LIM/UPC). The numerical model is based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and has been employed to simulate conditions very similar to those that manifested during the storm Gloria. The high computational cost for a full 3-D simulation has been alleviated by means of inlet boundary conditions, allowing wave generation very close to the structure. Numerical results reveal forces higher than the design loads of the pier, including both self-weight and accidental loads. This demonstrates that the main failure mechanism that led to severe structural damage of the pier during the storm is related to the exceeded lateral soil resistance. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research represents the first known application of SPH open boundary conditions to model a real-world engineering case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3488 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Overtopping Waves on Sea Dikes with Gentle and Shallow Foreshores
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(10), 752; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8100752 - 27 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Due to ongoing climate change, overtopping risk is increasing. In order to have effective countermeasures, it is useful to understand overtopping processes in details. In this study overtopping flow on a dike with gentle and shallow foreshores are investigated using a non-hydrostatic wave-flow [...] Read more.
Due to ongoing climate change, overtopping risk is increasing. In order to have effective countermeasures, it is useful to understand overtopping processes in details. In this study overtopping flow on a dike with gentle and shallow foreshores are investigated using a non-hydrostatic wave-flow model, SWASH (an acronym of Simulating WAves till SHore). The SWASH model in 2DV (i.e., flume like configuration) is first validated using the data of long crested wave cases with second order wave generation in the physical model test conducted. After that it is used to produce overtopping flow in different wave conditions and bathymetries. The results indicated that the overtopping risk is better characterized by the time dependent h (overtopping flow depth) and u (overtopping flow velocity) instead of hmax (maximum overtopping flow depth) and umax (maximum overtopping flow velocity), which led to overestimation of the risk. The time dependent u and h are strongly influenced by the dike configuration, namely by the promenade width and the existence of a vertical wall on the promenade: the simulation shows that the vertical wall induces seaward velocity on the dike which might be an extra risk during extreme events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

29 pages, 10824 KiB  
Article
Validation of RANS Modelling for Wave Interactions with Sea Dikes on Shallow Foreshores Using a Large-Scale Experimental Dataset
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(9), 650; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8090650 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3809
Abstract
In this paper, a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations solver, interFoam of OpenFOAM®, is validated for wave interactions with a dike, including a promenade and vertical wall, on a shallow foreshore. Such a coastal defence system is comprised of both an impermeable [...] Read more.
In this paper, a Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations solver, interFoam of OpenFOAM®, is validated for wave interactions with a dike, including a promenade and vertical wall, on a shallow foreshore. Such a coastal defence system is comprised of both an impermeable dike and a beach in front of it, forming the shallow foreshore depth at the dike toe. This case necessitates the simulation of several processes simultaneously: wave propagation, wave breaking over the beach slope, and wave interactions with the sea dike, consisting of wave overtopping, bore interactions on the promenade, and bore impacts on the dike-mounted vertical wall at the end of the promenade (storm wall or building). The validation is done using rare large-scale experimental data. Model performance and pattern statistics are employed to quantify the ability of the numerical model to reproduce the experimental data. In the evaluation method, a repeated test is used to estimate the experimental uncertainty. The solver interFoam is shown to generally have a very good model performance rating. A detailed analysis of the complex processes preceding the impacts on the vertical wall proves that a correct reproduction of the horizontal impact force and pressures is highly dependent on the accuracy of reproducing the bore interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 8721 KiB  
Article
Reduction of Wave Overtopping and Force Impact at Harbor Quays Due to Very Oblique Waves
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 598; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080598 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3008
Abstract
Physical model experiments were conducted in a wave tank at Flanders Hydraulics Research, Antwerp, Belgium, to characterize the wave overtopping and impact force on vertical quay walls and sloping sea dike (1:2.5) under very oblique wave attack (angle between 45° and 80°). This [...] Read more.
Physical model experiments were conducted in a wave tank at Flanders Hydraulics Research, Antwerp, Belgium, to characterize the wave overtopping and impact force on vertical quay walls and sloping sea dike (1:2.5) under very oblique wave attack (angle between 45° and 80°). This study was triggered by the scarce scientific literature on the overtopping and force reduction due to very oblique waves since large reduction is expected for both when compared with the perpendicular wave attack. The study aimed to compare the results from the experimental tests with formulas derived from previous experiments and applicable to a Belgian harbor generic case. The influence of storm return walls and crest berm width on top of the dikes has been analyzed in combination with the wave obliqueness. The results indicate significant reduction of the overtopping due to very oblique waves and new reduction coefficients were proposed. When compared with formulas from previous studies the proposed coefficients indicate the best fit for the overtopping reduction. Position of the storm return wall respect to the quay edge rather than its height was found to be more important for preventing wave induced overtopping. The force reduction is up to approximately 50% for the oblique waves with respect to the perpendicular wave impact and reduction coefficients were proposed for two different configurations a sea dike and vertical quay wall, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 8194 KiB  
Article
Overtopping Metrics and Coastal Safety: A Case of Study from the Catalan Coast
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080556 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3534
Abstract
Design criteria for coastal defenses exposed to wave overtopping are usually assessed by mean overtopping discharges and maximum individual overtopping volumes. However, it is often difficult to give clear and precise limits of tolerable overtopping for all kinds of layouts. A few studies [...] Read more.
Design criteria for coastal defenses exposed to wave overtopping are usually assessed by mean overtopping discharges and maximum individual overtopping volumes. However, it is often difficult to give clear and precise limits of tolerable overtopping for all kinds of layouts. A few studies analyzed the relationship between wave overtopping flows and hazard levels for people on sea dikes, confirming that one single value of admissible mean discharge or individual overtopping volume is not a sufficient indicator of the hazard, but detailed characterization of flow velocities and depths is required. This work presents the results of an experimental campaign aiming at analyzing the validity of the safety limits and design criteria for overtopping discharge applied to an urbanized stretch of the Catalan coast, exposed to significant overtopping events every stormy season. The work compares different safety criteria for pedestrians. The results prove that the safety of pedestrians on a sea dike can be still guaranteed, even for overtopping volumes larger than 1,000 L/m. Sea storms characterized by deep-water wave height between 3.6 and 4.5 m lead to overtopping flow depth values larger than 1 m and flow velocities up to 20 m/s. However, pedestrian hazard is proved to be linked to the combination of overtopping flow velocity and flow depth rather than to single maximum values of one of these parameters. The use of stability curves to assess people’s stability under overtopping waves is therefore advised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6998 KiB  
Article
A Simplified Method for an Evaluation of the Effect of Submerged Breakwaters on Wave Damping: The Case Study of Calabaia Beach
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(7), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8070510 - 12 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2287
Abstract
Erosion processes threaten the economy, the environment and the ecosystem of coastal areas. In addition, human action can significantly affect the characteristics of the soil and the landscape of the shoreline. In this context, pursuing environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in solving [...] Read more.
Erosion processes threaten the economy, the environment and the ecosystem of coastal areas. In addition, human action can significantly affect the characteristics of the soil and the landscape of the shoreline. In this context, pursuing environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in solving environmental degradation of coastal areas worldwide, with particular reference to the design of complex engineering structures. Among all the measures conceived to protect the shoreline, environmentally friendly interventions should be supported by the stakeholders and tested by means of mathematical models, in order to evaluate their effectiveness in coastal protection through the evaluation of wave damping and bedload. This study focuses on protected nourishments, as strategic interventions aimed to counteract coastal erosion without affecting the environment. Here, we develop a simplified method to provide a preliminary assessment of the efficiency of submerged breakwaters in reducing wave energy at a relatively low computational cost, if compared to the standard 2D or full 3D mathematical models. The methodology is applied at Calabaia Beach, located in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy), in the area of the Marine Experimental Station of Capo Tirone. The results show that the simplified method is proven to be an essential tool in assisting researchers and institutions to address the effects of submerged breakwaters on nourishment protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave Interactions with Coastal Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop