Next Issue
Volume 12, June
Previous Issue
Volume 12, April
 
 

J. Mar. Sci. Eng., Volume 12, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 158 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): As some of the most threatened ecosystems in the world, the declining condition and coverage of coastal habitats results in the loss of the myriad ecosystem services they provide. Since oysters are often used in restoration projects, this study quantified spatial and temporal patterns in eastern oyster spat settlement in a bar-built estuary in northeast Florida, USA, that is host to a robust population of intertidal oyster reefs. Variations in regional spat settlements are possibly driven by the residence times of the watersheds, the density of adult populations, and the location of the spat collectors. The results of this study illustrate place-based variability in oyster settlement patterns and underscore the importance of local monitoring for oyster resource management, restoration, and research. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
25 pages, 6102 KiB  
Article
Distributed Formation Maneuvering Quantized Control of Under-Actuated Unmanned Surface Vehicles with Collision and Velocity Constraints
by Wei Wang, Yang Wang and Tieshan Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 848; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050848 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 336
Abstract
This paper focuses on a distributed cooperative time-varying formation maneuvering issue of under-actuated unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). A fleet of USVs is guided by a parameterized path with a time-varying formation while avoiding collisions and preserving the connectivity in the environment with multiple [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on a distributed cooperative time-varying formation maneuvering issue of under-actuated unmanned surface vehicles (USVs). A fleet of USVs is guided by a parameterized path with a time-varying formation while avoiding collisions and preserving the connectivity in the environment with multiple obstacles. In some surface missions, due to the obstacles in the external environment, the bandwidth limitations of the communication channel, and the hardware components/performance constraints of the USVs themselves, each vehicle is considered to be subject to model uncertainty, actuator quantization, sensor dead zone, and velocity constraints. During the control design process, the radial basis function (RBF) neural networks (NNs) are utilized to deal with nonlinear terms. Based on a nonlinear decomposition method, the relationship between the control signal and the quantization one is established, which overcomes the difficulty arising from actuator quantization. A Nussbaum function is introduced to handle the unknown output dead zone problem caused by reduced sensor sensitivity. Moreover, a universal-constrained function is employed to satisfy both the constrained and unconstrained requirements during formation keeping and obstacle avoidance. The Lyapunov stability theory confirmed that the error signals are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB). The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed distributed formation control of multiple USVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Control of Marine Craft)
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 5480 KiB  
Article
The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Chemosymbiotic Lucinid Bivalve Pillucina pisidium (Dunker, 1860) Occurring in Seagrass Zostera marina Bed in a Lagoon in Jeju Island, Korea
by Jong-Seop Shin, Chi-une Song, Hyeongwoo Choi, Sung Hyun Yang, Kae Kyoung Kwon, Seong-il Eyun and Kwang-Sik Choi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050847 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 365
Abstract
Commonly found in tropic and subtropic seagrass beds, lucinid clams host sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within their gills. These symbionts are crucial in converting phytotoxic sulfide in the sediment into less harmful sulfate, thus enhancing the environment for seagrasses and associated biota. We recently uncovered [...] Read more.
Commonly found in tropic and subtropic seagrass beds, lucinid clams host sulfur-oxidizing bacteria within their gills. These symbionts are crucial in converting phytotoxic sulfide in the sediment into less harmful sulfate, thus enhancing the environment for seagrasses and associated biota. We recently uncovered small clams within a Zostera marina seagrass bed situated in a lagoon on Jeju Island, off the south coast of Korea. These bivalves, with shell lengths of up to 7 mm, exhibited distinct features, including thick and hypertrophied gills, inflated and ovoid shells with a shell height/shell length ratio of 0.99, and the absence of a sulcus on the external shell surface. These characteristics align closely with those of Pillucina pisidium, a lucinid clam species originally reported in Japan. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene partial sequences of the clams from Jeju Island revealed a 100% match with P. pisidium reported in Japan, confirming their identity. Moreover, we successfully assembled the complete mitochondrial genome of P. pisidium for the first time, revealing a circular genome spanning 21,059 bp. Additionally, we constructed a phylogenetic tree using 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) extracted from the mitochondrial genome of P. pisidium. Notably, P. pisidium formed a distinct clade within the subclass Autobranchia alongside other lucinid clams in the phylogenetic tree. However, within the family Lucinidae, synteny analysis of the 13 PCGs revealed diverse gene arrangement patterns, indicating considerable divergence. This divergence underscores the need for an extensive examination of Lucinidae mitochondrial genomes to elucidate the phylogenetic ties more precisely within the family, highlighting P. pisidium’s distinct evolutionary path within the family Lucinidae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biodiversity and Population Ecology of Marine Invertebrates)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 7463 KiB  
Article
The Design and Study of a Four-Coil Oil Multi-Pollutant Detection Sensor
by Shuyao Zhang, Zuo Zhang, Baojun Wang, Shukui Hu, Chenzhao Bai, Hongpeng Zhang, Zilei Yu, Huancheng Wang, Liang Qu and Debao Yang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 846; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050846 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 374
Abstract
The operating environment of large mechanical equipment on ships is extremely harsh. Under such harsh conditions, it is necessary to effectively monitor and assess the health status of machinery and equipment and to take appropriate maintenance measures to ensure the normal operation of [...] Read more.
The operating environment of large mechanical equipment on ships is extremely harsh. Under such harsh conditions, it is necessary to effectively monitor and assess the health status of machinery and equipment and to take appropriate maintenance measures to ensure the normal operation of the ship and the safety of the lives and property of the crew. However, currently used methods are less effective in detecting non-ferromagnetic abrasive particles and non-metallic contaminants and may not be able to respond to certain emergencies promptly. Therefore, in this paper, a quad-solenoid coil multi-contaminant oil detection sensor is proposed to detect metallic abrasive particles and non-metallic contaminants using the voltage–capacitance dual mode. We provide an analytical expression for the magnetic field strength of the present sensor and develop a corresponding mathematical model. In order to verify its accuracy, we compared the model results with finite element analysis and verified them experimentally. Analysis of the experimental results shows that by switching the detection mode of the sensor, ferromagnetic metal particles, non-ferromagnetic metal particles, and non-metallic contaminants in the oil can be identified according to the different experimental signal curves. The sensor recognizes ferromagnetic particles over 70 μm in diameter, non-ferromagnetic particles over 220 μm in diameter, water droplets over 100–110 μm in diameter, and air bubbles over 180–190 μm in diameter. By comparing the sensor with existing sensors, the sensor can provide accurate information about various pollutants, help maintenance personnel to develop a reasonable maintenance program, and reduce the maintenance cost of ship machinery. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

27 pages, 5246 KiB  
Review
Safety Improvements for High-Speed Planing Craft Occupants: A Systematic Review
by Fatemeh Roshan, Abbas Dashtimanesh and Pentti Kujala
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 845; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050845 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Moving fast by high-speed planing craft (HSPC) is advantageous for some special missions, though it causes severe hull vibrations and shocks that can transfer to the human body and increase health and comfort risks. This study reviews the current safety standards to avoid [...] Read more.
Moving fast by high-speed planing craft (HSPC) is advantageous for some special missions, though it causes severe hull vibrations and shocks that can transfer to the human body and increase health and comfort risks. This study reviews the current safety standards to avoid human safety risks affected by whole-body vibrations (WBVs), as well as the safety status of HSPC occupants. In addition, the efficiency of motion-reduction devices (trim tab and interceptor) and shock/vibration-mitigation devices (shock-mitigation seat) in improving the safety of HSPC occupants is examined according to existing documents. The research methodology was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIS-MA) method, and published papers in the Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were analyzed. Because most of these publications are academic research, issues of bias in the eligible publications were not of particular interest. During this systematic review, many gaps and challenges in current information on safety improvement devices were found that need to be addressed in future studies, such as a lack of information on motion-reduction devices and shock-mitigation seat performance in reducing lateral and fore-and-aft motions. Referring to these gaps and challenges can be valuable as a suggestion to improve current knowledge in research and reduce safety risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Advanced Technologies in Maritime Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 487 KiB  
Article
Deployment Method for Aircraft-Based Maritime Emergency Communication Resource Reserve Bases
by Xihua Li and Shengming Jiang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 844; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050844 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Maritime emergency communication facilities play a crucial role in establishing communication links between land and sea, serving as essential communication means for maintaining maritime safety, disaster response, and emergency rescue operations. With the increasing frequency of marine activities, the rapid response capability of [...] Read more.
Maritime emergency communication facilities play a crucial role in establishing communication links between land and sea, serving as essential communication means for maintaining maritime safety, disaster response, and emergency rescue operations. With the increasing frequency of marine activities, the rapid response capability of maritime emergency communication is becoming increasingly critical. With their characteristics of high-speed mobility, broad coverage and flexibility, aircraft serve as carriers for emergency communication facilities. The selection of aircraft bases is paramount in meeting the requirement of rapid response for maritime emergency communication. In this paper, we present a multi-objective optimization model for site selection by considering the coverage capabilities of different carriers. The model incorporates hierarchical coverage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and helicopters with a genetic algorithm. Through a case study of the Bohai Sea, this paper verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1537 KiB  
Article
Propeller Optimization in Marine Power Systems: Exploring Its Contribution and Correlation with Renewable Energy Solutions
by Bruna Bacalja Bašić, Maja Krčum and Zdeslav Jurić
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050843 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 652
Abstract
The goal of increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased interest in the application of renewable energy sources and the usage of new technologies in the maritime industry. In order to implement the most suitable source, factors such as [...] Read more.
The goal of increasing fuel efficiency and decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has increased interest in the application of renewable energy sources and the usage of new technologies in the maritime industry. In order to implement the most suitable source, factors such as voyage duration, storage availability, and the condition of existing vessels as well as those that are still under construction should be taken into account. Propeller optimization is proposed as a long-term solution. This paper investigates the environmental aspects of propeller optimization, focusing on its potential to reduce ship vibrations fuel consumption, and, therefore, the ship’s carbon footprint. The case study presents propeller optimization on a Ro-Ro passenger ship. The data collected during sea trials before and after propeller optimization will be compared. Expected fuel oil consumption will be correlated to the CO2 emission reduction. Besides propeller optimization, the paper performs a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis comparing it with solar and wind power applications on ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 8975 KiB  
Article
Underwater Camera Calibration Based on Double Refraction
by Yushan Sun, Tian Zhou, Liwen Zhang and Puxin Chai
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 842; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050842 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 351
Abstract
Underwater camera calibration plays a pivotal role in underwater positioning and underwater mapping reconstruction, making it crucial for achieving precise spatial measurements in underwater environments. To elevate measurement accuracy, we have refined the calibration methodology for underwater cameras. Firstly, we conducted an in-depth [...] Read more.
Underwater camera calibration plays a pivotal role in underwater positioning and underwater mapping reconstruction, making it crucial for achieving precise spatial measurements in underwater environments. To elevate measurement accuracy, we have refined the calibration methodology for underwater cameras. Firstly, we conducted an in-depth investigation into the intricate challenges posed by double refraction errors arising from light passing through water–glass–air interfaces. To address this issue, we established a double refraction model based on the actual underwater light paths, laying the groundwork for our calibration efforts. Furthermore, to tackle the problem of determining multiple camera parameters, we proposed a parameter optimization method based on genetic algorithms, capable of navigating the complex parameter space. Finally, compared with other algorithms, our method enables more precise determination of underwater camera parameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3823 KiB  
Article
Process Planning for Large Container Ship Propeller Shaft Machining Based on an Improved Ant Colony Algorithm
by Guotai Du, Hongkui Ma, Yu Bai and Ning Mei
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050841 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
To accommodate the production and manufacture of complex and customized marine components and to avoid the empirical nature of process planning, machining operations can be automatically sequenced and optimized using ant colony algorithms. However, traditional ant colony algorithms exhibit issues in the context [...] Read more.
To accommodate the production and manufacture of complex and customized marine components and to avoid the empirical nature of process planning, machining operations can be automatically sequenced and optimized using ant colony algorithms. However, traditional ant colony algorithms exhibit issues in the context of machining process planning. In this study, an improved ant colony algorithm is proposed to address these challenges. The introduction of a tiered distribution of initial pheromones mitigates the blindness of initial searches. By incorporating the number of iterations into the expectation heuristic function and introducing a ‘reward–penalty system’ for pheromones, the contradictions between convergence speed and the tendency to fall into local optima are avoided. Applying the improved ant colony algorithm to the process planning of large container ship propeller shaft machining, this study constructs a ‘distance’ model for each machining unit and develops a process constraint table. The results show significant improvements in initial search capabilities and convergence speed with the improved ant colony algorithm while also resolving the contradiction between convergence speed and optimal solutions. This verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the improved ant colony algorithm in intelligent process planning for ships. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Ship Technology Development and Design)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 11687 KiB  
Review
A Review on Submarine Geological Risks and Secondary Disaster Issues during Natural Gas Hydrate Depressurization Production
by Xianzhuang Ma, Yujing Jiang, Peng Yan, Hengjie Luan, Changsheng Wang, Qinglin Shan and Xianzhen Cheng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050840 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The safe and efficient production of marine natural gas hydrates faces the challenges of seabed geological risk issues. Geological risk issues can be categorized from weak to strong threats in four aspects: sand production, wellbore instability, seafloor subsidence, and submarine landslides, with the [...] Read more.
The safe and efficient production of marine natural gas hydrates faces the challenges of seabed geological risk issues. Geological risk issues can be categorized from weak to strong threats in four aspects: sand production, wellbore instability, seafloor subsidence, and submarine landslides, with the potential risk of natural gas leakage, and the geological risk problems that can cause secondary disasters dominated by gas eruptions and seawater intrusion. If the gas in a reservoir is not discharged in a smooth and timely manner during production, it can build up inside the formation to form super pore pressure leading to a sudden gas eruption when the overburden is damaged. There is a high risk of overburden destabilization around production wells, and reservoirs are prone to forming a connection with the seafloor resulting in seawater intrusion under osmotic pressure. This paper summarizes the application of field observation, experimental research, and numerical simulation methods in evaluating the stability problem of the seafloor surface. The theoretical model of multi-field coupling can be used to describe and evaluate the seafloor geologic risk issues during depressurization production, and the controlling equations accurately describing the characteristics of the reservoir are the key theoretical basis for evaluating the stability of the seafloor geomechanics. It is necessary to seek a balance between submarine formation stability and reservoir production efficiency in order to assess the optimal production and predict the region of plastic damage in the reservoir. Prediction and assessment allow measures to be taken at fixed points to improve reservoir mechanical stability with the numerical simulation method. Hydrate reservoirs need to be filled with gravel to enhance mechanical strength and permeability, and overburden need to be grouted to reinforce stability. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 6693 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Stability Analysis of Subsea Tunnel Crossing Active Fault Zone: A Case Study
by Zhiqiang Li, Qiushi Liu, Shian Liu, Xueying Liu, Yongqiang Zhang, Shixiang Jia, Guoliang Song and Yuting Zhao
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 839; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050839 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 418
Abstract
The rock strength in an active fault zone is low and the surrounding rock is fractured and has poor stability, making any subsea tunnel crossing the active fault zone extremely susceptible to disasters such as tunnel collapse, sudden water ingress, and mud inrush. [...] Read more.
The rock strength in an active fault zone is low and the surrounding rock is fractured and has poor stability, making any subsea tunnel crossing the active fault zone extremely susceptible to disasters such as tunnel collapse, sudden water ingress, and mud inrush. This poses a potential threat to the construction project, making the dynamic stability analysis of a subsea tunnel crossing an active fault zone of great significance. This study takes the second subsea tunnel crossing the Cangkou Fault in Jiaozhou Bay as the engineering background and conducts numerical simulations by employing different lining stiffnesses for tunnel excavation, as well as applying dynamic loads. The dynamic stability of the subsea tunnel crossing the active fault zone is evaluated by comparing and analyzing the lining’s displacement, peak acceleration, and stress characteristics. This study explores the disaster-causing mechanisms of active fractures, determining that the hazard of orthogonal misalignment in an active fault zone is the least severe, while the hazard of opposite misalignment is the most severe. This research provides a basis for disaster prevention and mitigation in active fracture zones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Analysis of Marine Structures—Edition II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 3927 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of Extreme Ice Loads on Complex Pile Legs of Offshore Substation Structures
by Baofeng Zhang, Rui Dong, Wei Li, Yue Zhao, Guojun Wang and Dayong Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 838; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050838 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 409
Abstract
The sea ice failure mode and ice force amplitude depend on the structural form at the point of interaction, but the impacts of ice load when interacting with marine engineering structures with additional attachments are not yet clear. This study conducts numerical simulations [...] Read more.
The sea ice failure mode and ice force amplitude depend on the structural form at the point of interaction, but the impacts of ice load when interacting with marine engineering structures with additional attachments are not yet clear. This study conducts numerical simulations using the discrete element method to investigate the interaction between sea ice and cable pipes attached to offshore substation structures. Various operating conditions such as ice velocity, ice thickness, and ice attack angle are selected to simulate the interaction between sea ice and such structures, clarifying the variations in the sea ice failure mode and ice force amplitude. The results indicate that crushing failure mainly occurs when sea ice interacts with such structures, and the presence of cable pipes does not alter the sea ice failure mode at the legs of offshore substation structures. The preliminary action of sea ice with cable pipes effectively reduces the ice load on the structure, and the minimum ice force amplitude occurs at an ice attack angle of 90°, with the ice force amplitude increasing with the ice thickness but showing no clear correlation with the ice velocity. The findings of this study provide a reference for the ice-resistant design of offshore substation structures in cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Offshore Wind—2nd Edition)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 8032 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Offshore Photovoltaic Utilization on Resources and Environment Using Spatial Information Technology
by Peng Wang, Jingru Zhou, Xinfei Jin, Jingchao Shi, Ngai Weng Chan, Mou Leong Tan, Xingwen Lin, Xu Ma, Xia Lin, Kaixuan Zheng, Jiexuan Wu and Fei Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 837; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050837 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 376
Abstract
In recent years, the rapid development of the photovoltaic (PV) industry has resulted in a saturation of research on onshore PV power plant construction. However, current studies on the impact of marine PVs on the marine environment remain limited and scarce. In order [...] Read more.
In recent years, the rapid development of the photovoltaic (PV) industry has resulted in a saturation of research on onshore PV power plant construction. However, current studies on the impact of marine PVs on the marine environment remain limited and scarce. In order to facilitate the implementation of carbon reduction goals and promote the sustainable development of the offshore PV industry, this study analyzes the environmental impact of PV sea-use resources based on spatial information technology in the western part of Gaotang Island. The findings show that the MIKE21FM model provides relatively accurate simulations of tidal flow and tide level in the marine PV area. Flow velocity in the marine PV area exhibits a decreasing trend, with an average decrease ranging from 0.03 to 0.07 m/s. This decrease minimally affects surrounding navigational channels and large-scale flow fields. The resulting siltation is also deemed less significant, with an annual deposition from 0.03 to 0.06 m/a. Moreover, offshore PV construction resulted in a total intertidal biological loss of 123.45 t. The suspension of sediment during cofferdam construction and removal has a potential effect on zooplankton and fishery resources. Overall, it is proposed that careful planning, prudent site selection, and the execution of countermeasures during marine PV construction will combine to minimize the impact on the marine environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Environmental Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 12366 KiB  
Article
The Analysis of Intelligent Functions Required for Inland Ships
by Guozhu Hao, Wenhui Xiao, Liwen Huang, Jiahao Chen, Ke Zhang and Yaojie Chen
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 836; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050836 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Sorting out the requirements for intelligent functions is the prerequisite and foundation of the top-level design for the development of intelligent ships. In light of the development of inland intelligent ships for 2030, 2035, and 2050, based on the analysis of the division [...] Read more.
Sorting out the requirements for intelligent functions is the prerequisite and foundation of the top-level design for the development of intelligent ships. In light of the development of inland intelligent ships for 2030, 2035, and 2050, based on the analysis of the division of intelligent ship functional modules by international representative classification societies and relevant research institutions, eight necessary functional modules have been proposed: intelligent navigation, intelligent hull, intelligent engine room, intelligent energy efficiency management, intelligent cargo management, intelligent integration platform, remote control, and autonomous operation. Taking the technical realization of each functional module as the goal, this paper analyzes the status quo and development trend of related intelligent technologies and their feasibility and applicability when applied to each functional module. At the same time, it clarifies the composition of specific functional elements of each functional module, puts forward the stage goals of China’s inland intelligent ship development and the specific functional requirements of different modules under each stage, and provides reference for the Chinese government to subsequently formulate the top-level design development planning and implementation path of inland waterway intelligent ships. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 8154 KiB  
Article
Large-Eddy Simulation of Low-Frequency Flow Oscillations for NACA0012 and Dynarig Sail at Large Attack Angles
by Qingsong Zeng, Wei Cai and Junhui Xu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050835 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 459
Abstract
Unmanned sailboats, harnessing wind for propulsion, offer great potential for extended marine research due to their virtually unlimited endurance. The sails typically operate at high attack angles, which contrasts with aircraft that maintain small angles to prevent stalling. Despite the reduction in lift [...] Read more.
Unmanned sailboats, harnessing wind for propulsion, offer great potential for extended marine research due to their virtually unlimited endurance. The sails typically operate at high attack angles, which contrasts with aircraft that maintain small angles to prevent stalling. Despite the reduction in lift during stalling, the resultant increase in drag contributes significantly to the sail’s thrust. However, the sail often experiences vortex shedding due to high attack angles, leading to low-frequency oscillations and erratic navigation. This study employs large-eddy simulations (LESs) on a 3D NACA0012 sail at a Reynolds number of 3.6 × 105, which is validated by experimental data. It observes the lift and drag coefficients across attack angles from 5 to 90 degrees and compares these with a Dynarig sail. The findings reveal that higher attack angles amplify fluctuations in lift and drag coefficients. Vortex shedding, resulting from flow separation, creates pressure changes and oscillations in aerodynamic forces. Fast Fourier transformation (FFT) analysis identifies dominant frequencies between 0.5 and 10 Hz, indicating low-frequency oscillations. The study’s insights into the impact of attack angle and sail type on the oscillation frequency are favorable for the design of unmanned sailboats, aiding in the prediction of wind-induced frequencies and optimal attack angle determination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 9265 KiB  
Article
Representative Dynamic Accumulation of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in Gas Chimney System since 30 Kyr BP in the QiongDongNan Area, Northern South China Sea
by Jinan Guan, Menghe Wang, Wei Zhang, Lihua Wan, Matthias Haeckel and Qi Wu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 834; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050834 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 462
Abstract
A stratigraphic complex composed of mass transport deposits (MTDs), where the gas occurrence allows for the formation of a gas chimney and pipe structure, is identified based on seismic interpretation in the QiongDongNan area of the northern South China Sea. During the Fifth [...] Read more.
A stratigraphic complex composed of mass transport deposits (MTDs), where the gas occurrence allows for the formation of a gas chimney and pipe structure, is identified based on seismic interpretation in the QiongDongNan area of the northern South China Sea. During the Fifth Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition of the Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, this type of complex morphology that has close interaction with local gas hydrate (GH) distribution was eventually confirmed. A flow-reaction model is built to explore the spatial–temporal matching evolution process of massive GH reservoirs since 30 kyr before the present (BP). Five time snapshots, including 30, 20, 10, and 5 kyr BP, as well as the present, have been selected to exhibit key strata-evolving information. The results of in situ tensile estimation imply fracturing emergence occurs mostly at 5 kyr BP. Six other environmental scenarios and three cases of paleo-hydrate existence have been compared. The results almost coincide with field GH distribution below the bottom MTD from drilling reports, and state layer fracturing behaviors always feed and probably propagate in shallow sediments. It can be concluded that this complex system with 10% pre-existing hydrates results in the exact distribution and occurrence in local fine-grained silty clay layers adjacent to upper MTDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Marine Gas Hydrate Exploration and Discovery)
Show Figures

Figure 1

37 pages, 4479 KiB  
Review
A Review of Path Planning Methods for Marine Autonomous Surface Vehicles
by Yubing Wu, Tao Wang and Shuo Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050833 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 542
Abstract
A marine autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) is a kind of autonomous marine robot with intelligent and flexible use advantages. They are mainly divided into two categories: unmanned vessels and unmanned sailboats. Marine ASVs are essential in marine science, industry, environmental protection, and national [...] Read more.
A marine autonomous surface vehicle (ASV) is a kind of autonomous marine robot with intelligent and flexible use advantages. They are mainly divided into two categories: unmanned vessels and unmanned sailboats. Marine ASVs are essential in marine science, industry, environmental protection, and national defense. One of the primary challenges faced by marine ASVs is autonomously planning paths in an intricate marine environment. Numerous research findings have surfaced in recent years, including the combination with popular machine learning. However, a systematic literature review is still lacking, primarily a comprehensive comparison of two types of ASV path planning methods. This review first introduces the problem and evaluation indicators of path planning for ASVs. Then, aiming at unmanned vessels and sailboats, respectively, it sorts out various path planning algorithms proposed in the existing literature, including the advantages and limitations of both kinds of ASVs, and discusses them in combination with evaluation indicators. Also, this paper explores how marine environmental factors affect path planning and its corresponding treatment methods. Finally, this review summarizes the challenges of unmanned ship path planning, proposes potential technical solutions and future development directions, and aims to provide references for further development in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 6501 KiB  
Article
Wake Structures and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Flows around Two Near-Wall Cylinders in Tandem and Parallel Arrangements
by Xing Chang, Pandeng Yin, Jianjian Xin, Fulong Shi and Ling Wan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 832; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050832 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 473
Abstract
To clarify the hydrodynamic interference characteristics of flows around multiple cylinders under the wall effect, the two-dimensional (2D) flows around the near-wall single, two tandem and parallel cylinders are simulated under different gap ratios (0.15 ≤ G/D ≤ 3.0) and spacing [...] Read more.
To clarify the hydrodynamic interference characteristics of flows around multiple cylinders under the wall effect, the two-dimensional (2D) flows around the near-wall single, two tandem and parallel cylinders are simulated under different gap ratios (0.15 ≤ G/D ≤ 3.0) and spacing ratios (1.5 ≤ T/D ≤ 4.0) at a Reynolds number of Re = 6300. We also examine the wake patterns, the force coefficients, and the vortex-shedding frequency with emphases on the wall effect and effects of the two-cylinder interference. A critical wall gap of G/D = 0.6 is identified in the single-cylinder case where the wall can exert significant influences. The two near-wall tandem cylinders exhibit three wake states: stretching mode, attachment mode, and impinging mode. The force coefficients on the upstream cylinder are significantly affected by the wall for G/D ≤ 0.6. The downstream cylinder is mainly influenced by the upstream cylinder. For G/D > 0.6, the force coefficients on the two cylinders exhibit a similar variation trend. In the parallel arrangement, the two cylinders exhibit four wake states in different G/D and T/D ranges: double stretching mode, hetero-vortex scale mode, unilateral vortex mode, and free vortex mode. Moreover, the two parallel cylinders in the hetero-vortex scale or free vortex mode have two states: synchronous in-phase state and synchronous out-of-phase state. The mean drag coefficients on the two cylinders decrease, while the mean lift coefficients exhibit opposite variation trends, as the T/D grows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrodynamic Research of Marine Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 1642 KiB  
Article
A Lightweight Secure Scheme for Underwater Wireless Acoustic Network
by Jia Shi, Jinqiu Wu, Zhiwei Zhao, Xiaofei Qi, Wenbo Zhang, Gang Qiao and Dahong Zuo
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050831 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 426
Abstract
Due to the open underwater channels and untransparent network deployment environments, underwater acoustic networks (UANs) are more vulnerable to hostile environments. Security research is also being conducted in cryptography, including authentication based on asymmetric algorithms and key distribution based on symmetric algorithms. In [...] Read more.
Due to the open underwater channels and untransparent network deployment environments, underwater acoustic networks (UANs) are more vulnerable to hostile environments. Security research is also being conducted in cryptography, including authentication based on asymmetric algorithms and key distribution based on symmetric algorithms. In recent years, the advancement of quantum computing has made anti-quantum attacks an important issue in the field of security. Algorithms such as lattice and SPHINCS+ have become a research topic of interest in the field of security. However, within the past five years, few papers have discussed security algorithms for UANs to resist quantum attacks, especially through classical algorithms. Some existing classical asymmetric and symmetric algorithms are considered to have no prospects. From the perspective of easy deployment in engineering and anti-quantum attacks, our research focuses on a comprehensive lightweight security framework for data protection, authentication, and malicious node detection through the Elliptic Curve and Hash algorithms. Our mechanism is suitable for ad hoc scenarios with limited underwater resources. Meanwhile, we have designed a multi-party bit commitment to build a security framework for the system. A management scheme is designed by combining self-certifying with the threshold sharing algorithm. All schemes are designed based on certificate-less and ad hoc features. The proposed scheme ensures that the confidentiality, integrity, and authentication of the system are well considered. Moreover, the scheme is proven to be of unconditional security and immune to channel eavesdropping. The resource and delay issues are also taken into consideration. The simulations considered multiple variables like number of nodes, attackers, and message length to calculate proper values that can increase the efficiency of this scheme. The results in terms of delay, delivery ratio, and consumption demonstrate the suitability of the proposal in terms of security, especially for malicious node detection. Meanwhile, the computational cost has also been controlled at the millisecond level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Safety and Reliability of Ship and Ocean Engineering Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 22418 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on Hydrodynamic Performance of a Pitching Hydrofoil with Chordwise and Spanwise Deformation
by Hengliang Qu, Xueyan Li and Xiaochen Dong
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 830; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050830 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 395
Abstract
The hydrofoil plays a crucial role in tidal current energy (TCE) devices, such as horizontal-axis turbines (HATs), vertical-axis turbines (VATs), and oscillating hydrofoils. This study delves into the numerical investigation of passive chordwise and spanwise deformations and the hydrodynamic performance of a deformable [...] Read more.
The hydrofoil plays a crucial role in tidal current energy (TCE) devices, such as horizontal-axis turbines (HATs), vertical-axis turbines (VATs), and oscillating hydrofoils. This study delves into the numerical investigation of passive chordwise and spanwise deformations and the hydrodynamic performance of a deformable hydrofoil. Three-dimensional (3D) coupled fluid–structure interaction (FSI) simulations were conducted using the ANSYS Workbench platform, integrating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element analysis (FEA). The simulation involved a deformable hydrofoil undergoing pitching motion with varying elastic moduli. The study scrutinizes the impact of elastic modulus on hydrofoil deformation, pressure distribution, flow structure, and hydrodynamic performance. Coefficients of lift, drag, torque, as well as their hysteresis areas and intensities, were defined to assess the hydrodynamic performance. The analysis of the correlation between pressure distribution and deformation elucidates the FSI mechanism. Additionally, the study investigated the 3D effects based on the flow structure around the hydrofoil. Discrepancies in pressure distribution along the spanwise direction result from these 3D effects. Consequently, different chordwise deformations of cross-sections along the spanwise direction were observed, contributing to spanwise deformation. The pressure difference between upper and lower surfaces diminished with increasing deformation. Peak values and fluctuations of lift, drag, and torque decreased. This study provides insights for selecting an appropriate elastic modulus for hydrofoils used in TCE devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Energy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 5191 KiB  
Article
Hypersalinity in Coastal Wetlands and Potential Restoration Solutions, Lake Austin and East Matagorda Bay, Texas, USA
by Rusty A. Feagin, Joshua E. Lerner, Caroline Noyola, Thomas P. Huff, Jake Madewell and Bill Balboa
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050829 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 450
Abstract
When droughts occur, freshwater inputs to coastal wetlands can become scarce and hypersalinity can become a problem. In 2023, a severe drought negatively affected a Texas watershed known as Lake Austin that fed a large expanse of wetlands on East Matagorda Bay. To [...] Read more.
When droughts occur, freshwater inputs to coastal wetlands can become scarce and hypersalinity can become a problem. In 2023, a severe drought negatively affected a Texas watershed known as Lake Austin that fed a large expanse of wetlands on East Matagorda Bay. To study the hypersalinity problem in these wetlands, we identified freshwater inflows and mapped vegetation changes over time. We found that from 1943 to 2023, the upper portion of the Lake Austin watershed lost freshwater wetlands to agricultural conversion, and ranged from fresh to brackish, with salinity rapidly rising to a maximum of 31 mS during the summer drought of 2023. The lower portion of the watershed gained saltwater wetlands due to sea level rise, and marshes became hypersaline (64–96 mS) during the 2023 drought, endangering its biota. But after large precipitation events, the entire Lake Austin basin rapidly freshened but then returned to its normal salinities within a week as the tides re-delivered saltwater into its basin. Given current climatic trends, we expect that freshwater inflow will continue to slightly increase for the Lake Austin watershed but also that there will be more extreme periods of episodic drought that negatively affect its wetlands. Accordingly, we assessed several potential restoration actions that would improve freshwater flow and delivery to the Lake Austin coastal wetlands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Marine Environmental Science)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 5340 KiB  
Article
Deploying a Computer Vision Model Based on YOLOv8 Suitable for Drones in the Tuna Fishing and Aquaculture Industry
by Duc-Anh Pham and Seung-Hun Han
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050828 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 432
Abstract
In recent years, the global tuna fishing and aquaculture industry has encountered significant challenges in balancing operational efficiency with sustainable resource management. This study introduces an innovative approach utilizing an advanced computer vision model, PA-YOLOv8, specifically adapted for drones, to enhance the monitoring [...] Read more.
In recent years, the global tuna fishing and aquaculture industry has encountered significant challenges in balancing operational efficiency with sustainable resource management. This study introduces an innovative approach utilizing an advanced computer vision model, PA-YOLOv8, specifically adapted for drones, to enhance the monitoring and management of tuna populations. PA-YOLOv8 leverages the capabilities of YOLOv8, a state-of-the-art object detection system known for its precision and speed, tailored to address the unique demands of aerial surveillance in marine environments. Through comprehensive modifications including downsampling techniques, feature fusion enhancements, and the integration of the Global Attention Module (GAM), the model significantly improves the detection accuracy of small and juvenile tuna within complex aquatic landscapes. Experimental results using the Tuna dataset from Roboflow demonstrate marked improvements in detection metrics such as precision, recall, and mean average precision (mAP), affirming the model’s effectiveness. This study underscores the potential of integrating cutting-edge technologies like UAVs and computer vision in promoting sustainable practices in the aquaculture sector, setting a new standard for technological applications in environmental and resource management. The advancements presented here provide a scalable and efficient solution for real-time monitoring, contributing to the long-term sustainability of marine ecosystems. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2830 KiB  
Article
Research on Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing System for Ships Operating in Seasonal Sea-Ice Covered Waters
by Jin Xu, Shuai Xu, Long Ma, Sihan Qian and Xiaowen Li
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050827 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 453
Abstract
The Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing System (POLARIS) has been established as a viable framework for assessing operational capabilities and associated risks in polar waters. Despite its inherent suitability for high-latitude territories, ships navigating through seasonal ice-infested waters at lower latitudes also [...] Read more.
The Polar Operational Limit Assessment Risk Indexing System (POLARIS) has been established as a viable framework for assessing operational capabilities and associated risks in polar waters. Despite its inherent suitability for high-latitude territories, ships navigating through seasonal ice-infested waters at lower latitudes also encounter critical safety, environmental, and economic issues exacerbated by the presence of ice. This necessitates a reliable and adaptable methodology that can serve as a reference for devising effective countermeasures. This study evaluated the use of POLARIS in the intricate ice conditions prevalent in the northern navigable waters (channels and anchorages) within Liaodong Bay of the Bohai Sea, located at relatively low latitudes. Using GF-4 satellite imagery, ice conditions were collected, and the POLARIS methodology was employed to calculate Risk Index Outcome (RIO) values for non-ice-strengthened vessels during the winter season of 2021–2022. The results showed that sectors 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, and 11 within the northern part of Liaodong Bay exhibited a higher risk, with sectors 5 and 10 exhibiting the most significant risk, while sectors 1 and 2 demonstrated relatively lower risk levels. The concurrence of these findings with acknowledged ice patterns and local maritime practices confirms the applicability of the POLARIS methodology in saline, seasonally ice-covered seas. Notably, the combination of POLARIS with high-resolution satellite imagery facilitated a more precise and rapid assessment of ice risk, thereby enhancing situational awareness and informing decision-making processes in maritime operations under icy conditions. In addition, this study provides preliminary evidence that POLARIS is suitable for fine-scale scenarios, in addition to being applicable to sparse-scale scenarios, such as polar waters, especially with high-resolution ice data. At the same time, this study highlights the potential of POLARIS as a disaster prevention strategy and a tool for the maritime industry to address ice challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3365 KiB  
Article
Optimization for Offshore Prestressed Concrete–Steel Hybrid Wind Turbine Support Structure with Pile Foundation Using a Parallel Modified Particle Swarm Algorithm
by Zeyu Li, Bin Xu and Guokai Yuan
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 826; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050826 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The prestressed concrete–steel hybrid (PCSH) support structure, which replaces the lower part of the traditional support with a concrete segment, is a prospective support structure solution for ultrahigh wind turbines. Taking a 5.5 MW wind turbine support structure founded on a jacket substructure [...] Read more.
The prestressed concrete–steel hybrid (PCSH) support structure, which replaces the lower part of the traditional support with a concrete segment, is a prospective support structure solution for ultrahigh wind turbines. Taking a 5.5 MW wind turbine support structure founded on a jacket substructure with pile foundation as an example, an optimized design of the corresponding PCSH support structure with pile foundation for offshore wind turbine is conducted considering the soil–structure interaction (SSI) and the effect of water pressure. The construction cost of the proposed structure is treated as the objective function and minimized with a parallel modified particle swarm optimization (PMPSO) algorithm where the physical dimensions of each part of the PCSH wind turbine support structure are treated as optimization variables. Eleven optimization constraints are considered under both the serviceability limit state (SLS) and the ultimate limit state (ULS) according to relevant specifications and industry standards. A penalty function strategy is introduced to make sure that these constraints are fulfilled. The mechanical behavior and the cost of the optimal PCSH support structure with pile foundation are analyzed and are compared with those of the original design with a traditional steel tube tower founded on a jacket substructure. The results show that the cost and levelized cost of energy (LCOE), a comprehensive evaluation, of the optimized PCSH support decrease obviously with the PMPSO algorithm, which can provide advanced mechanic behavior including natural frequency, top deformation, and anti-overturning capacity. Compared with the PSO algorithm, the PMPSO algorithm has better performance in the procedure of PCSH support for offshore wind turbine optimization. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2129 KiB  
Article
A Novel Positional Calibration Method for an Underwater Acoustic Beacon Array Based on the Equivalent Virtual Long Baseline Positioning Model
by Ge Zhang, Guoxing Yi, Zhennan Wei, Yangguang Xie and Ziyang Qi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050825 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The performance of long baseline (LBL) positioning systems is significantly impacted by the distribution and positional calibration accuracy of underwater acoustic beacon arrays. In previous calibration methods for beacon arrays based on autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platforms, the slant range information of each [...] Read more.
The performance of long baseline (LBL) positioning systems is significantly impacted by the distribution and positional calibration accuracy of underwater acoustic beacon arrays. In previous calibration methods for beacon arrays based on autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) platforms, the slant range information of each beacon was processed independently, and each beacon was calibrated one at a time. This approach not only decreases the calibration efficiency but also leaves the positional calibration accuracy of each beacon highly susceptible to the navigation trajectory of the AUV. To overcome these limitations, an equivalent virtual LBL (EVLBL) positioning model is introduced in this paper. This model operates by adjusting the positions of each beacon according to the dead reckoning increments computed during the AUV’s reception of positioning signals, effectively forming a virtual beacon array. Consequently, the AUV is capable of mitigating LBL positioning errors that arise from its motion by simultaneously receiving positioning signals from all beacons. Additionally, an overall calibration method for beacon arrays based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed. In this approach, the minimization of the deviation between the EVLBL trajectory and the dead reckoning trajectory is set as the optimization objective, and the coordinates of each beacon are iteratively optimized. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed EVLBL-based PSO algorithm (EVPSO) significantly enhanced the calibration efficiency and positional accuracy of the beacon array. Compared with conventional methods, the estimation error of the beacon positions was reduced from 6.40 m to within 1.00 m. After compensating for the beacon array positions, the positioning error of the LBL system decreased from approximately 5.00 m (with conventional methods) to around 1.00 m (with EVPSO), demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Navigation and Detection Fusion for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles)
Show Figures

Figure 1

24 pages, 15455 KiB  
Article
Sensitivity Simulations of Wind-driven Water Circulation in İzmit Bay
by Sabri Mutlu, Barış Önol, Mehmet Ilıcak and Hüsne Altıok
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050824 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 476
Abstract
İzmit Bay, a 50 km long inlet at the eastern end of the Marmara Sea, is crucial for the region’s economy, culture, and marine ecosystem. The bay’s water circulation regulates nutrient distribution, stratification, sedimentation, oxygen levels, heat, and pollution levels. It is also [...] Read more.
İzmit Bay, a 50 km long inlet at the eastern end of the Marmara Sea, is crucial for the region’s economy, culture, and marine ecosystem. The bay’s water circulation regulates nutrient distribution, stratification, sedimentation, oxygen levels, heat, and pollution levels. It is also influenced by meteorological events, such as short-term moderate to strong wind conditions. This study investigated the sensitivity of İzmit Bay Water Circulation to wind speed, direction, and duration using the MITgcm model with Orlanski boundary conditions and process-oriented modeling. The simulations showed that under weak forcing conditions, seawater temperature, salinity, and stratification do not significantly vary. However, strong forcing and wind speeds (statistically defined by percentiles of observation data) of 4.9 m/s (75%), 6.7 m/s (90%), and 10.1 m/s (99%) generate significant mesoscale and sub-mesoscale processes, depending on the direction. Westerly component winds cause downwelling at the eastern coastline, while easterly component winds bring sub-surface water to the surface. Strong winds from N, NE, and E sectors lead to the rise in lower-layer waters in the western basin, forcing them to overflow through the Hersek Delta sill into the central basin. Overall, severe wind events greater than 4.9 m/s (75%) significantly affect the bay’s hydrography by transforming the upper layer, with a decrease in temperature up to 5 °C and an increase in salinity up to 10 ppt. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Oceanography)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 5839 KiB  
Article
A Methodology to Evaluate the Real-Time Stability of Submarine Slopes under Rapid Sedimentation
by Zehao Wang, Defeng Zheng, Zhongde Gu, Xingsen Guo and Tingkai Nian
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 823; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050823 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 468
Abstract
Rapid sedimentation is widely recognized as a crucial factor in initiating the instability of submarine slopes. Once the slope fails, the subsequent landslide poses a significant threat to the safety of underwater infrastructures and potentially leads to severe damage to seabed pipelines, offshore [...] Read more.
Rapid sedimentation is widely recognized as a crucial factor in initiating the instability of submarine slopes. Once the slope fails, the subsequent landslide poses a significant threat to the safety of underwater infrastructures and potentially leads to severe damage to seabed pipelines, offshore foundations, and oil and gas exploitation wells. However, there is currently a lack of numerical methods to effectively assess the real-time stability of submarine slopes under rapid sedimentation. This study firstly employs a calibrated finite element (FE) model-change approach to reproduce the rapid sedimentation processes and proposes a concise method to calculate the safety factors for the real-time stability of sedimenting submarine slopes. Further, a parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of varying sedimentation rates on slope stability, and the critical sedimentation rate is numerically solved. Moreover, the effect of seismic events with different occurring times on the stability of rapidly sedimenting slopes is investigated in depth, and the most critical seismic loading pattern among various acceleration combinations is achieved. The results indicate that the presence of weak layers during sedimentation is a critical factor contributing to slope instability. The introduced rate of decrease in the safety factor proves valuable in assessing slope safety over a specific period. As the occurrence time of seismic events is delayed, the seismic resistance of the slope decreases, increasing the likelihood of shallower sliding surfaces. The findings offer insights into the mechanisms by which rapid sedimentation influences the stability of submarine slopes and provide valuable insights for predicting the potential instability of rapidly sedimenting slopes under specific seismic activity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Studies in Marine Geomechanics and Geotechnics)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 9380 KiB  
Article
Mechanism of Speed Loss Reduction and Propulsion Efficiency Improvement of ONR Tumblehome with Active-Controlled Stern Flaps in Resonance Waves
by Lei Zhang, Chuanshun Du, Yongsen Ni, Yuchen Shang and Jianing Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050822 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 385
Abstract
The stern flap is a practical hull appendage equipment that enhances ship navigation performance and saves energy. The existing studies mainly focus on the fixed stern flap, other than an actively controlled one, so it is worth further exploring its effect and mechanism. [...] Read more.
The stern flap is a practical hull appendage equipment that enhances ship navigation performance and saves energy. The existing studies mainly focus on the fixed stern flap, other than an actively controlled one, so it is worth further exploring its effect and mechanism. By implanting the PID controller to the stern flap, this paper proposed a free-running CFD model on the ONRT (the Office of Naval Research Tumblehome) ship coupled with the active-controlled stern flap to investigate the hydrodynamic performance in resonance waves. The free-running performance in calm water and regular waves is numerically researched and verified versus the experimental and referenced results. Then, the effect of different PID coefficients and control strategies of the stern flap on the traveling speed, attitudes, and propulsion performance under the resonance wave condition is conducted, and the influence mechanism is explored. The results show that adopting a fixed flap controller and PID controller can reduce the original speed loss by 4.2% and 6.9%, respectively, and increase the average propulsive efficiency of the propeller by 1.0% and 1.4%, respectively. Further analysis reveals that the global effect of the suppressed motion attitudes due to the installation of the fixed flap effectively contributes to the resistance reduction. However, the local effect of the stern flap increases the resistance due to interaction with the propeller and stern. The PID-controlled stern flap exhibits similar average attitudes compared to the fixed one, which means the resistance reduction of the global effect is kept the same, and the active stern flap further improves the stern flow field, where the resistance increment of the local effect is weakened, enhancing the traveling speed and improving the propulsion efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 8099 KiB  
Article
Buckling Behavior of Stainless Wave-Shaped Pressure Hulls
by Lingtong Zheng, Yunsen Hu, Huifeng Jiao and Jian Zhang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050821 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 337
Abstract
This study primarily focuses on the buckling behavior of wave-shaped pressure hulls subjected to uniform external pressure. The effect of slant angle on the buckling behavior of hulls was examined. The tested slant angles ranged from 0° to 30° and were increased at [...] Read more.
This study primarily focuses on the buckling behavior of wave-shaped pressure hulls subjected to uniform external pressure. The effect of slant angle on the buckling behavior of hulls was examined. The tested slant angles ranged from 0° to 30° and were increased at 1° increments. The buckling of smooth cylindrical pressure hulls and wave-shaped pressure hulls was investigated using numerical methods. A wave-shaped pressure hull was produced for experimental verification. The nonlinear numerical results aligned with the collected experimental data. The buckling load of the tested wave-shaped pressure hull was approximately 1.87 times that of the equivalent cylindrical pressure hull. Furthermore, a formula was developed to estimate the load-bearing capacity of the wave-shaped pressure hull. This formula, which has been experimentally validated, comprises a correction coefficient (obtained through numerical evaluation and regression analysis) and a classic semi-analytical formula for cylindrical pressure hulls. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Ocean Engineering)
Show Figures

Figure 1

28 pages, 33190 KiB  
Article
Incipient Motion of Single Shells under Currents in Flume Experiments
by Jie Chen, Jiaxiang Liu, Changbo Jiang, Zhiyuan Wu, Zhen Yao and Cheng Bian
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 820; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050820 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Understanding the motion thresholds of shells is important, as shell motion allows the analysis of beach profiles, prevents excessive erosion of the coastline, and helps to resource the use of discarded shells, providing new ideas for the protection of beaches. In this study, [...] Read more.
Understanding the motion thresholds of shells is important, as shell motion allows the analysis of beach profiles, prevents excessive erosion of the coastline, and helps to resource the use of discarded shells, providing new ideas for the protection of beaches. In this study, the orientational motions and motion thresholds of two types of typical molluscan shells, bivalve and gastropod shells, were investigated by means of flume experiments. The final orientations with the statistically highest number of occurrences during the orientational motions of each shell were used as the initial orientations for the respective threshold flow velocity measurements. The critical Shields parameter and the incipient mean velocity of the flow were used to represent the critical threshold of the motion. The critical Shields parameters for bivalve shells in the convex upward position were overall higher on average than those for gastropod shells. The experimental data showed that the incipient mean flow velocities of bivalve shells in the convex upward position were about 1.4–2.8 times larger than those in the convex downward position. The incipient mean velocity data were regressed to obtain the motion threshold equations applicable to bivalve shells in the convex upward and convex downward positions as well as gastropod shells under different final orientations. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 18143 KiB  
Article
Design and Testing of an Autonomous Navigation Unmanned Surface Vehicle for Buoy Inspection
by Zhiqiang Lu, Weihua Li, Xinzheng Zhang, Jianhui Wang, Zihao Zhuang and Cheng Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(5), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12050819 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 373
Abstract
In response to the inefficiencies and high costs associated with manual buoy inspection, this paper presents the design and testing of an Autonomous Navigation Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) tailored for this purpose. The research is structured into three main components: Firstly, the hardware [...] Read more.
In response to the inefficiencies and high costs associated with manual buoy inspection, this paper presents the design and testing of an Autonomous Navigation Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) tailored for this purpose. The research is structured into three main components: Firstly, the hardware framework and communication system of the USV are detailed, incorporating the Robot Operating System (ROS) and additional nodes to meet practical requirements. Furthermore, a buoy tracking system utilizing the Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF) algorithm is introduced. Secondly, buoy image training is conducted using the YOLOv7 object detection algorithm, establishing a robust model for accurate buoy state recognition. Finally, an improved Line-of-Sight (LOS) method for USV path tracking, assuming the presence of an attraction potential field around the inspected buoy, is proposed to enable a comprehensive 360-degree inspection. Experimental testing includes validation of buoy image target tracking and detection, assessment of USV autonomous navigation and obstacle avoidance capabilities, and evaluation of the enhanced LOS path tracking algorithm. The results demonstrate the USV’s efficacy in conducting practical buoy inspection missions. This research contributes insights and advancements to the fields of maritime patrol and routine buoy inspections. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop