Hemiptera: Ecology, Physiology, and Economic Importance

A topical collection in Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This collection belongs to the section "Insect Physiology, Reproduction and Development".

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Editors


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: insects; ecology; physiology; diapause; photoperiod; temperature

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Entomology, Faculty of Biology and Soil Sciences, St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
Interests: Heteroptera seasonal development; diapause; responses to climate change

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Rutgers University, Bridgeton, NJ 08302, USA
Interests: physiology and behavior of insects; phenological models for pests of tree fruits and small fruits

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hemiptera is one of the largest insect orders playing an important role in both natural and anthropogenic ecosystems. Numerous phytophagous hemipterans cause serious damage to agriculture and forestry, whereas some predatory species are widely used as biocontrol agents. Therefore, investigations conducted on Hemiptera are of interest for both fundamental and applied entomology. This Topical Collection aims to represent the current state of the studies on Hemiptera ecology and physiology. Both original research articles and reviews can be submitted; studies on ecophysiology (regulation of seasonal cycles, reproduction, feeding, locomotion, etc.) are particularly welcome; preference will be given to the papers concerning economically important species (both pests and beneficial ones). We look forward to receiving your valuable contributions.

Dr. Sergey Ya. Reznik
Dr. Dmitrii L. Musolin
Dr. Anne L. Nielsen
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Hemiptera
  • ecology
  • physiology
  • insect pests
  • plant protection
  • biological control

Published Papers (20 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022, 2021

9 pages, 871 KiB  
Article
Antibacterial Activity of Defensive Secretions from the Lace Bug Stephanitis svensoni (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae)
by Nobuhiro Shimizu, Chihiro Takahara and Hiroki Ogami
Insects 2024, 15(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15040257 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 705
Abstract
Nymphs of Stephanitis svensoni (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have numerous glandular setae on their dorsal abdomens. Chemical analysis of the exudates from these setae revealed the presence of 11 compounds, including aliphatic aldehydes, aliphatic ketones, and aromatic polyketides. Among them, 3-oxododecanal, 5-hydroxy-2-heptylchromanone, and 5-hydroxy-2-undecanylchromanone [...] Read more.
Nymphs of Stephanitis svensoni (Drake) (Hemiptera: Tingidae) have numerous glandular setae on their dorsal abdomens. Chemical analysis of the exudates from these setae revealed the presence of 11 compounds, including aliphatic aldehydes, aliphatic ketones, and aromatic polyketides. Among them, 3-oxododecanal, 5-hydroxy-2-heptylchromanone, and 5-hydroxy-2-undecanylchromanone were identified for the first time in the family Tingidae. Previous research has suggested that secretions from nymphs of the genus Stephanitis, belonging to the family Tingidae, function as defensive substances against predators. The exudates of S. svensoni showed antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial tests conducted using preparations of the 10 identified compounds showed antibacterial activity in 3-oxododecanal, 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone, and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)dodecan-1-one. In addition, antibacterial tests against the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli showed activity in 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)dodecan-1-one. Therefore, 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone and 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)dodecan-1-one exhibited a wide antibacterial spectrum. Particularly, 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)dodecan-1-one, which showed antibacterial activity even at low concentrations, holds promise as lead drug compound. Full article
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9 pages, 1608 KiB  
Article
Population Parameters of Haplaxius crudus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) under Semi-Controlled Conditions
by Ivette Johana Beltrán-Aldana, Anamaria Fernández-Sánchez and Anuar Morales-Rodriguez
Insects 2024, 15(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects15020085 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The palm leafhopper, Haplaxius crudus, is a possible vector of the pathogen that causes the Lethal Wilt of oil palms in Colombia. This disease represents the biggest phytosanitary problem in the eastern palm zone. From 2010 to 2021, more than 7700 ha [...] Read more.
The palm leafhopper, Haplaxius crudus, is a possible vector of the pathogen that causes the Lethal Wilt of oil palms in Colombia. This disease represents the biggest phytosanitary problem in the eastern palm zone. From 2010 to 2021, more than 7700 ha have been eradicated, with economic losses exceeding 154 million USD. Therefore, knowing the biology of this insect and its population parameters is necessary for developing population control tools. To evaluate these parameters, a cohort of 100 eggs obtained from H. crudus adults from the breeding unit established in the Campo Experimental Palmar de las Corocoras de Cenipalma in Paratebueno, Cundinamarca, was monitored to record the life cycle and the population parameters using a life table under semi-controlled conditions in an oil palm plantation. The life cycle from egg to adult was 62.7 ± 15.5 days (26.1 ± 2.9 °C; HR: 89.8 ± 14.0%). The egg stage lasted 14.6 ± 0.6 days, the nymphal stage 48.1 ± 2.8 days through five instars, and the adult longevity was 14.8 ± 8.4 days. The specific mortality rate (qx) calculated in the life table was 0.14 (for the egg stage), 0.05 (for I instar), 0.05 (for II instar), 0.03 (for III instar), 0.04 (for IV instar), and 0.07 (for V instar). The population parameters’ values were as follows: net reproductive rate Ro = 10.96; generation time T = 62.3 days, intrinsic natural growth rate rm = 0.03, and finite growth rate λ = 1.03. These results help us to understand the population dynamics of this insect in the field and for the development of population control studies. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022, 2021

13 pages, 3046 KiB  
Article
Habitat Temperatures of the Red Firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus: The Value of Small-Scale Climate Data Measurement
by Helmut Käfer, Helmut Kovac and Anton Stabentheiner
Insects 2023, 14(11), 843; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14110843 - 30 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Ambient temperature is a main parameter that determines the thriving and propagation of ectothermic insects. It affects egg and larval development as well as adults’ survival and successful overwintering. Pyrrhocoris apterus is a herbivorous bug species almost ubiquitous in Eurasia. Its distribution extends [...] Read more.
Ambient temperature is a main parameter that determines the thriving and propagation of ectothermic insects. It affects egg and larval development as well as adults’ survival and successful overwintering. Pyrrhocoris apterus is a herbivorous bug species almost ubiquitous in Eurasia. Its distribution extends from the Atlantic Coast to Siberia, Northwest China and Mongolia. After introduction, it established successfully in the USA, Central America, India and Australia, which indicates a high invasive potential of this species. We determined the climatic conditions in Central Europe in a habitat where P. apterus has been continuously observed for decades. We conducted temperature measurements in the habitat and in the microhabitats where individuals could be found during the year and set them against freely available climate data commonly used to characterize habitat climate. Our temperature measurements were also compared to thermal limits (critical thermal minima and maxima). Although ambient temperatures outside the thermal boundaries of P. apterus can and do occur in the habitat, the bugs thrive and propagate. Microhabitat measurement in winter showed that individuals sought areas with favorable temperatures for hibernation. In particular, these areas are not (always) represented in large-scale climate tables, leading to possible misinterpretation of future patterns of spread of invasive species spread. Full article
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14 pages, 1335 KiB  
Article
Two Distinct Genotypes of Spissistilus festinus (Say, 1830) Reproduce and Differentially Transmit Grapevine Red Blotch Virus
by Madison T. Flasco and Marc F. Fuchs
Insects 2023, 14(10), 831; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14100831 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Two phenotypically similar but genetically distinct genotypes of Spissistilus festinus (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a pest of legume crops in Southern United States and a vector of grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) in California vineyards, exist. No information is available on whether the [...] Read more.
Two phenotypically similar but genetically distinct genotypes of Spissistilus festinus (Say, 1830) (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a pest of legume crops in Southern United States and a vector of grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) in California vineyards, exist. No information is available on whether the two S. festinus genotypes, i.e., California (CA) and Southeastern (SE), are sexually compatible or whether the SE genotype can transmit GRBV. In this study, we established mixed mating S. festinus pairs for which the F1 offspring varied phenotypically compared with the offspring of same genotype pairs but acquired GRBV isolate NY175 at similar rates (p = 0.96) and with a similar viral genome copy number (p = 0.34). Likewise, rates of GRBV acquisition were alike for the two parental CA (58%, 61/105) and SE (61%, 65/106) genotypes (p = 0.74), though the GRBV copy number in the salivary glands was overall significantly higher for SE than CA individuals (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the GRBV transmission rate was significantly higher for the SE genotype (89%, 16/18) than the CA genotype (50%, 8/16) (p = 0.04). These results revealed the existence of two sexually compatible S. festinus genotypes with distinct GRBV transmission abilities, suggesting the need to study GRBV ecology in Southeastern United States and areas where the two genotypes might co-exist. Full article
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13 pages, 1817 KiB  
Article
The Invasive Caucasian Populations of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Rapidly Adapt Their Ecophysiological Traits to the Local Environmental Conditions
by Sergey Ya. Reznik, Margarita Yu. Dolgovskaya, Natalia N. Karpun, Vilena Ye. Zakharchenko, Aida Kh. Saulich and Dmitrii L. Musolin
Insects 2023, 14(5), 424; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14050424 - 29 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1428
Abstract
The ability to rapidly adapt to new environmental conditions is a crucial prerequisite for the wide-scale invasion of pests or intentional introduction of beneficial insects. A photoperiodically induced facultative winter diapause is an important adaptation ensuring synchronization of insect development and reproduction with [...] Read more.
The ability to rapidly adapt to new environmental conditions is a crucial prerequisite for the wide-scale invasion of pests or intentional introduction of beneficial insects. A photoperiodically induced facultative winter diapause is an important adaptation ensuring synchronization of insect development and reproduction with the local seasonal dynamics of environmental factors. We conducted a laboratory study aimed to compare photoperiodic responses of two invasive Caucasian populations of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which recently invaded neighboring regions with subtropical (Sukhum, Abkhazia) and temperate (Abinsk, Russia) climates. Under the temperature of 25 °C and the near-critical photoperiods of L:D = 15:9 h and 15.5:8.5 h, the population from Abinsk showed a slower pre-adult development and a stronger tendency to enter winter adult (reproductive) diapause compared to the population from Sukhum. This finding agreed with the difference between the local dynamics of the autumnal temperature decrease. Similar adaptive interpopulation differences in the patterns of diapause-inducing responses are known in other insect species but our finding is distinguished by a very short adaptation time: H. halys was first recorded in Sukhum in 2015 and in Abinsk in 2018. Thus, the differences between the compared populations might have evolved over a relatively short span of several years. Full article
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14 pages, 2086 KiB  
Article
The Male Reproductive System of the Kissing Bug, Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae): Arrangements of the Muscles and the Myoactivity of the Selected Neuropeptides
by Angela B. Lange, Anika Kisana, Jimena Leyria and Ian Orchard
Insects 2023, 14(4), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14040324 - 28 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2617
Abstract
The gross anatomy of the male reproductive structures and their associated musculature are described in the blood-gorging vector of Chagas disease, Rhodnius prolixus. The male reproductive system is composed of muscular tissues each performing contractions that aid in the movement of sperm [...] Read more.
The gross anatomy of the male reproductive structures and their associated musculature are described in the blood-gorging vector of Chagas disease, Rhodnius prolixus. The male reproductive system is composed of muscular tissues each performing contractions that aid in the movement of sperm out of the testis into the vas deferens, seminal vesicle and then into the ejaculatory duct, along with proteins and lipids from the transparent and opaque accessory glands. Phalloidin staining shows the various patterns of muscle fiber layers, from thin circular to more complex crisscross patterns, implying subtle differences in the form of the contractions and movement of each of the structures, allowing for waves of contractions or twisting patterns. The transcripts for the receptors for proctolin, myosuppressin (RhoprMS) and for the extended FMRFamides are expressed in the various regions of the reproductive system, and the nerve processes extending over the reproductive structures are positive for FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity, as are neurosecretory cells lying on the nerves. Proctolin and AKDNFIRFamide are strong stimulators for the frequency of the contractions, and RhoprMS can inhibit the proctolin-induced contractions. Taken together, this work implicates these two families of peptides in coordinating the male reproductive structures for the successful transfer of sperm and the associated accessory gland fluid to the female during copulation. Full article
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14 pages, 2117 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Life Table Parameters of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the United States
by Serhan Mermer, Erika A. Maslen, Daniel T. Dalton, Anne L. Nielsen, Ann Rucker, David Lowenstein, Nik Wiman, Mukesh Bhattarai, Alexander Soohoo-Hui, Edwin T. Harris, Ferdinand Pfab and Vaughn M. Walton
Insects 2023, 14(3), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14030248 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1927
Abstract
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a generalist pest that causes serious injury to a variety of crops around the world. After the first detection in the USA, H. halys became a serious threat to growers resulting in significant [...] Read more.
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a generalist pest that causes serious injury to a variety of crops around the world. After the first detection in the USA, H. halys became a serious threat to growers resulting in significant crop damage. Understanding the effect of temperature on H. halys development will help to achieve successful control by predicting the phenological timing of the pest. Here, life table parameters (survival, development, reproduction, and daily mortality) of H. halys were evaluated for New Jersey and Oregon populations in the US. Parameters were determined from field-collected and laboratory-reared individuals. The results indicated that New Jersey populations had higher levels of egg-laying than Oregon populations and exhibited higher and earlier fecundity peaks. Survival levels were similar between populations. Linear and nonlinear fit were used to estimate the minimum (14.3 °C), optimal (27.8 °C), and maximum (35.9 °C) temperatures where development of H. halys can take place. An age-specific fecundity peak (Mx = 36.63) was recorded at 936 degree days for New Jersey populations, while maximum fecundity (Mx = 11.85) occurred at 1145 degree days in Oregon. No oviposition was recorded at the lowest (15 °C) or highest (35 °C) trialed temperatures. Developmental periods increased at temperatures above 30 °C, indicating that such higher temperatures are suboptimal for H. halys development. Altogether the most optimal temperatures for population increase (rm) ranged from 25 to 30 °C. Survival rates of H. halys at suboptimal low temperatures of 8 °C (i.e., 61%) is comparable to previous reports. The present paper provides additional data and context from a range of experimental conditions and populations. Such temperature-related H. halys life table parameters can be used to provide determine the risk to susceptible crops. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2021

25 pages, 145307 KiB  
Article
Comparative Studies of Perianal Structures in Myrmecophilous Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae)
by Natalia Kaszyca-Taszakowska, Mariusz Kanturski and Łukasz Depa
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121160 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1673
Abstract
There are three types of relationships between aphids and ants: non-myrmecophilous, obligatory and facultatively myrmecophilous. The degree of involvement in this mutualism is believed to be corelated with morphological adaptations of perianal structures. In this manuscript, we analyzed the differences of these structures [...] Read more.
There are three types of relationships between aphids and ants: non-myrmecophilous, obligatory and facultatively myrmecophilous. The degree of involvement in this mutualism is believed to be corelated with morphological adaptations of perianal structures. In this manuscript, we analyzed the differences of these structures in obligatorily (18 species) and facultatively (10 species) myrmecophilous aphids. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light stereoscopic microscopy (LSM) techniques were used for these studies. Comparison of structures showed no strict relationship between their morphology and the degree myrmecophily, with certain indication that the microsculpture of perianal cuticle may play role in protection of aphids against honeydew droplet in facultatively myrmecophilous aphids. Full article
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9 pages, 931 KiB  
Article
Inheritance and Biological Characterization of an Orange-nymph Mutant in Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
by Amador Rodríguez-Gómez, Alberto Donate, Isabel Sánchez-Martínez, Virginia Balanza, Ana Belén Abelaira, María del Carmen Reche and Pablo Bielza
Insects 2022, 13(11), 996; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13110996 - 30 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2975
Abstract
A mutation showing a distinct orange color in the nymph stages was found in Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), a key biological control agent in protected crops, used to control small pests, especially thrips. A laboratory strain carrying this body color mutation ambar [...] Read more.
A mutation showing a distinct orange color in the nymph stages was found in Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), a key biological control agent in protected crops, used to control small pests, especially thrips. A laboratory strain carrying this body color mutation ambar was established. Genetic analysis determined that the mutation (ambar) was controlled by a single autosomal recessive allele. Some biological and ecological characteristics of this orange strain were compared to a normal population. Longevity, fecundity and fertility were similar in both populations, but immature survival, development rate, body size, starvation tolerance and predation capacity were inferior in the orange strain. The utility of the orange mutant as a visible marker for biological and ecological studies of this important biological control agent is discussed. Full article
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15 pages, 4400 KiB  
Article
RNAi-Mediated Manipulation of Cuticle Coloration Genes in Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae)
by Colin S. Brent, Chan C. Heu, Roni J. Gross, Baochan Fan, Daniel Langhorst and J. Joe Hull
Insects 2022, 13(11), 986; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13110986 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1932
Abstract
Cuticle coloration in insects is a consequence of the accumulation of pigments in a species-specific pattern. Numerous genes are involved in regulating the underlying processes of melanization and sclerotization, and their manipulation can be used to create externally visible markers of successful gene [...] Read more.
Cuticle coloration in insects is a consequence of the accumulation of pigments in a species-specific pattern. Numerous genes are involved in regulating the underlying processes of melanization and sclerotization, and their manipulation can be used to create externally visible markers of successful gene editing. To clarify the roles for many of these genes and examine their suitability as phenotypic markers in Lygus hesperus Knight (western tarnished plant bug), transcriptomic data were screened for sequences exhibiting homology with the Drosophila melanogaster proteins. Complete open reading frames encoding putative homologs for six genes (aaNAT, black, ebony, pale, tan, and yellow) were identified, with two variants for black. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses supported preliminary annotations as cuticle pigmentation genes. In accord with observable difference in color patterning, expression varied for each gene by developmental stage, adult age, body part, and sex. Knockdown by injection of dsRNA for each gene produced varied effects in adults, ranging from the non-detectable (black 1, yellow), to moderate decreases (pale, tan) and increases (black 2, ebony) in darkness, to extreme melanization (aaNAT). Based solely on its expression profile and highly visible phenotype, aaNAT appears to be the best marker for tracking transgenic L. hesperus. Full article
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14 pages, 1061 KiB  
Article
Biological Parameters, Phenology and Temperature Requirements of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the Sub-Mediterranean Climate of Western Slovenia
by Mojca Rot, Lara Maistrello, Elena Costi and Stanislav Trdan
Insects 2022, 13(10), 956; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100956 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
In the last decade, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys, native to East Asia, has become one of the most serious pests for agricultural crops worldwide. First detected in Europe (in Switzerland), the insect is now widely found across the [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the invasive brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys, native to East Asia, has become one of the most serious pests for agricultural crops worldwide. First detected in Europe (in Switzerland), the insect is now widely found across the European continent and many Eurasian countries. Since its first appearance in Slovenia in 2017 it has caused considerable damage to fruit and vegetable production. Understanding the biology and behavior in the local environmental conditions is of key importance for an effective pest management. Knowledge of the voltinism of the species is crucial to anticipate critical phases of pest development and for adapting control measures that target the vulnerable life stages of the pest. A 3-year study (2019–2021) of H. halys biological parameters was performed outdoors in Nova Gorica (western Slovenia), confirming that in the sub-Mediterranean climate this pest has two overlapping generations per year. The net reproductive rates observed in the studied period indicate growing populations. The highest population growth was recorded in 2019, when the net reproductive rate of increase (R0) reached 14.84 for the summer generation and 5.64 for the overwintering generation. These findings match the current situation in Slovenia, where increasing populations of H. halys and severe crop damage have been observed since 2019. Full article
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27 pages, 488 KiB  
Review
Natural Enemies and Biological Control of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in North America
by Blessing Ademokoya, Kacie Athey and John Ruberson
Insects 2022, 13(10), 932; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100932 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3921
Abstract
Stink bugs comprise a significant and costly pest complex for numerous crops in the US, including row crops, vegetables, and tree fruits and nuts. Most management relies on the use of broad-spectrum and disruptive insecticides with high human and environmental risks associated with [...] Read more.
Stink bugs comprise a significant and costly pest complex for numerous crops in the US, including row crops, vegetables, and tree fruits and nuts. Most management relies on the use of broad-spectrum and disruptive insecticides with high human and environmental risks associated with them. Growing concerns about pesticide resistance in stink bugs are forcing pest managers to explore safer and more sustainable options. Here, we review the diverse suite of natural enemies of stink bugs in the US, noting that the egg and the late nymphal and adult stages of stink bugs are the most commonly attacked by parasitoids, whereas eggs and young nymphs are the stages most commonly attacked by predators. The effectiveness of stink bugs’ natural enemies varies widely with stink bug species and habitats, influencing the biological control of stink bugs across crops. Historically, biological control of stink bugs has focused on introduction of exotic natural enemies against exotic stink bugs. Conservation and augmentation methods of biological control have received less attention in the US, although there may be good opportunities to utilize these approaches. We identify some considerations for the current and future use of biological control for stink bugs, including the potential for area-wide management approaches. Full article
10 pages, 625 KiB  
Article
Effect of Male Body Size on Female Reproduction in Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) (Heteroptera, Pyrrhocoridae)
by Alois Honek and Zdenka Martinkova
Insects 2022, 13(10), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100902 - 3 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
Females and males of the abundant heteropteran species Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) mate with the larger of the available partners. The male benefits from copulation with a large female, which is more productive than a small female. However, the benefit to females from copulation [...] Read more.
Females and males of the abundant heteropteran species Pyrrhocoris apterus (L.) mate with the larger of the available partners. The male benefits from copulation with a large female, which is more productive than a small female. However, the benefit to females from copulation with a large male has not yet been investigated. Overwintered sexually immature adults were transferred from the field to indoors for a long day at 25 °C and subsequently kept as female-male pairs with different partner size ratios. The female lays eggs in several successive clutches. We investigated the influence of male size on the number and weight of eggs in individual clutches and the time elapsed from the transfer to their deposition. These characteristics of reproduction were first regressed on female size, and residuals of this regression were then regressed on male size. The positive effect of increasing male size on the characteristics of female reproduction manifested as a significant value of the latter regressions. The expected positive effect of increasing male body size on female reproductive characteristics was not detected. Several reasons for this deficiency are discussed. Full article
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10 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Females of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Experience a Facultative Reproductive Diapause in Northern Greece
by Eleni I. Koutsogeorgiou, Nikos A. Kouloussis, Dimitrios S. Koveos and Stefanos S. Andreadis
Insects 2022, 13(10), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13100866 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a native pest of East Asia that overwinters as an adult in natural and human-made structures. Adult emergence from overwintering sites starts in spring, whereas females produce offspring in early summer on host plants, where most feeding [...] Read more.
Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a native pest of East Asia that overwinters as an adult in natural and human-made structures. Adult emergence from overwintering sites starts in spring, whereas females produce offspring in early summer on host plants, where most feeding occurs. In this study, we investigated the reproductive physiology of overwintering females of H. halys in Northern Greece, by determining the duration of the preoviposition period and fecundity of individuals that were left to overwinter in natural conditions and were subsequently transferred to chambers with standard conditions monthly, from December 2020 to March 2021. According to our results, overwintering H. halys females do not initiate egg laying once they emerge from overwintering sites, but rather need some additional time to exit diapause and mature reproductively. The mean preoviposition period of overwintering females that were transferred from their overwintering sites to the chambers in December 2020 was 29.0 days, which was significantly longer by 8.3 days than that of females that overwintered until March 2021, and by 13.2 days than the control (26 °C, 60% RH and a 16:8 h light: dark photoperiod). No significant difference among the average number of eggs per egg mass laid by overwintering individuals brought in the chambers in different time intervals and the laboratory colony was observed. However, females that were left to overwinter until March laid a significantly higher number of eggs in total, compared to the ones whose overwintering was disrupted in February. Based on our findings, overwintering females of H. halys experience a facultative reproductive diapause in Northern Greece. Our study was the first to determine the occurrence of diapause of H. halys in N. Greece and our findings could be very valuable for assessing the damage of this pest to early-season crops and designing successful management practices. Full article
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10 pages, 1128 KiB  
Article
Effect of Parental Age and Mating Status on Reproductive Performance of Orius laevigatus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)
by Amador Rodríguez-Gómez, Virginia Balanza, Alberto Donate, Ana Belén Abelaira, María del Carmen Reche, Isabel Sánchez-Martínez and Pablo Bielza
Insects 2022, 13(9), 827; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13090827 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1435
Abstract
The reproductive potential of biological control agents (BCAs) is crucial for efficient mass-rearing and field performance, and it all begins with mating. Fecundity can be strongly influenced by intrinsic conditions, such as female age and, often neglected, male age and mating status. However, [...] Read more.
The reproductive potential of biological control agents (BCAs) is crucial for efficient mass-rearing and field performance, and it all begins with mating. Fecundity can be strongly influenced by intrinsic conditions, such as female age and, often neglected, male age and mating status. However, little is known about the impact of parental status at mating on female reproductive outcomes in BCAs. Orius laevigatus (Fieber) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used to control thrips in protected crops. We evaluated how many consecutive females a male could successfully mate and the effect on a female’s reproductive output. In addition, we studied the effects of male and female age on mating. In the multiple mating experiment, the males showed a high capacity to fertilize females successively, not reducing fecundity until the sixth mated female. In the delayed mating experiment, copulation duration and fecundity increased with male age but decreased with female age. In contrast, fertility followed an opposite pattern, increasing with female age but decreasing with male age. However, fecundity gains outweighed fertility declines in both sexes. Therefore, reproductive capacity is increased when mating newly emerged females with males a few days old. The implications of our results for mass rearing and field performance are discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 2671 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Spatial Distribution of Three Major Leptocorisa (Hemiptera: Alydidae) Pests Using MaxEnt Model
by Jeong Ho Hwang, Se-Hyun Kim, Sunhee Yoon, Sunghoon Jung, Dong Hee Kim and Wang-Hee Lee
Insects 2022, 13(8), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080750 - 20 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
We targeted three major Leptocorisa species (L. chinensis, L. acuta, and L. oratoria) and evaluated their potential distributions using MaxEnt. The results showed that most Asian countries and northern Australia would be suitable for at least one of these [...] Read more.
We targeted three major Leptocorisa species (L. chinensis, L. acuta, and L. oratoria) and evaluated their potential distributions using MaxEnt. The results showed that most Asian countries and northern Australia would be suitable for at least one of these pest species, and climate change will expand their habitat northward. All of the developed models were evaluated to be excellent with AUC, TSS, and OR10%. Most of the recorded regions of the Leptocorisa species are consistent with the result of potential distributions predicted in this study. The results confirmed that the minimum temperature of the coldest month mainly influences the three Leptocorisa species distributions. The potential distributions of the three species cover major rice cultivation areas regardless of climate change, suggesting that it would be necessary to establish a sustainable control strategy for the pests. Full article
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29 pages, 9246 KiB  
Article
New Records and Updated Checklist of the Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Greece
by Antonios Tsagkarakis, Zoi Thanou, Aikaterini Chaldeou, Ioanna Moschou, Argyro Kalaitzaki and Sakis Drosopoulos
Insects 2022, 13(8), 749; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13080749 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1694
Abstract
Eight species of the superfamily Pentatomoidea are recorded from Greece for the first time: Aelia germari Küster 1852, Eurygaster hottentotta (Fabricius 1775), Eysarcoris aeneus (Scopoli 1763), Neottiglossa lineolata (Herrich-Schaeffer 1830), Neottiglossa pusilla (Gallen 1789), Picromerus bidens (Linnaeus 1758), Podops (Podops) inunctus (Fabricius 1775) [...] Read more.
Eight species of the superfamily Pentatomoidea are recorded from Greece for the first time: Aelia germari Küster 1852, Eurygaster hottentotta (Fabricius 1775), Eysarcoris aeneus (Scopoli 1763), Neottiglossa lineolata (Herrich-Schaeffer 1830), Neottiglossa pusilla (Gallen 1789), Picromerus bidens (Linnaeus 1758), Podops (Podops) inunctus (Fabricius 1775) and Tarisa pallescens (Jakovlev 1871). A complete updated species checklist with distributional data notes for all the new species for Greece are provided. Full article
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17 pages, 4199 KiB  
Article
To Every Thing There Is a Season: Phenology and Photoperiodic Control of Seasonal Development in the Invasive Caucasian Population of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
by Sergey Ya. Reznik, Natalia N. Karpun, Vilena Ye. Zakharchenko, Yelena I. Shoshina, Margarita Yu. Dolgovskaya, Aida Kh. Saulich and Dmitry L. Musolin
Insects 2022, 13(7), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13070580 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
Studies on the phenology of local populations of invasive insects are necessary for monitoring and predicting their dispersion. We investigated the phenology of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in the Sochi region (Krasnodar Territory, Russia) from 2018 to 2021 by [...] Read more.
Studies on the phenology of local populations of invasive insects are necessary for monitoring and predicting their dispersion. We investigated the phenology of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in the Sochi region (Krasnodar Territory, Russia) from 2018 to 2021 by regular field sampling and dissecting. The results of the sampling suggest that H. halys is at least partially bivoltine in the studied region: the main period of mass oviposition (by the overwintered females) occurs from June to July; the second, much shorter period of egg-laying (by females of the new, i.e., the first generation) occurs in August. Reproductively active individuals (i.e., females with developed ovaries and filled spermatheca and males with filled ectodermal sac) were recorded from the end of May to the beginning of September. Such a seasonal pattern correlated with day length: when the natural photoperiod decreased below the experimentally determined critical day length (15.0–15.5 h), the proportions of females with fully developed ovaries sharply dropped to zero. Both the rate of H. halys pre-adult development and the timing of the induction of winter adult diapause observed under natural conditions fully agreed with the earlier predictions that had been based on the results of laboratory experiments. Full article
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15 pages, 3248 KiB  
Article
Flying over Eurasia: Geographic Variation of Photoperiodic Control of Nymphal Development and Adult Diapause Induction in Native and Invasive Populations of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
by Dmitry L. Musolin, Margarita Yu. Dolgovskaya, Vilena Ye. Zakharchenko, Natalia N. Karpun, Tim Haye, Aida Kh. Saulich and Sergey Ya. Reznik
Insects 2022, 13(6), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13060522 - 4 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Facultative winter adult diapause in Halyomorpha halys is regulated by a long-day photoperiodic response. Day length also influences nymphal development, which slows down at the critical (near-threshold) day lengths. We compared the photoperiodic responses of one native (Andong, South Korea) and three invasive [...] Read more.
Facultative winter adult diapause in Halyomorpha halys is regulated by a long-day photoperiodic response. Day length also influences nymphal development, which slows down at the critical (near-threshold) day lengths. We compared the photoperiodic responses of one native (Andong, South Korea) and three invasive (Torino, Italy; Basel, Switzerland; and Sochi, Russia) populations in a laboratory common-garden experiment. Nymphs developed and emerging adults were reared at 24 °C in a range of photoperiods with day lengths of 14.0, 14.5, 15.0, 15.5, and 16.0 h. The critical day lengths of the photoperiodic responses of both sexes fell between 14.5 and 15.0 h in the native Korean population and between 15.0 and 15.5 h in three invasive European populations. The differences between the three invasive populations were not significant, despite their distant origins. Moreover, the difference between the Korean and European populations was much smaller than was expected. The microevolution was possibly ‘too slow to keep up’ with the rapid spread of the invader across Eurasia. It is expected that soon the critical day length of the invasive H. halys populations will gradually change to adapt better to local conditions. At present, the critical day length for diapause induction of 15 h 15 min can be used to model the phenology, further spread, and response to climate change for all European populations of the pest. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2024, 2023, 2022

14 pages, 1905 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization Analysis of Transient Receptor Potential Mucolipin Protein of Laodelphax striatellus Fallén
by Haitao Wang, Yan Dong, Baijie Wan, Yinghua Ji and Qiufang Xu
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121107 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Transient receptor potential mucolipin (TRPML) protein in flies plays a pivotal role in Ca2+ ions release, resulting in membrane trafficking, autophagy and ion homeostasis. However, to date, the characterization of TRPML in agricultural pests remains unknown. Here, we firstly reported the TRPML [...] Read more.
Transient receptor potential mucolipin (TRPML) protein in flies plays a pivotal role in Ca2+ ions release, resulting in membrane trafficking, autophagy and ion homeostasis. However, to date, the characterization of TRPML in agricultural pests remains unknown. Here, we firstly reported the TRPML of a destructive pest of gramineous crops, Laodelphax striatellus. The L. striatellus TRPML (Ls-TRPML) has a 1818 bp open reading frame, encoding 605 amino acid. TRPML in agricultural pests is evolutionarily conserved, and the expression of Ls-TRPML is predominately higher in the ovary than in other organs of L. striatellus at the transcript and protein level. The Bac–Bac system showed that Ls-TRPML localized in the plasma membrane, nuclear membrane and nucleus and co-localized with lysosome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The immunofluorescence microscopy analysis showed that Ls-TRPML localized in the cytoplasm and around the nuclei of the intestine cells or ovary follicular cells of L. striatellus. The results from the lipid-binding assay revealed that Ls-TRPML strongly bound to phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate, as compared with other phosphoinositides. Overall, our results helped is identify and characterize the TRPML protein of L. striatellus, shedding light on the function of TRPML in multiple cellular processes in agricultural pests. Full article
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