Diptera Diversity in Space and Time

A special issue of Insects (ISSN 2075-4450). This special issue belongs to the section "Insect Systematics, Phylogeny and Evolution".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2023) | Viewed by 38865

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, 71000 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Interests: molecular phylogeny of insects; DNA barcoding; systematics of lower Diptera (mainly infraorders Bibionomorpha and Culicomorpha); morphology of insects; phylogenetics; taxonomy; fossil Diptera; new species

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Guest Editor
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA
Interests: systematics of Simuliidae (black flies); systematics of Dixidae (Meniscus midges); molecular systematics; development of nuclear genes for systematics

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Guest Editor
NLA University College, Bergen, Norway
Interests: insect paleontology; Diptera: Bibionidae; land use and biodiversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Based upon recent DNA barcoding and extensive sampling efforts, two-winged flies (Diptera) are well established as one of the most species-rich groups of insects on Earth. At the same time, Diptera, in terms of the proportion of described versus undescribed species, is the least studied major insect order. Additionally, phylogenetic relationships and classification of various subgroups of Diptera are far from fully elucidated. Preliminary studies suggest that there are still more species undescribed than described, particularly in the tropics and other less studied areas. The same applies to the study of fossil flies. Although new taxa of fossil Diptera are continuously being described, especially from the mid-Cretaceous amber of Myanmar, they still represent a rich, valuable, and understudied source of information. This Special Issue aims to promote fundamental and high-quality biodiversity research, based on both extant and fossil specimens.

Dr. Jan Ševčík
Dr. John K. Moulton
Dr. John Skartveit
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Diptera
  • systematics
  • taxonomy
  • phylogeny
  • DNA barcoding
  • biodiversity
  • morphology
  • ecology
  • fossils
  • zoogeography

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

102 pages, 33705 KiB  
Article
Taxonomic Revision of Tipula (Vestiplex Bezzi) Crane Flies (Diptera, Tipulidae) in Taiwan with Descriptions of Six New Species
by Pavel Starkevich and Chen W. Young
Insects 2023, 14(7), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14070616 - 08 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1160
Abstract
The crane fly subgenus Tipula (Vestiplex) Bezzi, 1924 (Diptera, Tipulidae) of Taiwan is taxonomically reviewed, entailing the recognition of 18 species, with six of these species newly described, including T. (V.) diamondi sp. nov.T. (V. [...] Read more.
The crane fly subgenus Tipula (Vestiplex) Bezzi, 1924 (Diptera, Tipulidae) of Taiwan is taxonomically reviewed, entailing the recognition of 18 species, with six of these species newly described, including T. (V.) diamondi sp. nov.T. (V.) formosae sp. nov.T. (V.) graciliana sp. nov.T. (V.) pseudobiserra sp. nov.,  T. (V.) survilai sp. nov., and T. (V.) taiwanica sp. nov. Three species, T. biaciculifera Alexander, 1937, T. niitakensis Alexander, 1938, and T. pseudobiaciculifera Men, Xue and Wang, 2016, listed previously as members of the subgenus T. (Pterelachisus) Rondani, 1842, are now formally placed as member taxa within T. (Vestiplex). Tipula subnata Alexander, 1949 and T. (V.) longarmata Yang and Yang, 1999 are designated as junior synonyms of T. (V.) coxitalis Alexander, 1935; T. (V.) nokonis Alexander, 1935 is designated as a junior synonym of T. (V.) terebrata Edwards, 1921; and T. (V.) takahashiana Alexander, 1938 is designated as a junior synonym of T. (V.) bicornigera Alexander, 1938. Included in this taxonomic revision are a key to species, species diagnoses for all species, complete descriptions for newly described species, and illustrations of the male genitalia for all species, and for female terminalia when available. DNA barcode sequences for all Taiwanese species of T. (Vestiplex) are provided. Males are associated with conspecific females based on CO1 results and maximum likelihood trees resulting from the analyses are presented. The Taiwan fauna of Tipula (Vestiplex) is highly endemic with 16 of the 18 species restricted to the island. At the species group level, no groups are endemic to Taiwan and the groups show closest biogeographic relationships to the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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12 pages, 3726 KiB  
Article
A New Species of Ascodipteron (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from China Based on Morphology and DNA Barcodes
by Haoran Sun, Liang Ding, Thomas Pape and Dong Zhang
Insects 2022, 13(12), 1148; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13121148 - 13 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1521
Abstract
A new species of the genus Ascodipteron Adensamer, 1896 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) is described from Fujian, namely A. guoliangi sp. nov. Habitus and diagnostic details, as well as the attachment sites on the host, are documented with photographs. A detailed comparison of the [...] Read more.
A new species of the genus Ascodipteron Adensamer, 1896 (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) is described from Fujian, namely A. guoliangi sp. nov. Habitus and diagnostic details, as well as the attachment sites on the host, are documented with photographs. A detailed comparison of the new species with related species is provided and the new species is accommodated in the most recent key to the world species of Ascodipteron. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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14 pages, 2767 KiB  
Article
Genetic Variability of Polypedilum (Diptera: Chironomidae) from Southwest Ecuador
by Isabel Ballesteros, Mishell Bravo-Castro, Santiago Villamarín-Cortez, Gabriela Jijón, Narcís Prat, Blanca Ríos-Touma and Christian Villamarín
Insects 2022, 13(4), 382; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13040382 - 13 Apr 2022
Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Chironomids show a wide distribution and can occupy several habitats due to their high adaptive capacity in different freshwater environments. The genus Polypedilum is found along a wide elevational and environmental gradient in the neotropics, and its genetic variability could help to elucidate [...] Read more.
Chironomids show a wide distribution and can occupy several habitats due to their high adaptive capacity in different freshwater environments. The genus Polypedilum is found along a wide elevational and environmental gradient in the neotropics, and its genetic variability could help to elucidate factors determining its distribution and tolerance to the environmental changes of different species or populations. This study examines the genetic variability of Polypedilum in an important biogeographic area that acts as a geographical barrier of biodiversity at the border of the Choco and Tumbes biomes. We identified five Polypedilum morphotypes using classic taxonomic methods. We examined 68 Polypedilum individuals from eight sampling sites in El Oro Province, Ecuador, analyzing the putative molecular species using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) mitochondrial gene fragment. Then, we calculated molecular diversity indices, Haplotype diversity (Hd), and θs and θπ estimators. Seven Polypedilum OTUs were determined from which a high molecular diversity was registered. A CCA was conducted to understand the population composition in relation to environmental characteristics. Results indicated that dissolved oxygen and temperature are the main environmental factors affecting Polypedilum distribution across elevational gradients and between basins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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17 pages, 2046 KiB  
Article
Peering into the Darkness: DNA Barcoding Reveals Surprisingly High Diversity of Unknown Species of Diptera (Insecta) in Germany
by Caroline Chimeno, Axel Hausmann, Stefan Schmidt, Michael J. Raupach, Dieter Doczkal, Viktor Baranov, Jeremy Hübner, Amelie Höcherl, Rosa Albrecht, Mathias Jaschhof, Gerhard Haszprunar and Paul D. N. Hebert
Insects 2022, 13(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010082 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7863
Abstract
Determining the size of the German insect fauna requires better knowledge of several megadiverse families of Diptera and Hymenoptera that are taxonomically challenging. This study takes the first step in assessing these “dark taxa” families and provides species estimates for four challenging groups [...] Read more.
Determining the size of the German insect fauna requires better knowledge of several megadiverse families of Diptera and Hymenoptera that are taxonomically challenging. This study takes the first step in assessing these “dark taxa” families and provides species estimates for four challenging groups of Diptera (Cecidomyiidae, Chironomidae, Phoridae, and Sciaridae). These estimates are based on more than 48,000 DNA barcodes (COI) from Diptera collected by Malaise traps that were deployed in southern Germany. We assessed the fraction of German species belonging to 11 fly families with well-studied taxonomy in these samples. The resultant ratios were then used to estimate the species richness of the four “dark taxa” families (DT families hereafter). Our results suggest a surprisingly high proportion of undetected biodiversity in a supposedly well-investigated country: at least 1800–2200 species await discovery in Germany in these four families. As this estimate is based on collections from one region of Germany, the species count will likely increase with expanded geographic sampling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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9 pages, 2978 KiB  
Article
Extant Genus in the Mesozoic: Paleoplatyura Meunier (Diptera: Keroplatidae) Found in the Cretaceous Amber of Myanmar
by Jan Ševčík, Wiesław Krzemiński and Kornelia Skibińska
Insects 2022, 13(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010024 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
Three new species of Paleoplatyura Meunier, 1899, i.e., Paleoplatyura agnieszkae sp. nov., P. miae sp. nov., and P. magnifica sp. nov., are described and figured. The concept of the genus is briefly discussed, and its systematic position is clarified. A key to fossil [...] Read more.
Three new species of Paleoplatyura Meunier, 1899, i.e., Paleoplatyura agnieszkae sp. nov., P. miae sp. nov., and P. magnifica sp. nov., are described and figured. The concept of the genus is briefly discussed, and its systematic position is clarified. A key to fossil species is provided. The genus Paleoplatyura is described from the Eocene Baltic amber. It is concluded that, in Baltic amber, this group is represented only by the type species, and the identity of the other two species is problematic. No additional specimens have been found so far in this amber. Therefore, the presence of as many as three new species in Burmese amber, certainly belonging to Paleoplatyura, is a confirmation of its occurrence already in the Mesozoic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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35 pages, 7138 KiB  
Article
Just a Fragment of Undescribed Diversity: Twenty New Oriental and Palearctic Species of Sciaroidea (Diptera), including DNA Sequence Data and Two New Fossil Genera
by Jan Ševčík, Heikki Hippa and Nikola Burdíková
Insects 2022, 13(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13010019 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
The following 17 extant new species of Sciaroidea (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) are described: Bolitophila nikolae Ševčík sp. nov. (Bolitophilidae, Taiwan), Catocha jingfui sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Catocha manmiaoe sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Catocha shengfengi sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Planetella taiwanensis sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), [...] Read more.
The following 17 extant new species of Sciaroidea (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) are described: Bolitophila nikolae Ševčík sp. nov. (Bolitophilidae, Taiwan), Catocha jingfui sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Catocha manmiaoe sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Catocha shengfengi sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Planetella taiwanensis sp. nov. (Cecidomyiidae, Taiwan), Diadocidia pseudospinusola sp. nov. (Diadocidiidae, Taiwan), Asioditomyia bruneicola sp. nov. (Ditomyiidae, Brunei), Asioditomyia lacii sp. nov. (Ditomyiidae, Taiwan), Ditomyia asiatica sp. nov. (Ditomyiidae, Thailand), Chetoneura davidi sp. nov. (Keroplatidae, Brunei), Euceroplatus mantici sp. nov. (Keroplatidae, Thailand), Setostylus fangshuoi sp. nov. (Keroplatidae, Taiwan), Platyceridion yunfui sp. nov. (Keroplatidae, Hainan), Terocelion adami sp. nov. (Keroplatidae, Taiwan), Hadroneura martini sp. nov. (Mycetophilidae, Taiwan), Paratinia furcata sp. nov. (Mycetophilidae, Czech Republic, Slovakia), and Nepaletricha sikorai sp. nov. (Sciaroidea incertae sedis, Thailand). Two new genera are described from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, Burmasymmerus gen. nov. (Ditomyiidae, type species Burmasymmerus korneliae sp. nov., including also B. wieslawi sp. nov.), representing the first record of the family Ditomyiidae from the Mesozoic, and Burmatricha gen. nov. (Sciaroidea incertae sedis, type species Burmatricha mesozoica sp. nov.). Molecular phylogeny of Ditomyiidae, based on two DNA markers (28S, COI), as well as that of Catocha Haliday, 1833, based on the mitochondrial COI and 16S fragments, are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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52 pages, 27896 KiB  
Article
Clusiomitidae, A New Family of Eocene Fossil Acalyptratae, with Revision of Acartophthalmites Hennig and Clusiomites Gen. Nov. (Diptera)
by Jindřich Roháček and Christel Hoffeins
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121123 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2503
Abstract
The Eocene Baltic amber fossil flies of the genus Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965 (Diptera: Acalyptratae) are revised. Seven species are recognized and described or redescribed. Five species, A. crassipes sp. nov., A. luridus sp. nov., A. rugosus sp. nov., A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965 (type [...] Read more.
The Eocene Baltic amber fossil flies of the genus Acartophthalmites Hennig, 1965 (Diptera: Acalyptratae) are revised. Seven species are recognized and described or redescribed. Five species, A. crassipes sp. nov., A. luridus sp. nov., A. rugosus sp. nov., A. tertiaria Hennig, 1965 (type species) and A. willii Pérez-de la Fuente, Hoffeins et Roháček, 2018 are retained in Acartophthalmites while Clusiomites gen. nov. is described for two other species, C. clusioides (Roháček, 2016) comb. nov. (type species) and C. ornatus sp. nov. Relationships of these fossil taxa are discussed and, because they cannot be confidently placed in any known family of Diptera, a new family, Clusiomitidae, is established for them. Clusiomitidae is recognized as a family of Opomyzoidea, probably most closely allied to Clusiidae. These results again confirmed that the diversity of acalyptrate flies was very high in the Mid-late Eocene amber forest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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10 pages, 2901 KiB  
Article
Every Single Specimen Counts: A New Docosia Winnertz (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) Species Described from a Singleton
by Olavi Kurina and Heli Kirik
Insects 2021, 12(12), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12121069 - 29 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1953
Abstract
A new species—Docosia caucasica sp. n.—has been described from material collected from the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Sakartvelo). The new species belongs to a group of Palaearctic species characterized by distinct posterolateral processes of gonocoxites and apically modified setae at the [...] Read more.
A new species—Docosia caucasica sp. n.—has been described from material collected from the Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Georgia (Sakartvelo). The new species belongs to a group of Palaearctic species characterized by distinct posterolateral processes of gonocoxites and apically modified setae at the posteroventral margin of the gonocoxites medially. Within the group, D. caucasica sp. n. is most similar to D. landrocki Laštovka and Ševčík, 2006 in having a similar outline of the medial process of posteroventral margin of the gonocoxites and the gonostylus. There is also a marked difference within the partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) sequence of D. caucasica sp. n. and other Docosia spp. available in public databases. As the new species is described from a single male specimen only, the adequacy and code compliance of that are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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20 pages, 3890 KiB  
Article
An Integrative Study on Asphondylia spp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Causing Flower Galls on Lamiaceae, with Description, Phenology, and Associated Fungi of Two New Species
by Umberto Bernardo, Francesco Nugnes, Simona Gargiulo, Rosario Nicoletti, Andrea Becchimanzi, Adriano Stinca and Gennaro Viggiani
Insects 2021, 12(11), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12110958 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2201
Abstract
An integrative study on some species of Asphondylia was carried out. Two species of gall midges from Italy, Asphondylia rivelloi sp. nov. and Asphondylia micromeriae sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), causing flower galls respectively on Clinopodium vulgare and Micromeria graeca (Lamiaceae), are described and [...] Read more.
An integrative study on some species of Asphondylia was carried out. Two species of gall midges from Italy, Asphondylia rivelloi sp. nov. and Asphondylia micromeriae sp. nov. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), causing flower galls respectively on Clinopodium vulgare and Micromeria graeca (Lamiaceae), are described and illustrated. The characteristics of each developmental stage and induced galls are described, which allowed the discrimination of these new species in the complex of Asphondylia developing on Lamiaceae plants. Molecular data based on sequencing both nuclear (ITS2 and 28S-D2) and mitochondrial (COI) genes are also provided in support of this discrimination. Phylogeny based on nuclear markers is consistent with the new species, whereas COI phylogeny suggests introgression occurring between the two species. However, these species can also be easily identified using a morphological approach. Phenology of host plants and gall midges are described, and some peculiar characteristics allow the complete and confident discrimination and revision of the treated species. Gall-associated fungi were identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea,Alternaria spp., and Cladosporium spp. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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11 pages, 3146 KiB  
Article
The Oldest Evolutionary Lineage of Trichoneura Loew, 1850 (Diptera, Limoniidae) and the First Evidence of This Genus in Cretaceous Spanish Amber
by Iwona Kania-Kłosok, Wiesław Krzemiński, Katarzyna Kopeć and Antonio Arillo
Insects 2021, 12(5), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12050411 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1884
Abstract
A new subgenus Cretalinea subgen. nov. of Trichoneura (Diptera, Limoniidae) is established with one new species: Trichoneura (Cretalinea) xavieri subgen. et sp. nov. This is the first report of the genus Trichoneura in Spanish amber and the first record of the [...] Read more.
A new subgenus Cretalinea subgen. nov. of Trichoneura (Diptera, Limoniidae) is established with one new species: Trichoneura (Cretalinea) xavieri subgen. et sp. nov. This is the first report of the genus Trichoneura in Spanish amber and the first record of the genus from the Lower Cretaceous period. The oldest described species of Trichoneura is compared with other species of the genus with particular reference to those known species from the Upper Cretaceous. A list and key of fossil species of Trichoneura are given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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11 pages, 1313 KiB  
Article
A Peculiar New Genus of Bibionomorpha (Diptera) with Brachycera-Like Modification of Antennae from Mid-Cretaceous Amber of Myanmar
by Jan Ševčík, John Skartveit, Wiesław Krzemiński and Kornelia Skibińska
Insects 2021, 12(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040364 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2743
Abstract
A new fossil genus of Bibionidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha), Burmahesperinus gen. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, is described and illustrated (type species Burmahesperinus antennatus sp. nov., the other two species included are B. conicus sp. nov. and B. pedicellatus sp. nov.). The new [...] Read more.
A new fossil genus of Bibionidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha), Burmahesperinus gen. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber, is described and illustrated (type species Burmahesperinus antennatus sp. nov., the other two species included are B. conicus sp. nov. and B. pedicellatus sp. nov.). The new genus is tentatively placed in a new subfamily, Burmahesperininae subfam. nov. of the family Bibionidae. Its possible phylogenetic position is briefly discussed. The new genus, as well as the subfamily, possesses the wing venation similar to the recent genus Hesperinus Walker, 1848, in combination with Brachycera-like modification of both the male and female antenna and the overall habitus typical of fungus gnats (Sciaroidea). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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18 pages, 4237 KiB  
Article
Friends in All the Green Spaces: Weather Dependent Changes in Urban Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Abundance and Diversity
by Heli Kirik, Viktoria Burtin, Lea Tummeleht and Olavi Kurina
Insects 2021, 12(4), 352; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12040352 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2587
Abstract
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are universally recognized as troublesome pests and vectors of various pathogens and parasites. Understandably, the species makeup and diversity of individual populations depends on local and broad scale environmental trends, especially on temperature and hydrological variations. Anthropogenic landscapes make for [...] Read more.
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are universally recognized as troublesome pests and vectors of various pathogens and parasites. Understandably, the species makeup and diversity of individual populations depends on local and broad scale environmental trends, especially on temperature and hydrological variations. Anthropogenic landscapes make for unique habitats, but their effect on insects likely varies across climatic regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and seasonal patterns of urban mosquitoes in the boreal region. Specimens were collected with an insect net from May to September during three years and determined to species or species group level. Weather information was added to each data point and results analyzed using multivariate regression models. Fieldwork yielded 1890 mosquitoes from four genera. Both abundance and the effective number of species (ENS) significantly decreased during the study period. The number of collected mosquitoes had a negative correlation with wind speed and temperature, latter of which exhibited a negative association with humidity. Species succession followed predictable patterns, but with some variation between years. Still, Culex pipiens/Culex torrentium were the most abundant throughout the study. Importantly, all dominant species were known disease vectors. Our work showed that higher temperatures could result in fewer mosquitoes in boreal towns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 5978 KiB  
Review
Current State of DNA Barcoding of Sciaroidea (Diptera)—Highlighting the Need to Build the Reference Library
by Jostein Kjærandsen
Insects 2022, 13(2), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/insects13020147 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3386
Abstract
DNA barcoding has tremendous potential for advancing species knowledge for many diverse groups of insects, potentially paving way for machine identification and semi-automated monitoring of whole insect faunas. Here, I review the current state of DNA barcoding of the superfamily Sciaroidea (Diptera), a [...] Read more.
DNA barcoding has tremendous potential for advancing species knowledge for many diverse groups of insects, potentially paving way for machine identification and semi-automated monitoring of whole insect faunas. Here, I review the current state of DNA barcoding of the superfamily Sciaroidea (Diptera), a diverse group consisting of eight understudied fly families where the described species in the world makes up some 10% (≈16,000 species) of all Diptera. World data of Sciaroidea were extracted from the Barcode of Life online database BoldSystems (BOLD) and contrasted with results and experiences from a Nordic project to build the reference library. Well over 1.2 million (1,224,877) Sciaroidea specimens have been submitted for barcoding, giving barcode-compliant sequences resulting in 56,648 so-called barcode index numbers (BINs, machine-generated proxies for species). Although the BINs on BOLD already represent 3.5 times the number of described species, merely some 2850 named species (described or interim names, 5% of the BINs) currently have been assigned a BIN. The other 95% remain as dark taxa figuring in many frontier publications as statistics representing proxies for species diversity within a family. In the Nordic region, however, substantial progress has been made towards building a complete reference library, currently making up 55% of all named Sciaroidea BINs on BOLD. Another major source (31%) of named Sciaroidea BINs on BOLD comes from COI sequences mined from GenBank, generated through phylogenetic and integrative studies outside of BOLD. Building a quality reference library for understudied insects such as Sciaroidea requires heavy investment, both pre sequence and post sequence, by trained taxonomists to build and curate voucher collections, to continually improve the quality of the data and describe new species. Only when the BINs are properly calibrated by a rigorously quality-checked reference library can the great potential of both classical taxonomic barcoding, metabarcoding, and eDNA ecology be realized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diptera Diversity in Space and Time)
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