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Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 42898

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, viale Annunziata, I-98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: natural products; molecular pharmacology; cancer; inflammation; neuroprotection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz, Germany
Interests: natural products; molecular pharmacology; cancer; drug resistance; genome-wide profiling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: natural products; molecular pharmacology; cancer; inflammation; neuroprotection
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Messina, I-98168 Messina, Italy
Interests: natural products; cancer; inflammation; molecular pharmacology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Cancer is a major health problem with a considerable social impact and high socio-economic costs. The fight against cancer is realized by developing innovative drugs and novel therapeutic strategies aimed to cure the disease and/or to prevent it.

Over the recent decades, natural remedies and, more recently, nutraceuticals have been increasingly employed to treat a large number of degenerative diseases, like cancer. In this context, they can be used to prevent illnesses or as co-adjuvants for synthetic drugs.

Another approach to prevent cancer is following a combination of a healthy life style and diet habits, employing “food as medicines”. Indeed, it has been suggested that high dietary intake of fruits and vegetables could prevent some type of cancer, reducing their incidence. This approach to maintain health status, often achieved by food supplements, functional and fortified foods, has a great impact on population, as suggested by the ever-increasing popularity of these products.

This Special Issue will focus on the role of bioactive molecules from food and other natural sources on cancer prevention and treatment. When dealing with extracts, Authors must include an accurate quali-quantitative chemical composition of them.

The Authors are mainly invited to submit original articles, reviews and meta-analysis.

Prof. Michele Navarra
Prof. Dr. Thomas Efferth
Guest Editors

Dr. Santa Cirmi
Dr. Alessandro Maugeri
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • nutraceuticals
  • food supplements
  • functional foods
  • fortified foods
  • natural bioactive molecules
  • natural products
  • tumor
  • angiogenesis
  • metastasis

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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14 pages, 2968 KiB  
Article
The Plant Derived 3-3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) Behaves as CB2 Receptor Agonist in Prostate Cancer Cellular Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043620 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2191
Abstract
3-3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a biologically active dimer derived from the endogenous conversion of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring glucosinolate found in many cruciferous vegetables (i.e., Brassicaceae). DIM was the first pure androgen receptor antagonist isolated from the Brassicaceae family and has been [...] Read more.
3-3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a biologically active dimer derived from the endogenous conversion of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring glucosinolate found in many cruciferous vegetables (i.e., Brassicaceae). DIM was the first pure androgen receptor antagonist isolated from the Brassicaceae family and has been recently investigated for its potential pharmacological use in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. Interestingly, there is evidence that DIM can also interact with cannabinoid receptors. In this context, by considering the well-known involvement of the endocannabinoid system in prostate cancer, we have pharmacologically characterized the properties of DIM on both CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in two human prostate cancer cell lines: PC3 (androgen-independent/androgen receptor negative) and LNCaP (androgen-dependent). In the PC3 cell line, DIM was able to activate CB2 receptors and potentially associated apoptotic pathways. On the other hand, although DIM was also able to activate CB2 receptors in the LNCaP cell line, no apoptotic effects were observed. Our evidence confirms that DIM is a CB2 receptor ligand and, moreover, it has a potential anti-proliferative effect on androgen-independent/androgen receptor-negative prostate cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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15 pages, 1576 KiB  
Article
Kinome-Wide Profiling Identifies Human WNK3 as a Target of Cajanin Stilbene Acid from Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1506; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031506 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1762
Abstract
Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a common food crop used in many parts of the world for nutritional purposes. One of its chemical constituents is cajanin stilbene acid (CSA), which exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In an [...] Read more.
Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a common food crop used in many parts of the world for nutritional purposes. One of its chemical constituents is cajanin stilbene acid (CSA), which exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In an effort to identify molecular targets of CSA, we performed a kinome-wide approach based on the measurement of the enzymatic activities of 252 human kinases. The serine-threonine kinase WNK3 (also known as protein kinase lysine-deficient 3) was identified as the most promising target of CSA with the strongest enzymatic activity inhibition in vitro and the highest binding affinity in molecular docking in silico. The lowest binding affinity and the predicted binding constant pKi of CSA (−9.65 kcal/mol and 0.084 µM) were comparable or even better than those of the known WNK3 inhibitor PP-121 (−9.42 kcal/mol and 0.123 µM). The statistically significant association between WNK3 mRNA expression and cellular responsiveness to several clinically established anticancer drugs in a panel of 60 tumor cell lines and the prognostic value of WNK3 mRNA expression in sarcoma biopsies for the survival time of 230 patients can be taken as clues that CSA-based inhibition of WNK3 may improve treatment outcomes of cancer patients and that CSA may serve as a valuable supplement to the currently used combination therapy protocols in oncology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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10 pages, 1264 KiB  
Article
Oleil Hydroxytyrosol (HTOL) Exerts Anti-Myeloma Activity by Antagonizing Key Survival Pathways in Malignant Plasma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11639; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111639 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
Polyphenols from olive oil are endowed with several biological activities. Chemical modifications have been recently applied to these compounds to improve their therapeutic activity in different pathological settings, including cancer. Herein, we describe the in vitro effects on multiple myeloma (MM) cells of [...] Read more.
Polyphenols from olive oil are endowed with several biological activities. Chemical modifications have been recently applied to these compounds to improve their therapeutic activity in different pathological settings, including cancer. Herein, we describe the in vitro effects on multiple myeloma (MM) cells of oleil hydroxytyrosol (HTOL), a synthetic fatty ester of natural hydroxytyrosol with oleic acid. HTOL reduced the viability of various human MM cell lines (HMCLs), even when co-cultured with bone marrow stromal cells, triggering ER stress, UPR and apoptosis, while it was not cytotoxic against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells or B lymphocytes. Whole-transcriptome profiling of HTOL-treated MM cells, coupled with protein expression analyses, indicate that HTOL antagonizes key survival pathways for malignant plasma cells, including the undruggable IRF4–c-MYC oncogenic axis. Accordingly, c-MYC gain- and loss-of-function strategies demonstrate that HTOL anti-tumor activity was, at least in part, due to c-MYC targeting. Taken together, these findings underscore the anti-MM potential of HTOL, providing the molecular framework for further investigation of HTOL-based treatments as novel anti-cancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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14 pages, 3156 KiB  
Article
Farrerol Induces Cancer Cell Death via ERK Activation in SKOV3 Cells and Attenuates TNF-α-Mediated Lipolysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(17), 9400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22179400 - 30 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
Farrerol (FA) is a flavanone isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine “Man-shan-hong” (Rhododendron dauricum L.). In the present study, FA decreased the viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. [...] Read more.
Farrerol (FA) is a flavanone isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine “Man-shan-hong” (Rhododendron dauricum L.). In the present study, FA decreased the viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and it induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Cell cycle distribution analysis via flow cytometry showed that FA decreased G1 populations and increased G2/M populations in SKOV3 cells. Additionally, Western blotting confirmed an increase in the expression level of proteins involved in the cell cycle, e.g., CDK and cyclins. FA-induced apoptosis in SKOV3 cells was also investigated using a TUNEL assay, and increased expression levels of proapoptotic factors, including Caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), through the Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/MAPK pathway were investigated. Proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1) have been identified as a driver of the pathological mechanisms underlying involuntary weight loss and impaired physical function, i.e., cachexia, during cancer; in the present study, we showed that farrerol attenuates TNF-α-induced lipolysis and increases adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Thus, farrerol could potentially be used as an anticancer agent or anticachetic drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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13 pages, 4604 KiB  
Article
Modulating the ERK1/2–MMP1 Axis through Corosolic Acid Inhibits Metastasis of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168641 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
Corosolic acid (CA; 2α-hydroxyursolic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid with antioxidant, antitumour and antimetastatic activities against various tumour cells during tumourigenesis. However, CA’s antitumour effect and functional roles on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells are utterly unknown. In this study, [...] Read more.
Corosolic acid (CA; 2α-hydroxyursolic acid) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid with antioxidant, antitumour and antimetastatic activities against various tumour cells during tumourigenesis. However, CA’s antitumour effect and functional roles on human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells are utterly unknown. In this study, our results demonstrated that CA significantly exerted an inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1 expression, cell migration and invasion without influencing cell growth or the cell cycle of human OSCC cells. The critical role of MMP1 was confirmed using the GEPIA database and showed that patients have a high expression of MMP1 and have a shorter overall survival rate, confirmed on the Kaplan–Meier curve assay. In the synergistic inhibitory analysis, CA and siMMP1 co-treatment showed a synergically inhibitory influence on MMP1 expression and invasion of human OSCC cells. The ERK1/2 pathway plays an essential role in mediating tumour progression. We found that CA significantly inhibits the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 dose-dependently. The ERK1/2 pathway played an essential role in the CA-mediated downregulation of MMP1 expression and in invasive motility in human OSCC cells. These findings first demonstrated the inhibitory effects of CA on OSCC cells’ progression through inhibition of the ERK1/2–MMP1 axis. Therefore, CA might represent a novel strategy for treating OSCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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15 pages, 4825 KiB  
Article
Protective Effect of Polysaccharides Extracted from Cudrania tricuspidata Fruit against Cisplatin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Macrophages and a Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(14), 7512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147512 - 13 Jul 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Although cisplatin is one of most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that is widely used to treat various types of cancer, it can cause undesirable damage in immune cells and normal tissue because of its strong cytotoxicity and non-selectivity. This study was conducted to investigate [...] Read more.
Although cisplatin is one of most effective chemotherapeutic drugs that is widely used to treat various types of cancer, it can cause undesirable damage in immune cells and normal tissue because of its strong cytotoxicity and non-selectivity. This study was conducted to investigate the cytoprotective effects of Cudrania tricuspidata fruit-derived polysaccharides (CTPS) against cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages, lung cancer cell lines, and a mouse model, and to explore the possibility of application of CTPS as a supplement for anticancer therapy. Both cisplatin alone and cisplatin with CTPS induced a significant cytotoxicity in A549 and H460 lung cancer cells, whereas cytotoxicity was suppressed by CTPS in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells. CTPS significantly attenuated the apoptotic and necrotic population, as well as cell penetration in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells, which ultimately inhibited the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c, poly (adenosine diphosphateribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, and caspases-3, -8, and -9, and the downregulation of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2). The CTPS-induced cytoprotective action was mediated with a reduction in reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss in cisplatin-treated RAW264.7 cells. In agreement with the results obtained above, CTPS induced the attenuation of cell damage in cisplatin-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (primary cells). In in vivo studies, CTPS significantly inhibited metastatic colonies and bodyweight loss as well as immunotoxicity in splenic T cells compared to the cisplatin-treated group in lung metastasis-induced mice. Furthermore, CTPS decreased the level of CRE and BUN in serum. In summation, these results suggest that CTPS-induced cytoprotective action may play a role in alleviating the side effects induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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21 pages, 24787 KiB  
Article
Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus gasseri in Combination with Quercetin Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Development in ApcMin/+ Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094906 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3251
Abstract
Recent studies have suggested that flavonoids such as quercetin and probiotics such as Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf) and Lactobacillus gasseri (Lg) could play a relevant role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth. Our study investigated the role of dietary supplementation [...] Read more.
Recent studies have suggested that flavonoids such as quercetin and probiotics such as Bifidobacterium bifidum (Bf) and Lactobacillus gasseri (Lg) could play a relevant role in inhibiting colon cancer cell growth. Our study investigated the role of dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg) along with quercetin in the development of mouse colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Adenomatous polyposis coli/multiple intestinal neoplasia (ApcMin/+) mice were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with microencapsulated probiotics (Bf and Lg strains, 107 CFU/100 g food) or both probiotics strains plus microencapsulated quercetin (15 mg/100 g food) for 73 days. Changes in body and organ weights, energy metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and colon tissue were determined. The expression of genes related to the Wnt pathway was also analyzed in colon samples. Results: Dietary supplementation with microencapsulated probiotics or microencapsulated probiotics plus quercetin reduced body weight loss and intestinal bleeding in ApcMin/+ mice. An improvement in energy expenditure was observed after 8 weeks but not after 10 weeks of treatment. A supplemented diet with microencapsulated Bf and Lg reduced the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and adenomas by 45% and 60%, respectively, whereas the supplementation with Bf, Lg and quercetin decreased the number of ACF and adenomas by 57% and 80%, respectively. Microencapsulated Bf and Lg in combination with quercetin could exert inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the colon of ApcMin/+ mice Conclusions: The administration of microencapsulated Bf and Lg, individually or in combination with quercetin, inhibits the CRC development in ApcMin/+ mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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15 pages, 6107 KiB  
Article
Down-Regulation of Claudin-2 Expression by Cyanidin-3-Glucoside Enhances Sensitivity to Anticancer Drugs in the Spheroid of Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020499 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2162
Abstract
Claudin-2 (CLDN2), an integral membrane protein located at tight junctions, is abnormally expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and is linked to drug resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. CLDN2 may be a target for the prevention of lung adenocarcinoma, but there [...] Read more.
Claudin-2 (CLDN2), an integral membrane protein located at tight junctions, is abnormally expressed in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues, and is linked to drug resistance in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. CLDN2 may be a target for the prevention of lung adenocarcinoma, but there are few compounds which can reduce CLDN2 expression. We found that cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), the anthocyanin with two hydroxyl groups on the B-ring, and cyanidin significantly reduce the protein level of CLDN2 in A549 cells. In contrast, pelargonidin-3-glucoside (P3G), the anthocyanin with one hydroxyl group on the B-ring, had no effect. These results suggest that cyanidin and the hydroxyl group at the 3-position on the B-ring play an important role in the reduction of CLDN2 expression. The phosphorylation of Akt, an activator of CLDN2 expression at the transcriptional level, was inhibited by C3G, but not by P3G. The endocytosis and lysosomal degradation are suggested to be involved in the C3G-induced decrease in CLDN2 protein expression. C3G increased the phosphorylation of p38 and the p38 inhibitor SB203580 rescued the C3G-induced decrease in CLDN2 expression. In addition, SB203580 rescued the protein stability of CLDN2. C3G may reduce CLDN2 expression at the transcriptional and post-translational steps mediated by inhibiting Akt and activating p38, respectively. C3G enhanced the accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxorubicin (DXR) in the spheroid models. The percentages of apoptotic and necrotic cells induced by DXR were increased by C3G. Our data suggest that C3G-rich foods can prevent the chemoresistance of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells through the reduction of CLDN2 expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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Review

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30 pages, 2109 KiB  
Review
Targets Involved in the Anti-Cancer Activity of Quercetin in Breast, Colorectal and Liver Neoplasms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(3), 2952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24032952 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2858
Abstract
Phytochemicals have long been effective partners in the fight against several diseases, including cancer. Among these, flavonoids are valuable allies for both cancer prevention and therapy since they are known to influence a large panel of tumor-related processes. Particularly, it was revealed that [...] Read more.
Phytochemicals have long been effective partners in the fight against several diseases, including cancer. Among these, flavonoids are valuable allies for both cancer prevention and therapy since they are known to influence a large panel of tumor-related processes. Particularly, it was revealed that quercetin, one of the most common flavonoids, controls apoptosis and inhibits migration and proliferation, events essential for the development of cancer. In this review, we collected the evidence on the anti-cancer activity of quercetin exploring the network of interactions between this flavonol and the proteins responsible for cancer onset and progression focusing on breast, colorectal and liver cancers, owing to their high worldwide incidence. Moreover, quercetin proved to be also a potentiating agent able to push further the anti-cancer activity of common employed anti-neoplastic agents, thus allowing to lower their dosages and, above all, to sensitize again resistant cancer cells. Finally, novel approaches to delivery systems can enhance quercetin’s pharmacokinetics, thus boosting its great potentiality even further. Overall, quercetin has a lot of promise, given its multi-target potentiality; thus, more research is strongly encouraged to properly define its pharmaco-toxicological profile and evaluate its potential for usage in adjuvant and chemoprevention therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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24 pages, 1154 KiB  
Review
Mediterranean Diet as a Shield against Male Infertility and Cancer Risk Induced by Environmental Pollutants: A Focus on Flavonoids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1568; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031568 - 29 Jan 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 4821
Abstract
The role of environmental factors in influencing health status is well documented. Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, pesticides, ultrafine particles, produced by human activities put a strain on the body’s entire defense system. Therefore, together with public health measures, [...] Read more.
The role of environmental factors in influencing health status is well documented. Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, pesticides, ultrafine particles, produced by human activities put a strain on the body’s entire defense system. Therefore, together with public health measures, evidence-based individual resilience measures are necessary to mitigate cancer risk under environmental stress and to prevent reproductive dysfunction and non-communicable diseases; this is especially relevant for workers occupationally exposed to pollutants and/or populations residing in highly polluted areas. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by a high intake of fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids, that can promote the elimination of pollutants in tissues and fluids and/or mitigate their effects through different mechanisms. In this review, we collected evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies showing that the impairment of male fertility and gonadal development, as well as cancers of reproductive system, due to the exposure of organic and inorganic pollutants, may be counteracted by flavonoids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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26 pages, 2079 KiB  
Review
Micronutrient Food Supplements in Patients with Gastro-Intestinal and Hepatic Cancers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 8014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22158014 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3832
Abstract
Colorectal carcinogenesis is the second most common cause of mortality across all types of malignancies, followed by hepatic and stomach cancers. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are key approaches to treating cancer patients, but these carry major concerns, such as a high risk of side [...] Read more.
Colorectal carcinogenesis is the second most common cause of mortality across all types of malignancies, followed by hepatic and stomach cancers. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are key approaches to treating cancer patients, but these carry major concerns, such as a high risk of side effects, poor accessibility, and the non-selective nature of chemotherapeutics. A number of natural products have been identified as countering various forms of cancer with fewer side effects. The potential impact of vitamins and minerals on long-term health, cognition, healthy development, bone formation, and aging has been supported by experimental and epidemiological studies. Successful treatment may thus be highly influenced by the nutritional status of patients. An insufficient diet could lead to detrimental effects on immune status and tolerance to treatment, affecting the ability of chemotherapy to destroy cancerous cells. In recent decades, most cancer patients have been taking vitamins and minerals to improve standard therapy and/or to decrease the undesirable side effects of the treatment together with the underlying disease. On the other hand, taking dietary supplements during cancer therapy may affect the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Thus, micronutrients in complementary oncology must be selected appropriately and should be taken at the right time. Here, the potential impact of micronutrients on gastro-intestinal and hepatic cancers is explored and their molecular targets are laid down. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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14 pages, 326 KiB  
Review
Importance of Bioactive Substances in Sheep’s Milk in Human Health
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(9), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094364 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4528
Abstract
Sheep’s milk is an important source of bioactive substances that have health-promoting functions for the body. The valuable composition of sheep’s milk is due to the high content of fatty acids, immunoglobulins, proteins, hormones, vitamins and minerals. Many biopeptides found in milk have [...] Read more.
Sheep’s milk is an important source of bioactive substances that have health-promoting functions for the body. The valuable composition of sheep’s milk is due to the high content of fatty acids, immunoglobulins, proteins, hormones, vitamins and minerals. Many biopeptides found in milk have antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties. The bioactive substances of sheep’s milk also show anticancer properties. Sheep’s milk, thanks to its content of CLA and orotic acid, prevents the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer. Sheep’s milk, as a product rich in bioactive substances, can be used as a medical aid to support the body in the fight against neurological and cancer diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
15 pages, 1607 KiB  
Review
The Anticancer Effect of Natural Plant Alkaloid Isoquinolines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(4), 1653; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22041653 - 06 Feb 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 6396
Abstract
Isoquinoline alkaloids-enriched herbal plants have been used as traditional folk medicine for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. They induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, leading to cell death. While the molecular mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood, it has [...] Read more.
Isoquinoline alkaloids-enriched herbal plants have been used as traditional folk medicine for their anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. They induce cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy, leading to cell death. While the molecular mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood, it has been suggested that binding to nucleic acids or proteins, enzyme inhibition, and epigenetic modulation by isoquinoline alkaloids may play a role in the effects. This review discusses recent evidence on the molecular mechanisms by which the isoquinoline alkaloids can be a therapeutic target of cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Molecules from Food or Other Natural Sources against Cancer)
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