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Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Neurobiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 17768

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Research for Food Safety & Health (IRC-FSH), University of Catanzaro “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: neurological diseases; neurodegeneration; natural compounds; poliphenols; reactive oxygen species; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum; blood brain barrier; endothelium involvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Health Sciences, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: neurological diseases; neurodegeneration; natural compounds; poliphenols; reactive oxygen species; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum; blood brain barrier; endothelium involvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Department of Scienze Motorie, University “Parthenope” of Naples, Naples, Italy
2. CEINGE, Advanced Biotechnology, S.C. a R.L., Naples, Italy
Interests: neurological diseases; neurodegeneration; natural compounds; poliphenols; reactive oxygen species; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum; blood brain barrier; endothelium involvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurological disorders are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system that can impair the functioning of brain, spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves, autonomous nervous system, nerve roots, and neuromuscular plaque. The main causes can be many: (a) diseases due to gene alteration; (b) degenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of populations of selectively vulnerable neurons; (c) diseases of blood vessels which may cause brain bleeding; (d) diseases due to problems in the development of the nervous system; (e) disorders due to injury to the spinal cord or brain; (f) convulsive disorders; (g) brain tumors; and (h) more or less severe infections. Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that good control of nutritional balance (with particular regard to the supply of micronutrients and nutraceuticals) in patients with neurological diseases leads to a significant improvement in the symptoms and consequences of these pathologies. In addition, many studies have examined the interaction between nutrients and their synergistic effects on the brain. The Mediterranean diet has been a “winning strategy” for maintaining health, and much experimental evidence has shown a close correlation between the Mediterranean diet and the best overall cognition and episodic memory, lower risk of cognitive impairment, and neurodegenerative diseases. The articles included in this Special Issue should specifically discuss these topics highlighting the close connection between neurological disorders and the use of natural compounds. In this respect, it would be desirable that authors also describe biochemical and biomolecular mechanisms.

Prof. Dr. Vincenzo Mollace
Dr. Stefania Bulotta
Prof. Dr. Rosaria Arcone
Dr. Jessica Maiuolo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • neurological diseases
  • neurodegeneration
  • natural compounds
  • polyphenols
  • reactive oxygen species
  • apoptosis
  • autophagy
  • mitochondria
  • endoplasmic reticulum
  • blood–brain barrier
  • endothelium involvement
  • inflammation
  • cytokine storm
  • chemokine
  • leukocytes
  • leukocyte infiltration
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • multiple sclerosis
  • huntington’s disease
  • amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • neurodegenerative diseases

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 4145 KiB  
Article
Erinacine A Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Glial Cell Activation to Protect Dopaminergic Neurons against Inflammatory Factor-Induced Cell Death In Vitro and In Vivo
by Shou-Lun Lee, Jing-Ya Hsu, Ting-Chun Chen, Chun-Chih Huang, Tzong-Yuan Wu and Ting-Yu Chin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020810 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2887
Abstract
Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a common edible mushroom consumed in several Asian countries and considered to be a medicinal mushroom with neuroprotective effects. Erinacine A (EA) is a bioactive compound in Hericium erinaceus mycelium (HEM) that has been shown to have a neuroprotective [...] Read more.
Hericium erinaceus (HE) is a common edible mushroom consumed in several Asian countries and considered to be a medicinal mushroom with neuroprotective effects. Erinacine A (EA) is a bioactive compound in Hericium erinaceus mycelium (HEM) that has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect against neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although the etiology of PD is still unclear, neuroinflammation may play an important role in causing dopaminergic neuron loss, which is a pathological hallmark of PD. However, glial cell activation has a close relationship with neuroinflammation. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effects of EA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced glial cell activation and neural damage in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro experiments, glial cells, BV-2 microglial cells and CTX TNA2 astrocytes were pretreated with EA and then stimulated with LPS and/or IFN-γ. The expression of proinflammatory factors in the cells and culture medium was analyzed. In addition, differentiated neuro-2a (N2a) cells were pretreated with EA or HEM and then stimulated with LPS-treated BV-2 conditioned medium (CM). The cell viability and the amount of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were analyzed. In vivo, rats were given EA or HEM by oral gavage prior to injection of LPS into the substantia nigra (SN). Motor coordination of the rats and the expression of proinflammatory mediators in the midbrain were analyzed. EA pretreatment prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production in BV-2 cells and TNF-α expression in CTX TNA2 cells. In addition, both EA and HEM pretreatment significantly increased cell viability and TH expression and suppressed the phosphorylation of JNK and NF- κB in differentiated N2a cells treated with CM. In vivo, both EA and HEM significantly improved motor dysfunction in the rotarod test and the amphetamine-induced rotation test and reduced the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the midbrain of rats intranigrally injected with LPS. The results demonstrate that EA ameliorates LPS-induced neuroinflammation and has neuroprotective properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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16 pages, 2879 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Ferula communis Extract in Escherichia coli Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation in Cultured Neurons and Oligodendrocytes
by Jessica Maiuolo, Irene Bava, Cristina Carresi, Micaela Gliozzi, Vincenzo Musolino, Miriam Scicchitano, Roberta Macri, Francesca Oppedisano, Federica Scarano, Maria Caterina Zito, Francesca Bosco, Stefano Ruga, Saverio Nucera, Sara Ilari, Ernesto Palma, Carolina Muscoli and Vincenzo Mollace
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7910; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157910 - 24 Jul 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, interest in natural compounds has increased exponentially due to their numerous beneficial properties in the treatment of various acute and chronic diseases. A group of plant derivatives with great scientific interest is terpenic compounds. Among the plants richest in terpenes, the genus Ferula L. is one of the most representative, and ferutinin, the most common sesquiterpene, is extracted from the leaves, rhizome, and roots of this plant. As reported in the scientific literature, ferutinin possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as valuable estrogenic properties. Neurodegenerative and demyelinating diseases are devastating conditions for which a definite cure has not yet been established. The mechanisms involved in these diseases are still poorly understood, and oxidative stress is considered to be both a key modulator and a common denominator. In the proposed experimental system, co-cultured human neurons (SH-SY5Y) and human oligodendrocytes (MO3.13) were treated with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide at a concentration of 1 μg/mL for 24 h or pretreated with ferutinin (33 nM) for 24 h and subsequently exposed to lipopolysaccharide 1 μg/mL for 24 h. Further studies would, however, be needed to establish whether this natural compound can be used as a support strategy in pathologies characterized by progressive inflammation and oxidative stress phenomena. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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Review

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13 pages, 798 KiB  
Review
Venom Peptide Toxins Targeting the Outer Pore Region of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 in Pain: Implications for Analgesic Drug Development
by Sung-Min Hwang, Youn-Yi Jo, Cinder Faith Cohen, Yong-Ho Kim, Temugin Berta and Chul-Kyu Park
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5772; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105772 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2064
Abstract
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel plays an important role in the peripheral nociceptive pathway. TRPV1 is a polymodal receptor that can be activated by multiple types of ligands and painful stimuli, such as noxious heat and protons, and contributes [...] Read more.
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel plays an important role in the peripheral nociceptive pathway. TRPV1 is a polymodal receptor that can be activated by multiple types of ligands and painful stimuli, such as noxious heat and protons, and contributes to various acute and chronic pain conditions. Therefore, TRPV1 is emerging as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of various pain conditions. Notably, various peptides isolated from venomous animals potently and selectively control the activation and inhibition of TRPV1 by binding to its outer pore region. This review will focus on the mechanisms by which venom-derived peptides interact with this portion of TRPV1 to control receptor functions and how these mechanisms can drive the development of new types of analgesics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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17 pages, 1205 KiB  
Review
Carotenoids from Marine Sources as a New Approach in Neuroplasticity Enhancement
by Sylwia Pietrasik, Natalia Cichon, Michal Bijak, Leslaw Gorniak and Joanna Saluk-Bijak
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(4), 1990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23041990 - 11 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
An increasing number of people experience disorders related to the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, new forms of therapy, which may be helpful in repairing processes’ enhancement and restoring declined brain functions, are constantly being sought. One of the most relevant physiological processes [...] Read more.
An increasing number of people experience disorders related to the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, new forms of therapy, which may be helpful in repairing processes’ enhancement and restoring declined brain functions, are constantly being sought. One of the most relevant physiological processes occurring in the brain for its entire life is neuroplasticity. It has tremendous significance concerning CNS disorders since neurological recovery mainly depends on restoring its structural and functional organization. The main factors contributing to nerve tissue damage are oxidative stress and inflammation. Hence, marine carotenoids, abundantly occurring in the aquatic environment, being potent antioxidant compounds, may play a pivotal role in nerve cell protection. Furthermore, recent results revealed another valuable characteristic of these compounds in CNS therapy. By inhibiting oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, carotenoids promote synaptogenesis and neurogenesis, consequently presenting neuroprotective activity. Therefore, this paper focuses on the carotenoids obtained from marine sources and their impact on neuroplasticity enhancement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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25 pages, 960 KiB  
Review
Why Have the Benefits of DHA Not Been Borne Out in the Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease? A Narrative Review Focused on DHA Metabolism and Adipose Tissue
by Rory J. Heath and Thomas R. Wood
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(21), 11826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111826 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4779
Abstract
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid rich in seafood, is linked to Alzheimer’s Disease via strong epidemiological and pre-clinical evidence, yet fish oil or other DHA supplementation has not consistently shown benefit to the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Furthermore, autopsy [...] Read more.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid rich in seafood, is linked to Alzheimer’s Disease via strong epidemiological and pre-clinical evidence, yet fish oil or other DHA supplementation has not consistently shown benefit to the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease. Furthermore, autopsy studies of Alzheimer’s Disease brain show variable DHA status, demonstrating that the relationship between DHA and neurodegeneration is complex and not fully understood. Recently, it has been suggested that the forms of DHA in the diet and plasma have specific metabolic fates that may affect brain uptake; however, the effect of DHA form on brain uptake is less pronounced in studies of longer duration. One major confounder of studies relating dietary DHA and Alzheimer’s Disease may be that adipose tissue acts as a long-term depot of DHA for the brain, but this is poorly understood in the context of neurodegeneration. Future work is required to develop biomarkers of brain DHA and better understand DHA-based therapies in the setting of altered brain DHA uptake to help determine whether brain DHA should remain an important target in the prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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24 pages, 4098 KiB  
Review
The Role of Supplementation with Natural Compounds in Post-Stroke Patients
by Natalia Cichon, Joanna Saluk-Bijak, Elzbieta Miller, Leslaw Gorniak, Justyna Redlicka, Marta Niwald and Michal Bijak
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(15), 7893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22157893 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2844
Abstract
Malnutrition is a serious problem in post-stroke patients. Importantly, it intensifies with hospitalization, and is related to both somatic and psychological reasons, as well as is associated with the insufficient knowledge of people who accompany the patient. Malnutrition is a negative prognostic factor, [...] Read more.
Malnutrition is a serious problem in post-stroke patients. Importantly, it intensifies with hospitalization, and is related to both somatic and psychological reasons, as well as is associated with the insufficient knowledge of people who accompany the patient. Malnutrition is a negative prognostic factor, leading to a reduction in the quality of life. Moreover, this condition significantly extends hospitalization time, increases the frequency of treatment in intensive care units, and negatively affects the effectiveness of rehabilitation. Obtaining growing data on the therapeutic effectiveness of new compounds of natural origin is possible through the use of pharmacodynamic and analytical methods to assess their therapeutic properties. The proper supply of nutrients, as well as compounds of natural origin, is an important element of post-stroke therapy, due to their strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and neuroplasticity enhancing properties. Taking the above into account, in this review we present the current state of knowledge on the benefits of using selected substances of natural origin in patients after cerebral stroke. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Natural Compounds in Neurological Diseases)
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