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Extracellular Vesicles in Endocrine and Endocrine-Dependent Cancer

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020) | Viewed by 7315

Special Issue Editors

Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: thyroid; insulin sensitivity; polyphenols; nutrition
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Pharmacy, Health, and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende, Italy
Interests: hormone-dependent cancer; breast cancer; estrogen signaling; aromatase; adipokines; leptin; tumor microenvironment
Department of Health Sciences, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
Interests: neurological diseases; neurodegeneration; natural compounds; poliphenols; reactive oxygen species; apoptosis; autophagy; mitochondria; endoplasmic reticulum; blood brain barrier; endothelium involvement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous particles which contain bioactive molecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, and play a key role in cellular communication both under physiological and pathological conditions. In the context of cancer, EVs participate in tumor progression and metastasis by transferring biomolecules between cancer and various cells in both local and distant microenvironments.

In recent years, EVs have been gaining attention regarding their use as carriers of potential biomarkers and, thereby, as diagnostic or prognostic tools. In addition, some of their properties, such as biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and toxicity, and increased stability in circulation, allow EVs to be favorably considered as an appealing delivery system for therapeutics.

Given the increasing interest regarding EVs in the area of cancer biology and translational research, this Special Issue aims to establish a comprehensive collection of broad knowledge regarding the involvement of EVs in the field of endocrine and endocrine-related cancer, ranging from the experimental analysis of cellular/molecular processes—using in vitro and in vivo models—to clinical application, and from basic research to clinical practice. Articles addressing potential strategies to effectively utilize EVs for endocrine cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Diego Russo
Prof. Dr. Stefania Catalano
Dr. Stefania Bulotta
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • extracellular vesicles
  • biomarkers
  • endocrine cancer
  • endocrine-dependent cancer
  • tumor progression
  • metastases
  • drug-delivery systems

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

15 pages, 1746 KiB  
Communication
Evidence for Enhanced Exosome Production in Aromatase Inhibitor-Resistant Breast Cancer Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(16), 5841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165841 - 14 Aug 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2843
Abstract
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) represent the standard anti-hormonal therapy for post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, but their efficacy is limited by the emergence of AI resistance (AIR). Exosomes act as vehicles to engender cancer progression and drug resistance. The goal of this [...] Read more.
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) represent the standard anti-hormonal therapy for post-menopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, but their efficacy is limited by the emergence of AI resistance (AIR). Exosomes act as vehicles to engender cancer progression and drug resistance. The goal of this work was to study exosome contribution in AIR mechanisms, using estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells as models and MCF-7 LTED (Long-Term Estrogen Deprived) subline, modeling AIR. We found that exosome secretion was significantly increased in MCF-7 LTED cells compared to MCF-7 cells. MCF-7 LTED cells also exhibited a higher amount of exosomal RNA and proteins than MCF-7 cells. Proteomic analysis revealed significant alterations in the cellular proteome. Indeed, we showed an enrichment of proteins frequently identified in exosomes in MCF-7 LTED cells. The most up-regulated proteins in MCF-7 LTED cells were represented by Rab GTPases, important vesicle transport-regulators in cancer, that are significantly mapped in “small GTPase-mediated signal transduction”, “protein transport” and “vesicle-mediated transport” Gene Ontology categories. Expression of selected Rab GTPases was validated by immunoblotting. Collectively, we evidence, for the first time, that AIR breast cancer cells display an increased capability to release exosomes, which may be associated with an enhanced Rab GTPase expression. These data provide the rationale for further studies directed at clarifying exosome’s role on endocrine therapy, with the aim to offer relevant markers and druggable therapeutic targets for the management of hormone-resistant breast cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Endocrine and Endocrine-Dependent Cancer)
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22 pages, 2766 KiB  
Article
Vesicles Shed by Pathological Murine Adipocytes Spread Pathology: Characterization and Functional Role of Insulin Resistant/Hypertrophied Adiposomes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2252; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062252 - 24 Mar 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4098
Abstract
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as a relevant way of cell to cell communication, and its analysis has become an indirect approach to assess the cell/tissue of origin status. However, the knowledge about their nature and role on metabolic diseases is still [...] Read more.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have recently emerged as a relevant way of cell to cell communication, and its analysis has become an indirect approach to assess the cell/tissue of origin status. However, the knowledge about their nature and role on metabolic diseases is still very scarce. We have established an insulin resistant (IR) and two lipid (palmitic/oleic) hypertrophied adipocyte cell models to isolate EVs to perform a protein cargo qualitative and quantitative Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH) analysis by mass spectrometry. Our results show a high proportion of obesity and IR-related proteins in pathological EVs; thus, we propose a panel of potential obese adipose tissue EV-biomarkers. Among those, lipid hypertrophied vesicles are characterized by ceruloplasmin, mimecan, and perilipin 1 adipokines, and those from the IR by the striking presence of the adiposity and IR related transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (TFGBI). Interestingly, functional assays show that IR and hypertrophied adipocytes induce differentiation/hypertrophy and IR in healthy adipocytes through secreted EVs. Finally, we demonstrate that lipid atrophied adipocytes shed EVs promote macrophage inflammation by stimulating IL-6 and TNFα expression. Thus, we conclude that pathological adipocytes release vesicles containing representative protein cargo of the cell of origin that are able to induce metabolic alterations on healthy cells probably exacerbating the disease once established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Vesicles in Endocrine and Endocrine-Dependent Cancer)
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