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The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Relation to Non-communicable Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2024) | Viewed by 5710

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Guest Editor
Obesity and Metabolism Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB), 30120 Murcia, Spain
Interests: metabolism; obesity; diabetes; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; nutrition; microbiota; metabolomics; epigenetics
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Guest Editor
1. Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology B and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of Murcia. Regional Campus of International Excellence “Campus Mare Nostrum”, 30100 Murcia, Spain
2. Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia (IMIB), 30120 Murcia, Spain
Interests: immunology; inflammation; macrophages; cell biology; in vitro models for drug development; cirrhosis; endometriosis; diabetes; insulin resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent decades, microbiome research has evolved rapidly, and, nowadays, it  not only represents a hot topic in basic, preclinical, and clinical research, but also for food science and nutrition, as well as for the pharmaceutical research, with implications for all the related industry of these areas.

The discovery of the gut–brain axis as the crucial connection between gut microbiota and the nervous system, and the growing body of evidence on the connections between gut microbiota and nervous system physiology and pathology is increasing awareness around bidirectional communication along the microbiota–gut–brain axis (MGBA) mediated by biologically active molecules and metabolites.

The appearance of intestinal dysbiosis leads to changes in the bidirectional relationship of the MGBA. It can also impact the brain, as well as the aging and the deterioration of the nervous system, driving towards pathological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease and stroke.

Comparatively, the MGBA can be influenced by nutrients and bioactive molecules, inducing the secretion of specific hormones, which can then lead to changes in the energy metabolism and expenditure. The design of drugs, functional foods, and ingredients based on bioactive molecules exploiting the involved mechanisms may offer interesting alternatives for the treatment of non-communicable and high-prevalence diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other metabolic syndromes and co-morbidities.

This Special Issue aims to gain novel and applicable knowledge on all these aspects, with contributions from the different areas involved.

Dr. Diego A. Moreno
Dr. Bruno Ramos-Molina
Dr. Antonio J. Ruiz-Alcaraz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • gut–brain axis
  • gut microbiota
  • behavior
  • bioactive molecules
  • cognitive health
  • diabetes
  • in vitro models
  • in vivo models
  • hormones
  • intestine
  • obesity
  • probiotics
  • prebiotics
  • synbiotics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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15 pages, 3553 KiB  
Article
Evidence of the Dysbiotic Effect of Psychotropics on Gut Microbiota and Capacity of Probiotics to Alleviate Related Dysbiosis in a Model of the Human Colon
by Yasmina Ait Chait, Walid Mottawea, Thomas A. Tompkins and Riadh Hammami
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(8), 7326; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24087326 - 15 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2195
Abstract
Growing evidence indicates that non-antibiotic therapeutics significantly impact human health by modulating gut microbiome composition and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the impact of two psychotropic drugs, aripiprazole and (S)-citalopram, on gut microbiome composition and its metabolic activity, as well as the [...] Read more.
Growing evidence indicates that non-antibiotic therapeutics significantly impact human health by modulating gut microbiome composition and metabolism. In this study, we investigated the impact of two psychotropic drugs, aripiprazole and (S)-citalopram, on gut microbiome composition and its metabolic activity, as well as the potential of probiotics to attenuate related dysbiosis using an ex vivo model of the human colon. After 48 h of fermentation, the two psychotropics demonstrated distinct modulatory effects on the gut microbiome. Aripiprazole, at the phylum level, significantly decreased the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, while increasing the proportion of Proteobacteria. Moreover, the families Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae were also reduced by aripiprazole treatment compared to the control group. In addition, aripiprazole lowered the levels of butyrate, propionate, and acetate, as measured by gas chromatography (GC). On the other hand, (S)-citalopram increased the alpha diversity of microbial taxa, with no differences observed between groups at the family and genus level. Furthermore, a probiotic combination of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus HA-114 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 alleviated gut microbiome alterations and increased the production of short-chain fatty acids to a similar level as the control. These findings provide compelling evidence that psychotropics modulate the composition and function of the gut microbiome, while the probiotic can mitigate related dysbiosis. Full article
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21 pages, 4673 KiB  
Article
YTHDF1 Attenuates TBI-Induced Brain-Gut Axis Dysfunction in Mice
by Peizan Huang, Min Liu, Jing Zhang, Xiang Zhong and Chunlong Zhong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 4240; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24044240 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2132
Abstract
The brain-gut axis (BGA) is a significant bidirectional communication pathway between the brain and gut. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation can affect gut functions through BGA. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), as the most popular posttranscriptional modification of eukaryotic [...] Read more.
The brain-gut axis (BGA) is a significant bidirectional communication pathway between the brain and gut. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation can affect gut functions through BGA. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), as the most popular posttranscriptional modification of eukaryotic mRNA, has recently been identified as playing important roles in both the brain and gut. However, whether m6A RNA methylation modification is involved in TBI-induced BGA dysfunction is not clear. Here, we showed that YTHDF1 knockout reduced histopathological lesions and decreased the levels of apoptosis, inflammation, and oedema proteins in brain and gut tissues in mice after TBI. We also found that YTHDF1 knockout improved fungal mycobiome abundance and probiotic (particularly Akkermansia) colonization in mice at 3 days post-CCI. Then, we identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the cortex between YTHDF1-knockout and WT mice. These genes were primarily enriched in the regulation of neurotransmitter-related neuronal signalling pathways, inflammatory signalling pathways, and apoptotic signalling pathways. This study reveals that the ITGA6-mediated cell adhesion molecule signalling pathway may be the key feature of m6A regulation in TBI-induced BGA dysfunction. Our results suggest that YTHDF1 knockout could attenuate TBI-induced BGA dysfunction. Full article
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