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New Advances in Thyroid Cancer

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Endocrinology and Metabolism".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 1843

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
Interests: thyroid cancer; autoimmune thyroid diseases; thyroid irAE; Graves’ disease; thyroid eye disease; molecular basis of thyroid cancer; advanced thyroid cancer; tyrosine kinase inhibitors; medullary thyroid cancer; in vitro cell culture
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Immunity and cancer have a functional relationship, and autoimmune phenomena and cancer development are often concomitant. However, scientific literature suggests a multifaceted relationship.

Cancer onset can be associated to the immune stimulus linked to the autoimmune disease, even if the exact mechanisms are still not clear. In fact, a growing incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) and autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) has been registered in the last decades, suggesting an association between these pathologies. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and thyroid autoimmunity are considered as independent risk factors for TC, even if also systemic autoimmunity and inflammation, per se, are risk factors for TC.

However, other studies suggest that the link between inflammation and TC involves multiple components of the immune system, favoring protection against cancer progression. Within the tumor microenvironment, inflammatory cells are connected with endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and extracellular matrix through cytokines, chemokines and adipocytokines.

In this Issue, we aim to shed new light on the current advances in Thyroid Cancer.

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Antonelli
Prof. Dr. Yehuda Shoenfeld
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • thyroid cancer
  • thyroid autoimmunity
  • autoimmune thyroid disorders

Published Papers (2 papers)

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16 pages, 2232 KiB  
Article
Metabolic Profiles and Blood Biomarkers to Discriminate between Benign Thyroid Nodules and Papillary Carcinoma, Based on UHPLC-QTOF-ESI+-MS Analysis
by Gabriela Maria Berinde, Andreea Iulia Socaciu, Mihai Adrian Socaciu, Gabriel Emil Petre, Carmen Socaciu and Doina Piciu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(6), 3495; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25063495 - 20 Mar 2024
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Abstract
In this study, serum metabolic profiling of patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and benign thyroid pathologies (BT) aimed to identify specific biomarkers and altered pathways when compared with healthy controls (C). The blood was collected after a histological confirmation from PTC [...] Read more.
In this study, serum metabolic profiling of patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and benign thyroid pathologies (BT) aimed to identify specific biomarkers and altered pathways when compared with healthy controls (C). The blood was collected after a histological confirmation from PTC (n = 24) and BT patients (n = 31) in parallel with healthy controls (n = 81). The untargeted metabolomics protocol was applied by UHPLC-QTOF-ESI+-MS analysis and the statistical analysis was performed using the MetaboAnalyst 5.0 platform. The partial least squares-discrimination analysis, including VIP values, random forest graphs, and heatmaps (p < 0.05), was complemented with biomarker analysis (with AUROC ranking) and pathway analysis, suggesting a model for abnormal metabolic pathways in PTC and BT based on 166 identified metabolites. There were 11 classes of putative biomarkers selected that were involved in altered metabolic pathways, e.g., polar molecules (amino acids and glycolysis metabolites, purines and pyrimidines, and selenium complexes) and lipids including free fatty acids, bile acids, acylated carnitines, corticosteroids, prostaglandins, and phospholipids. Specific biomarkers of discrimination were identified in each class of metabolites and upregulated or downregulated comparative to controls, PTC group, and BT group. The lipidomic window was revealed to be more relevant for finding biomarkers related to thyroid carcinoma or benign thyroid nodules, since our study reflected a stronger involvement of lipids and selenium-related molecules in metabolic discrimination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Thyroid Cancer)
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15 pages, 3663 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Harmine on Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells
by Enke Baldini, Silvia Cardarelli, Antonio Francesco Campese, Eleonora Lori, Poupak Fallahi, Camilla Virili, Flavio Forte, Daniele Pironi, Filippo Maria Di Matteo, Piergaspare Palumbo, Maria Ludovica Costanzo, Vito D’Andrea, Marco Centanni, Salvatore Sorrenti, Alessandro Antonelli and Salvatore Ulisse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(2), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25021121 - 17 Jan 2024
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Abstract
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely difficult disease to tackle, with an overall patient survival of only a few months. The currently used therapeutic drugs, such as kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors, can prolong patient survival but fail to eradicate the [...] Read more.
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely difficult disease to tackle, with an overall patient survival of only a few months. The currently used therapeutic drugs, such as kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint inhibitors, can prolong patient survival but fail to eradicate the tumor. In addition, the onset of drug resistance and adverse side-effects over time drastically reduce the chances of treatment. We recently showed that Twist1, a transcription factor involved in the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), was strongly upregulated in ATC, and we wondered whether it might represent a therapeutic target in ATC patients. To investigate this hypothesis, the effects of harmine, a β-carboline alkaloid shown to induce degradation of the Twist1 protein and to possess antitumoral activity in different cancer types, were evaluated on two ATC-derived cell lines, BHT-101 and CAL-62. The results obtained demonstrated that, in both cell lines, harmine reduced the level of Twist1 protein and reverted the EMT, as suggested by the augmentation of E-cadherin and decrease in fibronectin expression. The drug also inhibited cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner and significantly reduced the anchorage-independent growth of both ATC cell lines. Harmine was also capable of inducing apoptosis in BHT-101 cells, but not in CAL-62 ones. Finally, the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, but not that of the MAPK, was drastically reduced in treated cells. Overall, these in vitro data suggest that harmine could represent a new therapeutic option for ATC treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Thyroid Cancer)
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