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Novel Biopolymeric Materials Incorporating Bioactive Ingredients and Their Applications

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Materials Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 4772

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Departamento de Investigación y Posgrado en Alimentos, Facultad de Química, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, Col. Las Campanas, Queretaro 76010, Mexico
Interests: active edible films; essential oil; mesoporous silica nanoparticles; nanocellulose; biodegradability; edible coating; chitosan; food preservation
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Polymeric synthetic materials can be mass-produced at a low cost owing to their versatility and can be applied in many areas of modern life. One of the main problems in the application and use of synthetic polymers is that they are mainly produced from non-renewable sources, and that their disposal has a high environmental impact due to their significant degradation time. Consequently, they pollute the land and oceans, threatening natural life. This issue is creating a large burden on our planet and is, therefore, a big concern for our safe development. Biopolymeric materials, on the other hand, can be used to replace synthetic plastics because they are renewable and biodegradable, despite the higher costs involved in their processing. There are, however, many lines of research that can be used to propose new techniques and processing methods to reduce production costs and encourage natural materials to be more commonly used. In addition, biopolymeric materials can be loaded with bioactive ingredients that, depending on the system used, can be delivered in a controlled manner, in order to achieve greater success in their intended use. Bioactive materials can be applied in the form of nano- or micro-particles to enable the extended release of pharmaceuticals and cancer-curing drugs, while antimicrobial agents may be micro- or nano-encapsulated to design products such as skin patches, food packaging materials, and emulsified active compounds. Additionally, biopolymeric materials may be used to encapsulate nutraceuticals, antioxidant agents, essential oils, or other natural compounds to provide new biodegradable materials that are suitable for many applications. Studies involving specific methods for the incorporation of bioactive compounds in biopolymeric materials and their prolonged release may support application technologies in the near future.

Prof. Dr. Carlos Regalado-González
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • biopolymers
  • encapsulated bioactive agents
  • antioxidants
  • antimicrobials
  • extended release

Published Papers (3 papers)

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12 pages, 2810 KiB  
Article
Anionic Methacrylate Copolymer Microparticles for the Delivery of Myo-Inositol Produced by Spray-Drying: In Vitro and In Vivo Bioavailability
by Roberto Caruana, Maria Grazia Zizzo, Gaetano Felice Caldara, Francesco Montalbano, Silvia Fasciano, Dora Arena, Marida Salamone, Gaetano Di Fazio, Alessandro Bottino and Mariano Licciardi
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(7), 3852; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25073852 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 480
Abstract
In this study, a new micro delivery system based on an anionic methacrylate copolymer, able to improve the biological response of myo-inositol by daily oral administration, was manufactured by spray-drying. It has an ideal dose form for oral administration, with an experimental drug [...] Read more.
In this study, a new micro delivery system based on an anionic methacrylate copolymer, able to improve the biological response of myo-inositol by daily oral administration, was manufactured by spray-drying. It has an ideal dose form for oral administration, with an experimental drug loading (DL)% of 14% and a regulated particle size of less than 15 µm. The new formulation features an improvement on traditional formulations used as a chronic therapy for the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. The microparticles’ release profile was studied and ex vivo porcine intestinal mucosa permeation experiments were performed to predict potential improvements in oral absorption. Batch n. 3, with the higher Eudragit/MI weight ratio (ratio = 6), showed the best-modified release profiles of the active ingredient, ensuring the lowest myo-inositol loss in an acidic environment. The in vivo evaluation of the myo-inositol micro delivery system was carried out in a rat animal model to demonstrate that the bioavailability of myo-inositol was increased when compared to the administration of the same dosage of the pure active ingredient. The AUC and Cmax of the loaded active molecule in the micro delivery system was improved by a minimum of 1.5 times when compared with the pure substance, administered with same dosage and route. Finally, the increase of myo-inositol levels in the ovary follicles was assessed to confirm that a daily administration of the new formulation improves myo-inositol concentration at the site of action, resulting in an improvement of about 1.25 times for the single administration and 1.66 times after 7 days of repeated administration when compared to pure MI. Full article
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19 pages, 2205 KiB  
Article
Enhancing the Gastrointestinal Stability of Curcumin by Using Sodium Alginate-Based Nanoemulsions Containing Natural Emulsifiers
by Júlia Teixé-Roig, Gemma Oms-Oliu, Isabel Odriozola-Serrano and Olga Martín-Belloso
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010498 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1895
Abstract
Curcumin presents interesting biological activities but low chemical stability, so it has been incorporated into different emulsion-based systems in order to increase its bioaccessibility. Many strategies are being investigated to increase the stability of these systems. Among them, the use of polysaccharides has [...] Read more.
Curcumin presents interesting biological activities but low chemical stability, so it has been incorporated into different emulsion-based systems in order to increase its bioaccessibility. Many strategies are being investigated to increase the stability of these systems. Among them, the use of polysaccharides has been seen to highly improve the emulsion stability but also to modulate their digestibility and the release of the encapsulated compounds. However, the effect of these polysaccharides on nanoemulsions depends on the presence of other components. Then, this work aimed to study the effect of alginate addition at different concentrations (0–1.5%) on the gastrointestinal fate and stability of curcumin-loaded nanoemulsions formulated using soybean lecithin or whey protein as emulsifiers. Results showed that, in the absence of polysaccharides, whey protein was more effective than lecithin in preventing curcumin degradation during digestion and its use also provided greater lipid digestibility and higher curcumin bioaccessibility. The addition of alginate, especially at ≥1%, greatly prevented curcumin degradation during digestion up to 23% and improved the stability of nanoemulsions over time. However, it reduced lipid digestibility and curcumin bioaccessibility. Our results provide relevant information on the use of alginate on different emulsifier-based nanoemulsions to act as carriers of curcumin. Full article
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21 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Refrigerated Storage of Beef Using an Active Edible Film Reinforced with Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Containing Oregano Essential Oil (Lippia graveolens Kunth)
by Alexis Matadamas-Ortiz, Elvia Hernández-Hernández, Eduardo Castaño-Tostado, Aldo Amaro-Reyes, Blanca E. García-Almendárez, Gonzalo Velazquez and Carlos Regalado-González
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010092 - 21 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1850
Abstract
Beef is a fundamental part of the human diet, but it is highly susceptible to microbiological and physicochemical deterioration which decrease its shelf life. This work aimed to formulate an active edible film (AEF) incorporated with amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (A-MSN) loaded with [...] Read more.
Beef is a fundamental part of the human diet, but it is highly susceptible to microbiological and physicochemical deterioration which decrease its shelf life. This work aimed to formulate an active edible film (AEF) incorporated with amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (A-MSN) loaded with Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) essential oil (OEO) and to evaluate its effect as a coating on fresh beef quality during refrigerated storage. The AEF was based on amaranth protein isolate (API) and chitosan (CH) (4:1, w/w), to which OEO emulsified or encapsulated in A-MSN was added. The tensile strength (36.91 ± 1.37 MPa), Young’s modulus (1354.80 ± 64.6 MPa), and elongation (4.71%) parameters of AEF made it comparable with synthetic films. The antimicrobial activity of AEF against E. coli O157:H7 was improved by adding 9% (w/w) encapsulated OEO, and interactions of glycerol and A-MSN with the polymeric matrix were observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. In fresh beef, after 42 days, AEF reduced the population growth (Log CFU/cm2, relative to uncoated fresh beef) of Brochothrix thermosphacta (5.5), Escherichia coli (3.5), Pseudomonas spp. (2.8), and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (6.8). After 21 days, odor acceptability of coated fresh beef was improved, thus, enlarging the shelf life of the beef and demonstrating the preservation capacity of this film. Full article
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