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Natural Active Compounds from Foods: Applications in Antioxidant and Bioactivity Evaluation

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 11308

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
Interests: food analysis, food processing, cellulase; lipase esterification and trans esterification; amylase; enzymatic kinetics; ultrasound-assisted enzymatic reaction; enzyme extraction; biotransformation; saccharification; response surface methodology; artificial neural network; wine fermentation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
Interests: tissue engineering; regenerative medicine; drug design; cancer research; food chemistry; dermatology; biochemistry; chemical engineering; proteomics; molecule biology; marine biotechnology & resources
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Seafood Science, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung 81157, Taiwan
Interests: functional assessment; lipid metabolism; anti-cancer; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; fermentation; aquaculture; molecular biology; food chemistry; food applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds are becoming very important to the human diet, mainly due to their ability to prevent several chronic diseases. Bioactive compounds have emerged as key food components related to healthy status and disease prevention, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids, phytosterols, chitosan, and chondroitin sulfate. Using various techniques, the bioactive compounds can be extracted from their natural source. For the extraction of bioactive compounds, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction have been used. In addition, recent advances in extraction procedures, analytical techniques, and bioactivity assays have enabled researchers to explore bioactive compounds in foods and evaluate their bioactivity. 

In this Special Issue, we welcome original research articles and reviews focused on all aspects of extraction and purification of bioactive compounds, application enzymes on bioactive compounds, synthesized bioactive compounds by chemical, biochemical, or fermentation, bioactive compounds analysis, bioactive compounds with potent antioxidant activity, antiobesity property, antidiabetic potential, anti-inflammatory effect, anticancer activity. Other extraction methods, even traditional methods or topics related to the bioactivity of the bioactive compound, are also welcome.

Note: Importantly, the exact active ingredient of natural origin extract must be reported in the submitted research manuscript, since papers describing the effects of mixed extraction from the natural origin are not in the scope of the journal.

Prof. Dr. Chia-Hung Kuo
Prof. Dr. Hui-Min David Wang
Prof. Dr. Shu-Ling Hsieh
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • omega-3 fatty acids
  • gelatin
  • fucoidans
  • chitosan
  • chondroitin sulfate
  • enzyme
  • antioxidant
  • anti-inflammatory

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 12757 KiB  
Article
Effect of Natural Variation and Rootstock on Fruit Quality and Volatile Organic Compounds of ‘Kiyomi tangor’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Citrus
by Tie Wang, Zhendong Zheng, Lijun Deng, Weijia Li, Ya Yuan, Mingfei Zhang, Guochao Sun, Siya He, Jun Wang, Zhihui Wang and Bo Xiong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16810; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316810 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 965
Abstract
In this study, we compared the fruit quality and color of ‘Kiyomi’ (WT) and its mutant (MT) grafted on Ziyang xiangcheng (Cj) (WT/Cj, MT/Cj), and the MT grafted on Trifoliate orange (Pt) (MT/Pt). The differences in sugar, organic acid, flavonoids, phenols, and volatile [...] Read more.
In this study, we compared the fruit quality and color of ‘Kiyomi’ (WT) and its mutant (MT) grafted on Ziyang xiangcheng (Cj) (WT/Cj, MT/Cj), and the MT grafted on Trifoliate orange (Pt) (MT/Pt). The differences in sugar, organic acid, flavonoids, phenols, and volatile substances of the three materials were also analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC–MS). The results showed significant differences in the appearance of WT/Cj, MT/Cj, and MT/Pt. MT/Pt, compared to WT/Cj, MT/Cj, had lower sugar, acid, phenol and flavonoid contents in the pulp. However, MT/Pt pulp was higher in vitamin C (VC), and the peel had significantly higher total phenol and flavonoid contents. In terms of pulp, WT/Cj had the greatest diversity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 4-methyl-1-pentanol was significantly higher in MT/Cj pulp, while MT/Pt pulp had a unique octanoic acid, methyl ester. VOCs were more diverse in the peels of the three materials. β-Myrcene and valencen were significantly higher in MT/Cj peels. In contrast, 16 unique VOCs were detected in MT/Pt, and D-limonene content was significantly higher than in WT/Cj and MT/Cj. The results suggest Trifoliate orange is a suitable rootstock for MT. Full article
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26 pages, 4093 KiB  
Article
Impact of Treatment with Antioxidants as an Adjuvant to Standard Therapy in Patients with Septic Shock: Analysis of the Correlation between Cytokine Storm and Oxidative Stress and Therapeutic Effects
by Israel Pérez-Torres, Alfredo Aisa-Álvarez, Sergio Casarez-Alvarado, Gabriela Borrayo, Ricardo Márquez-Velasco, Verónica Guarner-Lans, Linaloe Manzano-Pech, Randall Cruz-Soto, Omar Gonzalez-Marcos, Giovanny Fuentevilla-Álvarez, Ricardo Gamboa, Huitizilihuitl Saucedo-Orozco, Juvenal Franco-Granillo and María Elena Soto
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316610 - 22 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1280
Abstract
Cellular homeostasis is lost or becomes dysfunctional during septic shock due to the activation of the inflammatory response and the deregulation of oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy administered alongside standard treatment could restore this lost homeostasis. We included 131 patients with septic shock who [...] Read more.
Cellular homeostasis is lost or becomes dysfunctional during septic shock due to the activation of the inflammatory response and the deregulation of oxidative stress. Antioxidant therapy administered alongside standard treatment could restore this lost homeostasis. We included 131 patients with septic shock who were treated with standard treatment and vitamin C (Vit C), vitamin E (Vit E), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or melatonin (MT), in a randomized trial. Organ damage quantified by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and we determined levels of Interleukins (IL) IL1β, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), Transforming growth factor B (TGFβ), IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, and Interferon-γ (IFNγ). The SOFA score decreased in patients treated with Vit C, NAC, and MT. Patients treated with MT had statistically significantly reduced of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-10 levels. Lipid peroxidation, Nitrates and nitrites (NO3 and NO2), glutathione reductase, and superoxide dismutase decreased after treatment with Vit C, Vit E, NAC, and MT. The levels of thiols recovered with the use of Vit E, and all patients treated with antioxidants maintained their selenium levels, in contrast with controls (p = 0.04). The findings regarding oxidative stress markers and cytokines after treatment with antioxidants allow us to consider to future the combined use of antioxidants in a randomized clinical trial with a larger sample to demonstrate the reproducibility of these beneficial effects. Full article
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16 pages, 3660 KiB  
Article
Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on the Metabolism of Arachidonic Acid in the Isolated Kidney of a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome
by Israel Pérez-Torres, María Elena Soto, Linaloe Manzano-Pech, Eulises Díaz-Díaz, Raúl Martínez-Memije, Juan Carlos Torres-Narváez, Verónica Guarner-Lans and Vicente Castrejón-Téllez
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(18), 14209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241814209 - 18 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1232
Abstract
The renal system is engaged in metabolic syndrome (MS) and metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) participate in renal homeostasis and disruption of functionality. Hibiscus sabdariffa L (HSL) is used as a diuretic and could improve renal function. The aim of this study was [...] Read more.
The renal system is engaged in metabolic syndrome (MS) and metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) participate in renal homeostasis and disruption of functionality. Hibiscus sabdariffa L (HSL) is used as a diuretic and could improve renal function. The aim of this study was to assess if treatment with HSL at 2% improves renal function in MS through the metabolites of AA. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Group 1, control (C); Group 2, MS with 30% sucrose in drinking water, Group 3, MS plus HSL infusion at 2% (MS+HSL); and Group 4, C+HSL. We evaluated the perfusion pressure changes (∆-PP), the activities of cyclooxygenases (COXs), the percentage of AA, the expressions of PLA2, COX2, COX1, 5-LOX, TAXS and CYP450, and the concentrations of prostaglandins in the kidney from rats with MS. There was a decrease in the ∆-PP, in the activities of COXs, and the expressions of COX2 and CYP450 (p ≤ 0.03, respectively)as well asPGE2, TxB2, and LKB4 (p ≤ 0.01, respectively). However, the percentage of AA and expressions of PLA2 and PGE1 (p = 0.01, respectively) were increased in C and MS+HSL. The HSL treatment improved the function and anatomical structure of the kidneys in the MS rats, through antioxidant molecules, and inhibited the pathways that metabolize the AA including that of PLA2, COX2, 5-LOX, TAXS, and CYP450 while favoring the COX1 pathway. This improves the vascular resistance of renal arterioles. Full article
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17 pages, 4415 KiB  
Article
Effects of L-Cysteine and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Treatment on Postharvest Quality and Antioxidant Activity of Loquat Fruit during Storage
by Huifen Zhang, Jing Pu, Han Liu, Miao Wang, Ying Du, Xiaofu Tang, Xian Luo, Yongqing Wang and Qunxian Deng
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310541 - 23 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
Sichuan is the China’s leading producer of loquat, with the largest cultivation area and yield ranked first in China. Loquat is a seasonal fruit highly appreciated by consumers; however, the fruit is prone to browning and lignification after harvest, affecting its storage quality. [...] Read more.
Sichuan is the China’s leading producer of loquat, with the largest cultivation area and yield ranked first in China. Loquat is a seasonal fruit highly appreciated by consumers; however, the fruit is prone to browning and lignification after harvest, affecting its storage quality. The effects of L-Cysteine (L-Cys, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2%) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1%) on the sensory quality and antioxidant activity of loquat fruit during cold storage at 4 °C for 35 days and simulated shelf life for 5 days were investigated. The results showed that after 40 days of storage, compared with the control, 0.05% L-Cys and 0.05% GABA treatment of ‘Zaozhong No. 6’ loquat fruit effectively reduced the weight loss rate, browning index, decay index, respiratory rate, firmness, and lignin content and slowed the decreases in total soluble solids, soluble sugar, titratable acidityand vitamin C contents. The application of 0.05% L-Cys and 0.05% GABA significantly increased the contents of total phenols, total flavonoids, flavanols, and carotenoids; delayed the increase of relative electric conductivity, MDA, POD, and PPO activities; and significantly enhanced the activities of SOD and CAT, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, and FRAP, thereby improving antioxidant capacity. In summary, 0.05% L-Cys and 0.05% GABA treatment promotes the quality of loquat fruit after 40 days of storage, and significantly enhances antioxidant capacity, thus delaying senescence after harvest. Full article
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14 pages, 1782 KiB  
Article
Proteomic Modulation in TGF-β-Treated Cholangiocytes Induced by Curcumin Nanoparticles
by Elisa Ceccherini, Giovanni Signore, Lorena Tedeschi, Federico Vozzi, Nicoletta Di Giorgi, Elena Michelucci, Antonella Cecchettini and Silvia Rocchiccioli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10481; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310481 - 22 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol that exhibits a variety of beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepato-protective properties. Due to its poor water solubility and membrane permeability, in the present study, we prepared and characterized a water-stable, freely dispersible nanoformulation of [...] Read more.
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol that exhibits a variety of beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepato-protective properties. Due to its poor water solubility and membrane permeability, in the present study, we prepared and characterized a water-stable, freely dispersible nanoformulation of curcumin. Although the potential of curcumin nanoformulations in the hepatic field has been studied, there are no investigations on their effect in fibrotic pathological conditions involving cholangiocytes. Exploiting an in vitro model of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-stimulated cholangiocytes, we applied the Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra (SWATH-MS)-based quantitative proteomic approaches to study the proteome modulation induced by curcumin nanoformulation. Our results confirmed the well-documented anti-inflammatory properties of this nutraceutic, highlighting the induction of programmed cell death as a mechanism to counteract the cellular damages induced by TGF-β. Moreover, curcumin nanoformulation positively influenced the expression of several proteins involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis. Given the crucial importance of deregulated cholangiocyte functions during cholangiopathies, our results provide the basis for a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with this pathology and could represent a rationale for the development of more targeted therapies. Full article
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18 pages, 3749 KiB  
Article
Human Hemoglobin and Antipsychotics Clozapine, Ziprasidone and Sertindole: Friends or Foes?
by Lena Platanić Arizanović, Nikola Gligorijević, Ilija Cvijetić, Aleksandar Mijatović, Maja Krstić Ristivojević, Simeon Minić, Aleksandra Nikolić Kokić, Čedo Miljević and Milan Nikolić
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(10), 8921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24108921 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1748
Abstract
Packed with hemoglobin, an essential protein for oxygen transport, human erythrocytes are a suitable model system for testing the pleiotropic effects of lipophilic drugs. Our study investigated the interaction between antipsychotic drugs clozapine, ziprasidone, sertindole, and human hemoglobin under simulated physiological conditions. Analysis [...] Read more.
Packed with hemoglobin, an essential protein for oxygen transport, human erythrocytes are a suitable model system for testing the pleiotropic effects of lipophilic drugs. Our study investigated the interaction between antipsychotic drugs clozapine, ziprasidone, sertindole, and human hemoglobin under simulated physiological conditions. Analysis of protein fluorescence quenching at different temperatures and data obtained from the van’t Hoff diagram and molecular docking indicate that the interactions are static and that the tetrameric human hemoglobin has one binding site for all drugs in the central cavity near αβ interfaces and is dominantly mediated through hydrophobic forces. The association constants were lower-moderate strength (~104 M−1), the highest observed for clozapine (2.2 × 104 M−1 at 25 °C). The clozapine binding showed “friendly” effects: increased α-helical content, a higher melting point, and protein protection from free radical-mediated oxidation. On the other hand, bound ziprasidone and sertindole had a slightly pro-oxidative effect, increasing ferrihemoglobin content, a possible “foe”. Since the interaction of proteins with drugs plays a vital role in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, the physiological significance of the obtained findings is briefly discussed. Full article
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17 pages, 1836 KiB  
Article
High-Molecular-Weight Exopolysaccharides Production from Tuber borchii Cultivated by Submerged Fermentation
by Cheng-Chun Chen, Parushi Nargotra, Chia-Hung Kuo and Yung-Chuan Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4875; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054875 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
Truffles are known worldwide for their peculiar taste, aroma, and nutritious properties, which increase their economic value. However, due to the challenges associated with the natural cultivation of truffles, including cost and time, submerged fermentation has turned out to be a potential alternative. [...] Read more.
Truffles are known worldwide for their peculiar taste, aroma, and nutritious properties, which increase their economic value. However, due to the challenges associated with the natural cultivation of truffles, including cost and time, submerged fermentation has turned out to be a potential alternative. Therefore, in the current study, the cultivation of Tuber borchii in submerged fermentation was executed to enhance the production of mycelial biomass, exopolysaccharides (EPSs), and intracellular polysaccharides (IPSs). The mycelial growth and EPS and IPS production was greatly impacted by the choice and concentration of the screened carbon and nitrogen sources. The results showed that sucrose (80 g/L) and yeast extract (20 g/L) yielded maximum mycelial biomass (5.38 ± 0.01 g/L), EPS (0.70 ± 0.02 g/L), and IPS (1.76 ± 0.01 g/L). The time course analysis of truffle growth revealed that the highest growth and EPS and IPS production was observed on the 28th day of the submerged fermentation. Molecular weight analysis performed by the gel permeation chromatography method revealed a high proportion of high-molecular-weight EPS when 20 g/L yeast extract was used as media and the NaOH extraction step was carried out. Moreover, structural analysis of the EPS using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed that the EPS was β-(1–3)-glucan, which is known for its biomedical properties, including anti-cancer and anti-microbial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first FTIR analysis for the structural characterization of β-(1–3)-glucan (EPS) produced from Tuber borchii grown in submerged fermentation. Full article
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