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Genetic and Metabolic Molecular Research of Lysosomal Storage Disease 4.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2024 | Viewed by 1100

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Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Biology, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 59, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland
Interests: gene expression regulation; DNA replication; bacteriophages; plasmids; human genetic diseases; neurodegeneration
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are a group of inherited metabolic disorders in which the defects of various lysosomal enzymes and regulatory proteins result in the accumulation of different macromolecules in these organelles. Over 50 LSDs are described in the literature, and they are among the most intensively studied genetic disorders. They are also model genetic diseases for the development of various therapeutic approaches. The introduction of enzyme replacement therapy for LSDs created a breakthrough in treating genetic diseases, and several different therapeutic options are currently being studied, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy. However, to develop new therapies, the molecular mechanisms of LSDs must be understood in great detail. Now is the time for extensive molecular research on LSDs. This Special Issue is devoted to publishing the results of such studies, including basic research on the molecular mechanisms of LSDs, translational studies on novel therapies, and clinical investigations performed at the molecular level. Review articles on all these aspects are also welcome. Therefore, this Special Issue shall provide a comprehensive view on the molecular aspects of various LSDs.

This issue is devoted to presenting research on the molecular aspects of lysosomal storage diseases. This group of diseases is at the forefront of genetic and metabolic disorders that are studied at the molecular level, and our understanding of molecular mechanisms, molecular pharmacology and clinical aspects at the molecular level is crucial for further research in this field, as well as opening new ways of thinking about other less-understood diseases.

Prof. Dr. Grzegorz Wegrzyn
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • lysosomal storage diseases
  • molecular mechanisms of genetic disorders metabolic diseases
  • accumulation of macromolecules in cells
  • enzyme replacement therapy
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplantation gene therapy
  • substrate reduction therapy
  • translational research
  • novel therapies for genetic diseases

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Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 598 KiB  
Article
Diagnosis of Fabry Disease Using Alpha-Galactosidase A Activity or LysoGb3 in Blood Fails to Identify Up to Two Thirds of Female Patients
by Giovanni Duro, Monia Anania, Carmela Zizzo, Daniele Francofonte, Irene Giacalone, Annalisa D’Errico, Emanuela Maria Marsana and Paolo Colomba
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(10), 5158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25105158 - 9 May 2024
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Abstract
Anderson–Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene, which encodes the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The GLA gene is located on the X-chromosome, causing an X-linked pathology: due to lyonization, female patients usually manifest a variable symptomatology, ranging [...] Read more.
Anderson–Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the GLA gene, which encodes the enzyme α-galactosidase A. The GLA gene is located on the X-chromosome, causing an X-linked pathology: due to lyonization, female patients usually manifest a variable symptomatology, ranging from asymptomatic to severe phenotypes. The confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of Fabry disease, achieved by measuring α-galactosidase A activity, which is usually the first test used, shows differences between male and female patients. This assay is reliable in male patients with causative mutations in the GLA gene, in whom the enzymatic activity is lower than normal values; on the other hand, in female Fabry patients, the enzymatic activity is extremely variable between normal and pathological values. These fluctuations are also found in female patients’ blood levels of globotriaosylsphingosine (LysoGb3) for the same reason. In this paper, we present a retrospective study conducted in our laboratories on 827 Fabry patients with causative mutations in the GLA gene. Our results show that 100% of male patients had α-galactosidase A activity below the reference value, while more than 70% of female patients had normal values. It can also be observed that almost half of the female patients with pathogenic mutations in the GLA gene showed normal values of LysoGb3 in blood. Furthermore, in women, blood LysoGb3 values can vary over time, as we show in a clinical case presented in this paper. Both these tests could lead to missed diagnoses of Fabry disease in female patients, so the analysis of the GLA gene represents the main diagnostic test for Fabry disease in women to date. Full article
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14 pages, 1866 KiB  
Article
Sterol O-Acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1): A Genetic Modifier of Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C1
by Nicole Y. Farhat, Derek Alexander, Kyli McKee, James Iben, Jorge L. Rodriguez-Gil, Christopher A. Wassif, Niamh X. Cawley, William E. Balch and Forbes D. Porter
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(8), 4217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25084217 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 634
Abstract
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal disorder due to impaired intracellular cholesterol transport out of the endolysosomal compartment. Marked heterogeneity has been observed in individuals with the same NPC1 genotype, thus suggesting a significant effect of modifier genes. Prior work demonstrated [...] Read more.
Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a lysosomal disorder due to impaired intracellular cholesterol transport out of the endolysosomal compartment. Marked heterogeneity has been observed in individuals with the same NPC1 genotype, thus suggesting a significant effect of modifier genes. Prior work demonstrated that decreased SOAT1 activity decreased disease severity in an NPC1 mouse model. Thus, we hypothesized that a polymorphism associated with decreased SOAT1 expression might influence the NPC1 phenotype. Phenotyping and genomic sequencing of 117 individuals with NPC1 was performed as part of a Natural History trial. Phenotyping included determination of disease severity and disease burden. Significant clinical heterogeneity is present in individuals homozygous for the NPC1I1061T variant and in siblings. Analysis of the SOAT1 polymorphism, rs1044925 (A>C), showed a significant association of the C-allele with earlier age of neurological onset. The C-allele may be associated with a higher Annualized Severity Index Score as well as increased frequency of liver disease and seizures. A polymorphism associated with decreased expression of SOAT1 appears to be a genetic modifier of the NPC1 phenotype. This finding is consistent with prior data showing decreased phenotypic severity in Npc1-/-:Soat1-/- mice and supports efforts to investigate the potential of SOAT1 inhibitors as a potential therapy for NPC1. Full article
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