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Growth, Somatic Maturation and Their Impact on Physical Health and Sports Performance

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 58331

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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience (DiBraiN), University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: physical activity; fitness; exercise physiology; health promotion; body composition; human performance; special education; nutrition; tactical populations; sport psychology; strength and conditioning; combat sport; data analysis; research methodology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The evolution of a healthy and successful athlete is multifaceted in nature. Various factors including technical skills, physical performance, environmental circumstances, and social conditioning contribute to the development of this process. Over time, complex interactions and a nonlinear progression among these variables contribute to the improvement of physical health and of the elite level achievement in youth athletes.

An influencing factor of growth and physical performance is somatic maturation. The pubertal period is a critical time frame for skill acquisition and development of performance in youth people, in which suitable training strategies should be adopted to preserve the state of health while avoiding the risk of injury. Athletes with similar chronological age competing in the same category levels can, in fact, show a difference in maturity status, and therefore in size, function, and body structure. Physical and psychological differences related to maturity status and birthdate amongst athletes of the same selection year have been identified in a variety of sports and could be linked with dropout of youth practitioners and a reduction of the talent pool.

Contemporary researchers have contributed to the field of research on improving health and sports performance through the development of new measurement methods and training strategies in youth athletes. The aim of this special issue is to propose new training programs aimed at improving health status and physical performance in youth athletes, while highlighting the relationship with somatic maturation throughout longitudinal and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this research collection is to add information on:

  • Effect of physical activity on sport performance and benefits on health status in youth people;
  • Exercise programs for improving physical performance in youth athletes, taking into account their maturity status;
  • Strategies to support developing talent and to prevent drop out in youth sport;
  • New evidence for somatic maturation and physical fitness measurement techniques;
  • Incidence of traumatic and overuse injuries during growth.

Investigators that have conducted studies on these topics are invited to submit manuscripts for consideration for this Special Issue in IJERPH.

Dr. Francesco Campa
Dr. Gianpiero Greco
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • Growth
  • Body composition
  • Exercise training
  • Injury risk
  • Physical health
  • Somatic maturation
  • Youth athletes
  • Physical performance

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 731 KiB  
Editorial
Growth, Somatic Maturation, and Their Impact on Physical Health and Sports Performance: An Editorial
by Francesco Campa and Gianpiero Greco
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031266 - 24 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2388
Abstract
Over time, complex interactions and a nonlinear progression among a wide range of variables contribute to the improvement of physical health and of the elite level achievement in youth sport practitioners [...] Full article
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Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

13 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Variations of the Locomotor Profile, Sprinting, Change-of-Direction, and Jumping Performances in Youth Soccer Players: Interactions between Playing Positions and Age-Groups
by Ana Filipa Silva, Sümer Alvurdu, Zeki Akyildiz, Georgian Badicu, Gianpiero Greco and Filipe Manuel Clemente
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020998 - 17 Jan 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3237
Abstract
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the variations of locomotor profile, sprinting, change-of-direction (COD) and jumping performances between different youth age-groups; and (ii) test the interaction effect of athletic performance with playing positions. A cross-sectional study design was followed. A [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was two-fold: (i) analyze the variations of locomotor profile, sprinting, change-of-direction (COD) and jumping performances between different youth age-groups; and (ii) test the interaction effect of athletic performance with playing positions. A cross-sectional study design was followed. A total of 124 youth soccer players from five age-groups were analyzed once in a time. Players were classified based on their typical playing position. The following measures were obtained: (i) body composition (fat mass); (ii) jump height (measured in the countermovement jump; CMJ); (iii) sprinting time at 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25- and 30-m; (iv) maximal sprint speed (measured in the best split time; MSS); (v) COD asymmetry index percentage); (vi) final velocity at 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT); and (vii) anaerobic speed reserve (ASR = MSS − VIFT). A two-way ANOVA was used for establishing the interactions between age-groups and playing positions. Significant differences were found between age-groups in CMJ (p < 0.001), 5-m (p < 0.001), 10-m (p < 0.001), 15-m (p < 0.001), 20-m (p < 0.001), 25-m (p < 0.001), 30-m (p < 0.001), VIFT (p < 0.001), ASR (p = 0.003), MSS (p < 0.001), COD (p < 0.001). Regarding variations between playing positions no significant differences were found. In conclusion, it was found that the main factor influencing changes in physical fitness was the age group while playing positions had no influence on the variations in the assessed parameters. In particular, as older the age group, as better was in jumping, sprinting, COD, and locomotor profile. Full article
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11 pages, 819 KiB  
Article
Specific Physical Ability Prediction in Youth Basketball Players According to Playing Position
by Jelena Ivanović, Filip Kukić, Gianpiero Greco, Nenad Koropanovski, Saša Jakovljević and Milivoj Dopsaj
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020977 - 16 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3453
Abstract
This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed [...] Read more.
This study investigated the hierarchical structure of physical characteristics in elite young (i.e., U17-U19) basketball players according to playing positions. In addition, their predictive value of physical characteristics was determined for the evaluation of players’ physical preparedness. Sixty elite male basketball players performed 13 standardized specific field tests in order to assess the explosive power of lower limbs, speed, and change-of-direction speed. They were divided into three groups according to playing positions (guard [n = 28], forward [n = 22], center [n = 10]). The basic characteristics of the tested sample were: age = 17.36 ± 1.04 years, body height = 192.80 ± 4.49 cm, body mass = 79.83 ± 6.94 kg, and basketball experience = 9.38 ± 2.10 years for guards; age = 18.00 ± 1.00 years, body height = 201.48 ± 3.14 cm, body mass = 90.93 ± 9.85 kg, and basketball experience = 9.93 ± 2.28 years for forwards; and age = 17.60 ± 1.43 years; body height = 207.20 ± 3.29 cm, body mass = 104.00 ± 9.64 kg, and basketball experience = 9.20 ± 1.62 years for centers. For all playing positions factor analysis extracted three factors, which cumulatively explained 76.87, 88.12 and 87.63% of variance, respectively. The assessed performance measures were defined as significant (p < 0.001), with regression models of physical performance index (PPINDEX). PPINDEX of guards = −6.860 + (0.932 × t-test) − (1.656 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.020 × Countermovement jump); PPINDEX of forwards = −3.436 − (0.046 × Countermovement jump with arm swing) − (1.295 × Acceleration 15 m) + (0.582 × Control of dribbling); PPINDEX of centers = −4.126 + (0.604 × Control of dribbling) − (1.315 × Acceleration 15 m) − (0.037 × Sargent jump). A model for the evaluation of physical performance of young basketball players has been defined. In addition, this model could be used as a reference model for selection procedures, as well as to monitor the efficacy of applied training programmes within the short, medium and long-term periodization. Full article
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14 pages, 409 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Cultural Experiences on the Associations between Socio-Economic Status and Motor Performance as Well as Body Fat Percentage of Grade One Learners in Cape Town, South Africa
by Eileen Africa, Odelia Van Stryp and Martin Musálek
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010121 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2621
Abstract
Fundamental movement skills (FMS), physical fitness (PF) and body fat percentage (BF%) are significantly related to socio-economic status (SES). However, it remains unclear why previous studies have had different findings regarding the direction of the association between SES and FMS, PF and BF%. [...] Read more.
Fundamental movement skills (FMS), physical fitness (PF) and body fat percentage (BF%) are significantly related to socio-economic status (SES). However, it remains unclear why previous studies have had different findings regarding the direction of the association between SES and FMS, PF and BF%. A suggested explanation is that the direction of the link can be influenced by cultural experiences and traditions. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate links between SES and FMS, PF, BF% of Grade One learners from two different ethno-geographic areas in Cape Town, South Africa. Grade One children (n = 191) (n = 106 boys and n = 85 girls; age (6.7 ± 0.33)) from different socio-economic areas in Cape Town, South Africa, were selected to participate in the study. South African schools are classified into five different quintiles (1 = poorest and 5 = least poor public schools). For this study, two schools were selected, one from quintile 2 and the other from quintile 5. BF% was assessed according to Slaughter’s equation. FMS were measured using the Gross Motor Development Test-2 (TGMD-2) and PF via five tests: 1. dynamic strength of lower limb (broad jump); 2. dynamic strength of upper limb and trunk (throwing a tennis ball); 3. speed agility (4 × 10 m shuttle running); 4. cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run endurance test (Leger test)) and 5. flexibility (sit and reach test). An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found that BF% and WHtR were significantly greater in children with higher SES (Z = 6.04 p < 0.001; Hedg = 0.54), (Z = 3.89 p < 0.001; Hedg = 0.32). Children with lower SES achieved significantly better TGMD-2 standard scores in the locomotor subtest, compared to their peers with higher SES. In the object control subtest, no significant SES-related difference was found. However, ANCOVA showed that girls performed better in FMS than boys. In PF, the main effect of SES was observed in dynamic strength of trunk and upper limb (throwing) and flexibility, where children with lower SES performed significantly better. No significant difference was found in cardiorespiratory performance (CRP) (Beep test), even though children with lower SES achieved better results. Results from the current study suggest that links between SES, PF, FMS and body fat percentage in children seem to be dependent on cultural and traditional experiences. These experiences should therefore be included as an important factor for the development of programmes and interventions to enhance children’s lifelong motor behaviour and health strategies. Full article
9 pages, 1448 KiB  
Article
Somatotype Profiles of Montenegrin Karatekas: An Observational Study
by Jelena Slankamenac, Dusko Bjelica, Damjan Jaksic, Tatjana Trivic, Miodrag Drapsin, Sandra Vujkov, Toni Modric, Zoran Milosevic and Patrik Drid
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 12914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182412914 - 7 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3467
Abstract
Competitive karate activity involves numerous factors affecting performance in sport. Physical structure and somatotype is considered to be one of them. This study aimed to determine whether there are differences between karate athletes in five male and five female official weight categories in [...] Read more.
Competitive karate activity involves numerous factors affecting performance in sport. Physical structure and somatotype is considered to be one of them. This study aimed to determine whether there are differences between karate athletes in five male and five female official weight categories in different anthropometric measurements and to determine the somatotype profiles of athletes divided by weight categories. This study consisted of a total of 27 male karate athletes (21.88 ± 4.66 years) and 24 female karate athletes (20.29 ± 3.14 years). Measurements were taken in April 2020. Athletes are classified into official weight categories according to World Karate Federation rules. Somatotypes were calculated using anthropometry. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis to compare group differences regarding weight categories. Anthropometric parameters were highest in the heaviest categories compared to lighter categories. All male subjects were endomorphic mesomorph, except for category <84 kg, which was endomorphic ectomorphs. Somatotype analysis of male categories found a difference between the <75 kg and <84 kg in endomorphy. In mesomorphy, there is no difference between categories. Perceiving ectomorphy, there is a significant difference between the first category and the >84 kg. Profiling female athletes, three different types of somatotypes were obtained concerning the weight category. The lightest weight category was predominantly endomorphic ectomorphs, and two weight categories were ectomorphic endomorphs (<61 kg and <68 kg), and the other two weight categories were endomorphic mesomorphs (<55 kg and >68 kg). Somatotype differences in the female karate athletes were observed only in the ectomorphy components, between <50 kg and <61 kg. The present study points to how the somatotypes profiles of karate athletes differ between weight categories. Full article
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9 pages, 335 KiB  
Article
Body Size Measurements and Physical Performance of Youth Female Judo Athletes with Differing Menarcheal Status
by Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Rafael Lima Kons, David Hideyoshi Fukuda and Daniele Detanico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(23), 12829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182312829 - 5 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2492
Abstract
Purpose: To compare body size measurements and physical performance among female youth judo athletes with differing menarcheal status and to identify indicators of physical performance in post-menarcheal girls. Methods: Nineteen young female judo athletes (age 13.9 ± 2.3 years) were divided into a [...] Read more.
Purpose: To compare body size measurements and physical performance among female youth judo athletes with differing menarcheal status and to identify indicators of physical performance in post-menarcheal girls. Methods: Nineteen young female judo athletes (age 13.9 ± 2.3 years) were divided into a pre-menarche (n = 7) and a post-menarche (n = 12) group. The athletes were evaluated through neuromuscular tests, including standing long jump (SLJ), medicine ball throw (MBT), and handgrip strength (HGS), and judo-specific assessments, including the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) and the Judogi Grip Strength Test (JGSTISO). Furthermore, years of experience in judo and the age at menarche were determined. Results: The main results showed higher performance for the post-menarche group for most variables (p < 0.05) compared to the pre-menarche group. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that age at menarche, chronological age, and body mass explained close to 70% of JGSTISO, while training experience, chronological age, and age at menarche explained close to 59% of SLJ. Additionally, chronological age and age at menarche explained 40% of MBT, and chronological age and height explained 52% of HGS. Conclusions: Age at menarche and somatic growth variables explained moderate proportions of the variance of physical performance, thereby providing evidence that these parameters are the primary indicators of physical performance in young female judo athletes. Full article
11 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Anthropometric and Body Composition Profile in Male and Female Traditional Rowers
by Alfonso Penichet-Tomas, Basilio Pueo, Sergio Selles-Perez and Jose M. Jimenez-Olmedo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 7826; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157826 - 23 Jul 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2928
Abstract
The anthropometric profile has a fundamental role in rowing performance and young talent detection. The objective of this study was to analyze the anthropometric profile, body composition, and somatotype in traditional rowers, and to analyze which variables can be used as predictors of [...] Read more.
The anthropometric profile has a fundamental role in rowing performance and young talent detection. The objective of this study was to analyze the anthropometric profile, body composition, and somatotype in traditional rowers, and to analyze which variables can be used as predictors of rowing performance. Twenty-four rowers competing at national level participated in this study, thirteen men and eleven women. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed in the height of male rowers (large effect size, d = 1.8) and in body mass (very large effect size, d = 2.4). Also, muscle mass reached a higher percentage in male rowers (d = 3.7), whereas the sum of seven skinfolds (d = 2.0) and body fat percentage (d = 2.0) reached higher values in female rowers, all their difference being significant (p < 0.001) with very large effect size. The somatotype of male rowers was ecto-mesomorph (1.8-4.5-3.0), and the somatotype of female rowers was in the balanced mesomorph (2.8-3.8-2.6). A very strong correlation between height (r = 0.75; p = 0.002) and rowing performance was found in male rowers. Body mass (r = 0.70; p = 0.009) and muscle mass (r = 0.83; p = 0.001) showed also very strong correlation in female rowers. Finally, height was the best predictor of performance for male rowers (R2 = 0.56, p < 0.003) and muscle mass for female rowers (R2 = 0.68, p < 0.002). The anthropometric profile of male and female traditional rowers showed differences to be considered in training programs and talent selection. Full article
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11 pages, 684 KiB  
Article
Bioimpedance Vector Patterns according to Age and Handgrip Strength in Adolescent Male and Female Athletes
by Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Cattem, Bruna Taranto Sinforoso, Francesco Campa and Josely Correa Koury
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 6069; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18116069 - 4 Jun 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2658
Abstract
Bioelectric Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) can be used to qualitatively compare individuals’ hydration and cell mass independently of predictive equations. This study aimed to analyze the efficiency of BIVA considering chronological age and handgrip strength in adolescent athletes. A total of 273 adolescents [...] Read more.
Bioelectric Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) can be used to qualitatively compare individuals’ hydration and cell mass independently of predictive equations. This study aimed to analyze the efficiency of BIVA considering chronological age and handgrip strength in adolescent athletes. A total of 273 adolescents (male; 59%) engaged in different sports were evaluated. Bioelectrical impedance (Z), resistance (R), reactance (Xc), and phase angle (PhA) were obtained using a single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water were estimated using bioimpedance-based equations specific for adolescents. Female showed higher values of R (5.5%, p = 0.001), R/height (3.8%, p = 0.041), Z (5.3%, p = 0.001), and fat mass (53.9%, p = 0.001) than male adolescents. Male adolescents showed higher values of FFM (5.3%, p = 0.021) and PhA (3.1%, p = 0.033) than female adolescents. In both stratifications, adolescents (older > 13 years or stronger > median value) shifted to the left on the R-Xc graph, showing patterns of higher hydration and cell mass. The discrimination of subjects older than 13 years and having higher median of handgrip strength values was possibly due to maturity differences. This study showed that BIVA identified age and strength influence in vector displacement, assessing qualitative information and offering patterns of vector distribution in adolescent athletes. Full article
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13 pages, 708 KiB  
Article
Can Neurocognitive Function Predict Lower Extremity Injuries in Male Collegiate Athletes?
by Sunghe Ha, Hee Seong Jeong, Sang-Kyoon Park and Sae Yong Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239061 - 4 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1854
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether neurocognitive evaluation can confirm the association between neurocognitive level and postural control and to analyze the relationship between neurocognitive level and acute musculoskeletal injury in male non-net sports athletes. Seventy-seven male non-net sports athletes [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether neurocognitive evaluation can confirm the association between neurocognitive level and postural control and to analyze the relationship between neurocognitive level and acute musculoskeletal injury in male non-net sports athletes. Seventy-seven male non-net sports athletes participated in this study. The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Landing Error Scoring System (LESS), Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) were used for testing; we collected data related to injury history for six months after testing. Pearson’s correlation analysis, logistic regression, and the independent sample t-test were used for statistical analysis. The correlation between SAC and SEBT results was weak to moderate (p < 0.05). Eleven of the seventy-seven participants experienced acute lower limb injuries. SAC, LESS, BESS, and SEBT results have no effect on the occurrence of acute lower extremity injuries (p > 0.05) and were not statistically different between the injured and non-injured groups (p > 0.05). Therefore, using the SAC score alone to determine the risk factor of lower extremity injuries, except in the use of assessment after a concussion, should be cautioned against. Full article
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12 pages, 297 KiB  
Article
Difficulties of Online Physical Education Classes in Middle and High School and an Efficient Operation Plan to Address Them
by Hyun-Chul Jeong and Wi-Young So
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(19), 7279; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197279 - 5 Oct 2020
Cited by 85 | Viewed by 20997
Abstract
This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three [...] Read more.
This study examined the difficulties of running online physical education classes in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and used the findings to develop an efficient operation plan to address these difficulties. Six middle and high school physical education teachers participated; three were experts in online physical education and active in the Korea Council School Physical Education Promotion, and three were recommended teachers making efforts to improve the online classes offered by the Korea Ministry of Education. A qualitative case study method employing phenomenological procedures to collect and analyze the data was used. The difficulties of operating middle and high school online physical education classes for the first time included (1) the monotony of the classes within their limited environmental conditions and limited educational content that did not adequately convey the value of physical education, (2) trial-and-error methods applied nationwide, resulting from a lack of expertise in operating online physical education classes, and (3) very limited evaluation guidelines proposed by the Korea Ministry of Education, which made systematic evaluation with online methods impossible. To address the identified problems and facilitate the efficient operation of online physical education classes, changes in strategic learning methods are needed to understand online physical education characteristics and thereby better communicate the value of physical education. It is also necessary to cultivate teaching expertise through sharing online physical education classes, where collaboration among physical education teachers is central. In addition, evaluation processes should be less formal to encourage active student participation. Full article
8 pages, 1062 KiB  
Article
Placing Greater Torque at Shorter or Longer Muscle Lengths? Effects of Cable vs. Barbell Preacher Curl Training on Muscular Strength and Hypertrophy in Young Adults
by João Pedro Nunes, Jeferson L. Jacinto, Alex S. Ribeiro, Jerry L. Mayhew, Masatoshi Nakamura, Danila M. G. Capel, Leidiane R. Santos, Leandro Santos, Edilson S. Cyrino and Andreo F. Aguiar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165859 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5795
Abstract
Muscular strength and hypertrophy following resistance training may be obtained in different degrees depending on the approach performed. This study was designed to compare the responses of the biceps brachii to two preacher curl exercises, one performed on a cable-pulley system (CAB; in [...] Read more.
Muscular strength and hypertrophy following resistance training may be obtained in different degrees depending on the approach performed. This study was designed to compare the responses of the biceps brachii to two preacher curl exercises, one performed on a cable-pulley system (CAB; in which a greater torque was applied during the exercise when elbows were flexed and biceps shortened) and one performed with a barbell (BAR; in which greater torque was applied when the elbows were extended and biceps stretched). Thirty-five young adults (CAB: 13 men, 5 women; BAR: 12 men, 5 women; age = 24 ± 5 years) performed a resistance training program three times per week for 10 weeks, with preacher curl exercises performed in three sets of 8–12 repetitions. Outcomes measured included elbow flexion peak isokinetic torque at angles of 20°, 60°, and 100° (considering 0° as elbow extended), and biceps brachii thickness (B-mode ultrasound). Following the training period, there were significant increases for both groups in elbow flexion peak torque at the 20° (CAB: 30%; BAR = 39%; p = 0.046), 60° (CAB: 27%; BAR = 32%; p = 0.874), and 100° (CAB: 17%; BAR = 19%; p = 0.728), and biceps brachii thickness (CAB: 7%; BAR = 8%; p = 0.346). In conclusion, gains in muscular strength were greater for BAR only at longer muscle length, whereas hypertrophy was similar regardless of whether torque emphasis was carried out in the final (CAB) or initial (BAR) degrees of the range of motion of the preacher curl in young adults. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

12 pages, 2317 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Resistance Training on Blood Pressure in Preadolescents and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Carles Miguel Guillem, Andrés Felipe Loaiza-Betancur, Tamara Rial Rebullido, Avery D. Faigenbaum and Iván Chulvi-Medrano
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7900; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217900 - 28 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4805
Abstract
The aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the current evidence for the effects of resistance training (RT) on blood pressure (BP) as the main outcome and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Two authors systematically searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web [...] Read more.
The aim was to systematically review and meta-analyze the current evidence for the effects of resistance training (RT) on blood pressure (BP) as the main outcome and body mass index (BMI) in children and adolescents. Two authors systematically searched the PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science Core Collection and EMBASE electronic databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) children and adolescents (aged 8 to 18 years); (2) intervention studies including RT and (3) outcome measures of BP and BMI. The selected studies were analyzed using the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias Tool. Eight articles met inclusion criteria totaling 571 participants. The mean age ranged from 9.3 to 15.9 years and the mean BMI of 29.34 (7.24) kg/m2). Meta-analysis indicated that RT reduced BMI significantly (mean difference (MD): −0.43 kg/m2 (95% CI: −0.82, −0.03), P = 0.03; I2 = 5%) and a non-significant decrease in systolic BP (SBP) (MD: −1.09 mmHg (95% CI: −3.24, 1.07), P = 0.32; I2 = 67%) and diastolic BP (DBP) (MD: −0.93 mmHg (95% CI: −2.05, 0.19), P = 0.10; I2 = 37%). Limited evidence suggests that RT has no adverse effects on BP and may positively affect BP in youths. More high-quality studies are needed to clarify the association between RT and BP in light of body composition changes throughout childhood and adolescence. Full article
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