Body Image Perception and Body Composition in Different Populations: The Role of Physical Education and Sport

A special issue of European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education (ISSN 2254-9625).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 14999

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience (DiBraiN), University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: physical activity; fitness; exercise physiology; health promotion; body composition; human performance; special education; nutrition; tactical populations; sport psychology; strength and conditioning; combat sport; data analysis; research methodology
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue aims to collect and disseminate the most current research examining the role of physical education and sport in the development of a positive body image perception through education for a healthy lifestyle and the achievement of an optimal body composition.

Body image is the dynamic perception of one’s body—how it looks, feels, and moves. It can change with mood, physical experience, and environment. There are many different factors affecting body image, including gender, media, parental relationships, and puberty, as well as weight and popularity. In Western society, the ideal body for males is muscular and lean, whereas for females, a thin body is viewed as more desirable. For both genders, the desire to alter shape or weight during adolescence is common, and is associated with emotional distress and dramatic measures to alter appearance such as cosmetic surgery, depression, eating disorders and exercise addiction.

Physical education could provide the opportunity to develop a positive body image. People that are sufficiently active enjoy better psychophysical well-being and report more positive physical self-concept and global self-esteem. Sports practice and a healthy lifestyle result in optimal body composition and more positive body image.

Although being physically active is usually encouraged as a health-promoting behaviour, exercising compulsively and excessively is a common purging strategy used to compensate for caloric intake or to change one’s body weight, size or shape. This tendency to develop disordered behaviours around exercise has received numerous labels including, but not limited to, exercise dependence, exercise abuse, exercise addiction, obligatory exercise, and over exercise.

Topics of interest consist of body image intervention works including new training methodologies and programming, nutritional strategies integrated with physical activity, and interventions aimed at improving the quality of physical activity, avoiding strategies that may have a negative impact on people’s body image.

Authors are invited to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting original research articles, meta-analyses, reviews, and brief reports that contribute new knowledge to this area. Papers selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review process with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Dr. Gianpiero Greco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • body image perception
  • physical activity
  • physical fitness
  • physical education
  • body composition
  • psychophysical well-being
  • body size
  • self-esteem
  • self-concept
  • exercise addiction

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 201 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial of Special Issue “Body Image Perception and Body Composition in Different Populations: The Role of Physical Education and Sport”
by Gianpiero Greco
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(11), 1700-1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12110119 - 20 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Body image is the dynamic perception of one’s body—how it looks, feels, and moves; it can change with mood, physical experience, and environment [...] Full article

Research

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11 pages, 4953 KiB  
Article
Regional Lean Soft Tissue and Intracellular Water Are Associated with Changes in Lower-Body Neuromuscular Performance: A Pilot Study in Elite Soccer Players
by Tindaro Bongiovanni, Grant Tinsley, Giulia Martera, Carmine Orlandi, Federico Genovesi, Giuseppe Puleo, Alessio Rossi and Athos Trecroci
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(8), 882-892; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12080064 - 22 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2126
Abstract
The assessment of body composition over a competitive season provides valuable information that can help sports professionals to evaluate the efficacy of training and nutritional strategies, as well as monitoring athletes’ health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association [...] Read more.
The assessment of body composition over a competitive season provides valuable information that can help sports professionals to evaluate the efficacy of training and nutritional strategies, as well as monitoring athletes’ health status. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of changes in body composition and hydration status with changes in lower-body neuromuscular performance in soccer. Twenty-two male professional soccer players (mean ± SD; age: 26.4 ± 4.8 years; height: 184.3 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 81.1 ± 6.5 kg; body fat: 11.6 ± 1.5%) took part in the study, for which they were tested at the initial and final stage of the competitive season. Total (whole body) and regional (arms and legs) lean soft tissue (LST) were estimated to obtain the body composition profile. Total body water (TBW) content, including extracellular (ECW) and intracellular (ICW) water, was obtained to monitor players’ hydration status. Countermovement jump (CMJ) height, power, and strength were used to derive players’ lower-body neuromuscular performance. The results showed that changes in legs LST and ICW significantly (p < 0.01) explained (r2 = 0.39) the improvements in CMJ height, power, and strength from the initial to the final stage of the season. Given the high demand imposed on the lower limbs during a soccer season, being more susceptible to change compared to whole-body LST, assessing regional LST and ICW would be more appropriate to provide extended information on players’ readiness. Full article
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15 pages, 3035 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Self-Perceived Body Image in Adolescents with Mild Idiopathic Scoliosis
by Guido Belli, Stefania Toselli, Pasqualino Maietta Latessa and Mario Mauro
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(3), 319-333; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12030023 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3936
Abstract
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most prevalent types of scoliosis, affecting up to 3% of children around the world. The progression of AIS can cause alteration in psychological components such as self-perceived body image and self-identity, which negatively affect the teenager quality [...] Read more.
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most prevalent types of scoliosis, affecting up to 3% of children around the world. The progression of AIS can cause alteration in psychological components such as self-perceived body image and self-identity, which negatively affect the teenager quality of life (QoL). The mainly aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate how mild AIS impacts self-perceived body image in young people. Fifteen participants (mean age = 14.47 ± 2.825) of both sexes (male = 5; female = 10) with a curve magnitude from 10° up to 25° completed the Scoliosis Research Society Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22), the Trunk Appearance Perception Scale (TAPS) and were subject to spinal analysis and photogrammetry. Results display statistical differences between self-perceived body image and other SRS-22 domains (Hotelling t2= 70.29; F(3,12) = 20.08; p < 0.001). Additionally, the regression model, which better explained the self-perceived variability, was fit by function/activity, pain, and mental health domains (F(4,10) = 4.39; p = 0.029; R2 = 0.545). Although AIS was not severe, it negatively affected participants self-perceived body image. More attention in AIS qualify of life is needed, and early treatments could be necessary to prevent psychological impairments self-perception related. Full article
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8 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Accuracy of Body Mass Index and Obesity Status in Police Trainees
by Miloš Stojković, Katie M. Heinrich, Aleksandar Čvorović, Velimir Jeknić, Gianpiero Greco and Filip Kukić
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2022, 12(1), 42-49; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe12010004 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3657
Abstract
The first aim of this study was to compare body mass index (BMI) (indirect method) classification with the body fat percent (PBF) (direct method) and to determine how BMI classifies subjects with different levels of skeletal muscle mass percent (PSMM). The second aim [...] Read more.
The first aim of this study was to compare body mass index (BMI) (indirect method) classification with the body fat percent (PBF) (direct method) and to determine how BMI classifies subjects with different levels of skeletal muscle mass percent (PSMM). The second aim was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity status among police trainees (PTs). A total of 103 male PTs participated in this research: age = 21.46 ± 0.64 years, body mass (BM) = 75.97 ± 8.10 kg, body height (BH) = 174.07 ± 6.31 cm, BMI = 25.05 ± 2.12 kg/m2. The InBody 370 multichannel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measured body composition. Study results indicated that muscular PTs could be misclassified as overweight and that PBF identified more subjects as obese. Namely, three PTs were obese according to BMI, while 13 were obese according to PBF. The information provided by this research could be used to help professionals understand the importance of measuring body composition, and the inaccuracies in BMI classification. In conclusion, whenever possible PSMM and PBF should replace the utilization of BMI to screen overweight and obesity in PTs. Agencies may think of using BIA as non-invasive, quick and inexpensive measurement tool. Full article
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Other

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6 pages, 513 KiB  
Brief Report
Association between Change in Regional Phase Angle and Jump Performance: A Pilot Study in Serie A Soccer Players
by Tindaro Bongiovanni, Athos Trecroci, Alessio Rossi, Fedon Marcello Iaia, Giulio Pasta and Francesco Campa
Eur. J. Investig. Health Psychol. Educ. 2021, 11(3), 860-865; https://doi.org/10.3390/ejihpe11030063 - 15 Aug 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2295
Abstract
Purpose: This observational longitudinal investigation aimed to investigate whether change in bioelectrical regional phase angle (PhA) is a predictor of change in vertical jump performance in elite soccer players. Methods: Fifteen soccer players (age: 28.7 ± 5.0 years, body weight: 82.4 ± [...] Read more.
Purpose: This observational longitudinal investigation aimed to investigate whether change in bioelectrical regional phase angle (PhA) is a predictor of change in vertical jump performance in elite soccer players. Methods: Fifteen soccer players (age: 28.7 ± 5.0 years, body weight: 82.4 ± 6.8 kg, height: 186.0 ± 0.1 cm, body mass index: 23.8 ± 1.2 kg/m2) competing in the first Italian division (Serie A) were included in this study and tested before the pre-season period and after the first half of the championship. Whole body and lower hemisoma PhA were obtained with a phase-sensitive 50 kHz bioelectrical impedance analyzer and legs lean soft tissue was estimated using specific bioimpedance-based equation developed for athletes. Vertical jump performance was assessed using the countermovement jump (CMJ). Results: The major findings of the study are that changes in lower hemisoma PhA are more strongly related with changes in jump performance (r2 = 0.617, p = 0.001) than changes in whole-body PhA (r2 = 0.270, p = 0.047), even after adjusting for legs lean soft tissue and for body mass index (β = 5.17, p = 0.004). Conclusions: These data suggest that changes in lower hemisoma PhA might be used as a tool for evaluating performance related parameters in sports where specific body segments are involved, in preference to the whole-body measured value. Full article
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