Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 24442

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Translational Biomedicine and Neuroscience (DiBraiN), University of Study of Bari, 70124 Bari, Italy
Interests: physical activity; fitness; exercise physiology; health promotion; body composition; human performance; special education; nutrition; tactical populations; sport psychology; strength and conditioning; combat sport; data analysis; research methodology
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Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

It is with great enthusiasm that I am announcing a special issue in JFMK with the aim of examining the effects of sport practiced at all ages on health and performance. Health, fitness, and exercise have become very important topics in the field of research.  Sports-related professionals require the support of evidence-based knowledge to respond satisfactorily to the population practicing individual, team and combat sports. Topics of interest include strength training, exercise technique, conditioning methodologies and programming, performance recovery, skill development, body composition, nutrition for performance and health, and health- and performance-related testing. We welcome original research, meta-analysis, reviews, and brief reports.

Dr. Gianpiero Greco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • exercise
  • physical activity
  • fitness
  • sports performance
  • resistance training
  • endurance training
  • body composition
  • combat sports

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Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

13 pages, 258 KiB  
Article
Baseline Physical Activity Behaviors and Relationships with Fitness in the Army Training at High Intensity Study
by Katie M. Heinrich, Aspen E. Streetman, Filip Kukić, Chunki Fong, Brittany S. Hollerbach, Blake D. Goodman, Christopher K. Haddock and Walker S. C. Poston
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2022, 7(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk7010027 - 8 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3163
Abstract
United States Army soldiers must meet physical fitness test standards. Criticisms of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) include limited testing of only aerobic and muscular endurance activity domains; yet, it is unclear what levels of aerobic and muscle strengthening activity may help [...] Read more.
United States Army soldiers must meet physical fitness test standards. Criticisms of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) include limited testing of only aerobic and muscular endurance activity domains; yet, it is unclear what levels of aerobic and muscle strengthening activity may help predict performance in aspects of the new Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT). This study explored relationships between baseline self-reported aerobic and muscle strengthening activities and APFT- and ACFT-related performance. Baseline participant data (N = 123) were from a cluster-randomized clinical trial that recruited active-duty military personnel (mean age 33.7 ± 5.7 years, 72.4% White, 87.0% college-educated, 81.5% Officers). An online survey was used for self-report of socio-demographic characteristics and weekly aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity behaviors. Participants also completed the APFT (2 min push-ups, 2 min sit-ups, 2-mile run) and ACFT-related measures (1-repetition maximum deadlift, pull-up repetitions or timed flexed arm hang, horizontal jump, and dummy drag). Bivariate logistic regression found greater aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity predicted better APFT performance, while better ACFT-related performance was predicted by greater muscle-strengthening activity. Although our data are mostly from mid-career officers, command policies should emphasize the new Holistic Health and Fitness initiative that encourages regular aerobic and muscle-strengthening physical activity for soldiers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
10 pages, 310 KiB  
Article
Protections in the Recreational Practice of Ski and Snowboard—An Age and Gender Discussion? A Case Study in Spain
by Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Carlos Lago-Fuentes, Iker Muñoz-Pérez, Jon Mikel Picabea-Arburu and Rubén Navarro-Patón
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6040084 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2777
Abstract
The objective of this research was to evaluate the protections taken by ski and snowboard recreational athletes of the winter stations Sierra Nevada and Alto Campoo (Spain), regarding gender, age, and practiced sport. A total of 520 users participated, Sierra Nevada (n [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to evaluate the protections taken by ski and snowboard recreational athletes of the winter stations Sierra Nevada and Alto Campoo (Spain), regarding gender, age, and practiced sport. A total of 520 users participated, Sierra Nevada (n = 306 (58.8%)); Alto Campoo (n = 214 (42.2%)), 257 of them were men (49.4%) and 263 (50.6%) were women, from 6 to 64 years old, classified by 4 stages of development (Childhood (n = 106 (20.4%)); Teenagers (n = 110 (21.2%)); Youth (n = 101 (19.4%)); Adults (n = 203 (39.0%))). For the data collection, an Ad Hoc questionnaire was used (Socio-demographic data, use/no use of protection). The data revealed that 23.5% of the participants did not use any protection. Regarding the development stage, 1% of the children did not use any protection, neither did 3.1% of the teenagers, 6.7% of the youth, or 12.7% of the adults (p < 0.001). Regarding gender, a total of 17.1% of men did not use protection, and regarding women, 6.3% of them did not use it (p < 0.001). In relation to the practiced sport, 15.8% of the skiers did not use it against 7.7% of the snowboarders (p = 0.006). The use of protection for the practice in winter sports is not enough to reduce the injury risk in these sports and, in the worst cases, fatal accidents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
11 pages, 415 KiB  
Article
A Comparison between Male and Female Athletes in Relative Strength and Power Performances
by Sandro Bartolomei, Giuseppe Grillone, Rocco Di Michele and Matteo Cortesi
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010017 - 9 Feb 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 11397
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare male vs. female athletes in strength and power performance relative to body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and to investigate the relationships between muscle architecture and strength in both genders. Sixteen men (age [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare male vs. female athletes in strength and power performance relative to body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) and to investigate the relationships between muscle architecture and strength in both genders. Sixteen men (age = 26.4 ± 5.0 years; body mass = 88.9 ± 16.6 kg; height = 177.6 ± 9.3 cm) and fourteen women (age = 25.1 ± 3.2 years; body mass = 58.1 ± 9.1 kg; height = 161.7 ± 4.8 cm) were tested for body composition and muscle thickness (MT) of vastus lateralis muscle (VT), pectoralis major (PEC), and trapezius (TRAP). In addition, participants were tested for lower body power at countermovement jump (CMJP) and upper-body power at bench press throw (BPT). Participants were also assessed for one repetition maximum (1RM) at bench press (1RMBP), deadlift (1RMDE), and squat (1RMSQ). Significantly greater (p < 0.01) MT of the VL, PEC and TRAP muscles and LBM were detected in men compared to women. Significantly greater (p < 0.05) 1RMBP and BPT adjusted for LBM were detected in men than in women. No significant gender differences after adjusting for LBM were detected for 1RMSQ (p = 0.945); 1RMDE (p = 0.472) and CMJP (p = 0.656). Significantly greater (p < 0.05) results in all performance assessments adjusted for MT of the specific muscles, were detected in males compared to females. Superior performances adjusted for MT and LBM in men compared to women, may be related to gender differences in muscle morphology and LBM distribution, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
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13 pages, 952 KiB  
Article
The Ankle Joint Range of Motion and Its Effect on Squat Jump Performance with and without Arm Swing in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players
by Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Mariana C. Kotzamanidou, Georgios Papaiakovou and Iraklis A. Kollias
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010014 - 3 Feb 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 6104
Abstract
A flexible ankle joint is suggested to be a contributing factor for vertical squat jump (SQJ) performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the active (ACT) and passive (PAS) ankle joint range of motion (ROM) on SQJ performed [...] Read more.
A flexible ankle joint is suggested to be a contributing factor for vertical squat jump (SQJ) performance. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of the active (ACT) and passive (PAS) ankle joint range of motion (ROM) on SQJ performed by adolescent female volleyball players. ACT and PAS ankle ROM at knee extension angles of 90, 140, and 180 degrees (180 degrees: full extension) were measured with a video analysis method for 35 female post-pubertal volleyball players (16.3 ± 1.1 yrs, 1.80 ± 0.04 m, 68.8 ± 6.8 kg). Additionally, the players fulfilling previously recommended criteria were assigned to the flexible (n = 10) and inflexible (n = 8) groups and executed SQJ with and without an arm swing on a force-plate. Results of the 2 × 2 × 3 MANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) flexibility type and knee angle effect, as ankle ROM was larger in PAS compared to ACT and as the knee joint progressed from 90 to 180 degrees extension. The 2 × 2 ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0.05) group effect, as flexible players jumped higher in the arm swing SQJ, along with a significant arm swing effect on key SQJ kinetic parameters. In conclusion, a more flexible ankle joint result in improved SQJ performance. Therefore, ankle flexibility training should be implemented in youth volleyball players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Performance through Sports at All Ages)
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