Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 April 2021) | Viewed by 34815

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany
Interests: wood quality; wood durability; wood modification; wood protection; service life prediction; structural health assessment; performance classification
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood is an advantageous building material with respect to its material properties, its renewable character, its sustainable production, and its ability to store sequestered carbon. However, wood can burn, rot, and turn ugly when it is used in an inappropriate way. This, as such, is not a severe drawback, but the processes behind are often more difficult to predict compared to those linked to other materials, such as steel, concrete, or polymers. Hence, substantial efforts are needed to make the performance of wood and wood products more predictable and thus make wood a more competitive building material. In particular, the response of wood to moisture, wood-inhabiting organisms, and fire is of immanent importance for a multitude of applications in the building sector. Mathematical models, survey-based prediction tools, simulation software, and risk mapping can be used to characterize wood and its capacity to withstand external influences in a quantitative way. These are essential instruments for service life planning and the performance classification of wood and wooden products.

In recent years, enormous efforts have been made to improve the methodology and to enlarge the pool of data needed for service planning with wood. Numerous research groups around the globe have followed a variety of strategies and used different concepts, but they have all approached the overall objective to make wood more predictable. Within this Special Issue, we are collecting contributions from various disciplines, such as wood material science, building physics, timber engineering, wood pathology, and climatology. We encourage studies from all fields, including experimental studies, monitoring approaches and models, literature reviews, and surveys, to be contributed to this Special Issue in order to promote knowledge and adaptation strategies for service life planning and performance classification of wood products.

Prof. Dr. Christian Brischke
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Decay hazard mapping
  • Hygrothermal simulation
  • Fire performance
  • Moisture performance modelling
  • Performance classification
  • Service life prediction
  • Service life planning

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

2 pages, 632 KiB  
Editorial
Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products
by Christian Brischke
Forests 2021, 12(7), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12070959 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1790
Abstract
Wood is an advantageous building material with respect to its material properties, its renewable character, its sustainable production, and its ability to store sequestered carbon [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)

Research

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17 pages, 6166 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Moisture and Decay Models for a New Design Framework for Decay Prediction of Wood
by Jonas Niklewski, Philip Bester van Niekerk, Christian Brischke and Eva Frühwald Hansson
Forests 2021, 12(6), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060721 - 1 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
Performance-based, service-life design of wood has been the focus of much research in recent decades. Previous works have been synthesized in various factorized design frameworks presented in the form of technical reports. Factorization does not consider the non-linear dependency between decay-influencing effects, such [...] Read more.
Performance-based, service-life design of wood has been the focus of much research in recent decades. Previous works have been synthesized in various factorized design frameworks presented in the form of technical reports. Factorization does not consider the non-linear dependency between decay-influencing effects, such as between detail design and climate variables. The CLICKdesign project is a joint European effort targeting digital, performance-based specification for service-life design (SLD) of wood. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a semi-empirical moisture model (SMM) as a basis for a digital SLD framework. The performance of the SMM is assessed by comparison against a finite element model (FEM). In addition, two different wood decay models (a logistic, LM, and simplified logistic model (SLM)) are compared. While discrepancies between the SMM and FEM were detected particularly at high wood moisture content, the overall performance of the SMM was deemed sufficient for the application. The main source of uncertainty instead stems from the choice of wood decay model. Based on the results, a new method based on pre-calculated time series, empirical equations, and interpolation is proposed for predicting the service life of wood. The method is fast and simple yet able to deal with non-linear effects between weather variables and the design of details. As such, it can easily be implemented as part of a digital design guideline to provide decision support for architects and engineers, with less uncertainty than existing factorized guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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24 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation Model for Wood Companies Websites Based on the AHP/R-TOPSIS Method
by Jože Kropivšek, Petra Grošelj, Leon Oblak and Matej Jošt
Forests 2021, 12(6), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060706 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
Recently, partly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, companies are increasingly shifting their activities to the Internet environment, thus accelerating the growth of online shopping. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model for the evaluation of websites of [...] Read more.
Recently, partly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, companies are increasingly shifting their activities to the Internet environment, thus accelerating the growth of online shopping. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive model for the evaluation of websites of wood companies, as a review of the literature shows that such a model does not yet exist. In developing the model, we used an innovative approach and combined the analytic hierarchy process with R-TOPSIS (technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution), which is a novelty in this field. For the final website assessment, the Website Quality Index (WQI) was developed. The main difference to other indexes is that our model has a comprehensive content background (36 criteria and sub-criteria) and a strong mathematical basis, so that it can be used to independently evaluate a single website or to evaluate a larger group of websites from the same industry. We have tested the model on 60 websites of Slovenian wood industry companies with at least ten employees. The results show the low to moderate average quality of the websites, with an average WQI of all evaluated websites of 0.450, indicating only an acceptable website. It has proven to be easy to use, and the results show the reliability of the website rating. Additionally, the designed model is an important tool for industry website developers and the basis for future studies in this field. However, it can also be applied to other areas related to wood and wood products, where the performance of objects should be evaluated with respect to multiple criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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18 pages, 3388 KiB  
Article
Studies into Fungal Decay of Wood in Ground Contact—Part 2: Development of a Dose–Response Model to Predict Decay Rate
by Brendan Nicholas Marais, Philip Bester van Niekerk and Christian Brischke
Forests 2021, 12(6), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060698 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
In this article a dose–response model was developed to describe the effect of soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-holding capacity, on the decay of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood specimens exposed to soil contact. The developed dose–response model represents [...] Read more.
In this article a dose–response model was developed to describe the effect of soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil water-holding capacity, on the decay of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood specimens exposed to soil contact. The developed dose–response model represents a step forward in incorporating soil-level variables into the prediction of wood decay over time. This builds upon prior models such as those developed within the TimberLife software package, but also aligns with similar modeling methodology employed for wood exposed above ground. The model was developed from laboratory data generated from terrestrial microcosm trials which used test specimens of standard dimension, incubated in a range of soil conditions and temperatures, for a maximum period of 16 weeks. Wood mass loss was used as a metric for wood decay. The dose aspect of the developed function modelled wood mass loss in two facets; soil temperature against wood mass loss, and soil water-holding capacity and soil moisture content against wood mass loss. In combination, the two functions describe the wood mass loss as a function of a total daily exposure dose, accumulated over the exposure period. The model was deemed conservative, delivering an overprediction of wood decay, or underprediction of wood service-life, when validated on a similar, but independent dataset (R2 = 0.65). Future works will develop similar models for outdoor, field-trial datasets as a basis for service-life prediction of wooden elements used in soil contact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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18 pages, 1834 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Material Resistance of Wood—Part 3: Relative Resistance in above- and in-Ground Situations—Results of a Global Survey
by Christian Brischke, Gry Alfredsen, Miha Humar, Elena Conti, Laurie Cookson, Lukas Emmerich, Per Otto Flæte, Stefania Fortino, Lesley Francis, Ulrich Hundhausen, Ilze Irbe, Kordula Jacobs, Morten Klamer, Davor Kržišnik, Boštjan Lesar, Eckhard Melcher, Linda Meyer-Veltrup, Jeffrey J. Morrell, Jack Norton, Sabrina Palanti, Gerald Presley, Ladislav Reinprecht, Tripti Singh, Rod Stirling, Martti Venäläinen, Mats Westin, Andrew H. H. Wong and Ed Suttieadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Forests 2021, 12(5), 590; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050590 - 8 May 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3621
Abstract
Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the [...] Read more.
Durability-based designs with timber require reliable information about the wood properties and how they affect its performance under variable exposure conditions. This study aimed at utilizing a material resistance model (Part 2 of this publication) based on a dose–response approach for predicting the relative decay rates in above-ground situations. Laboratory and field test data were, for the first time, surveyed globally and used to determine material-specific resistance dose values, which were correlated to decay rates. In addition, laboratory indicators were used to adapt the material resistance model to in-ground exposure. The relationship between decay rates in- and above-ground, the predictive power of laboratory indicators to predict such decay rates, and a method for implementing both in a service life prediction tool, were established based on 195 hardwoods, 29 softwoods, 19 modified timbers, and 41 preservative-treated timbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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18 pages, 1140 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Material Resistance of Wood—Part 2: Validation and Optimization of the Meyer-Veltrup Model
by Christian Brischke, Gry Alfredsen, Miha Humar, Elena Conti, Laurie Cookson, Lukas Emmerich, Per Otto Flæte, Stefania Fortino, Lesley Francis, Ulrich Hundhausen, Ilze Irbe, Kordula Jacobs, Morten Klamer, Davor Kržišnik, Boštjan Lesar, Eckhard Melcher, Linda Meyer-Veltrup, Jeffrey J. Morrell, Jack Norton, Sabrina Palanti, Gerald Presley, Ladislav Reinprecht, Tripti Singh, Rod Stirling, Martti Venäläinen, Mats Westin, Andrew H. H. Wong and Ed Suttieadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Forests 2021, 12(5), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050576 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3626
Abstract
Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood [...] Read more.
Service life planning with timber requires reliable models for quantifying the effects of exposure-related parameters and the material-inherent resistance of wood against biotic agents. The Meyer-Veltrup model was the first attempt to account for inherent protective properties and the wetting ability of wood to quantify resistance of wood in a quantitative manner. Based on test data on brown, white, and soft rot as well as moisture dynamics, the decay rates of different untreated wood species were predicted relative to the reference species of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The present study aimed to validate and optimize the resistance model for a wider range of wood species including very durable species, thermally and chemically modified wood, and preservative treated wood. The general model structure was shown to also be suitable for highly durable materials, but previously defined maximum thresholds had to be adjusted (i.e., maximum values of factors accounting for wetting ability and inherent protective properties) to 18 instead of 5 compared to Norway spruce. As expected, both the enlarged span in durability and the use of numerous and partly very divergent data sources (i.e., test methods, test locations, and types of data presentation) led to a decrease in the predictive power of the model compared to the original. In addition to the need to enlarge the database quantity and improve its quality, in particular for treated wood, it might be advantageous to use separate models for untreated and treated wood as long as the effect of additional impact variables (e.g., treatment quality) can be accounted for. Nevertheless, the adapted Meyer-Veltrup model will serve as an instrument to quantify material resistance for a wide range of wood-based materials as an input for comprehensive service life prediction software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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19 pages, 771 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Material Resistance of Wood—Part 1: Utilizing Durability Test Data Based on Different Reference Wood Species
by Gry Alfredsen, Christian Brischke, Brendan N. Marais, Robert F. A. Stein, Katrin Zimmer and Miha Humar
Forests 2021, 12(5), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050558 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
To evaluate the performance of new wood-based products, reference wood species with known performances are included in laboratory and field trials. However, different wood species vary in their durability performance, and there will also be a within-species variation. The primary aim of this [...] Read more.
To evaluate the performance of new wood-based products, reference wood species with known performances are included in laboratory and field trials. However, different wood species vary in their durability performance, and there will also be a within-species variation. The primary aim of this paper was to compare the material resistance against decay fungi and moisture performance of three European reference wood species, i.e., Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies), and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Wood material was collected from 43 locations all over Europe and exposed to brown rot (Rhodonia placenta), white rot (Trametes versicolor) or soft rot fungi. In addition, five different moisture performance characteristics were analyzed. The main results were the two factors accounting for the wetting ability (kwa) and the inherent protective properties of wood (kinh), factors for conversion between Norway spruce vs. Scots pine sapwood or European beech for the three decay types and four moisture tests, and material resistance dose (DRd) per wood species. The data illustrate that the differences between the three European reference wood species were minor, both with regard to decay and moisture performance. The results also highlight the importance of defined boundaries for density and annual ring width when comparing materials within and between experiments. It was concluded that with the factors obtained, existing, and future test data, where only one or two of the mentioned reference species were used, can be transferred to models and prediction tools that use another of the reference species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
19 pages, 2185 KiB  
Article
Application of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Techniques to Moisture Content Data from Wood Constructions
by Álvaro García Faura, Dejan Štepec, Matija Cankar and Miha Humar
Forests 2021, 12(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020194 - 8 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2444
Abstract
Wood is considered one of the most important construction materials, as well as a natural material prone to degradation, with fungi being the main reason for wood failure in a temperate climate. Visual inspection of wood or other approaches for monitoring are time-consuming, [...] Read more.
Wood is considered one of the most important construction materials, as well as a natural material prone to degradation, with fungi being the main reason for wood failure in a temperate climate. Visual inspection of wood or other approaches for monitoring are time-consuming, and the incipient stages of decay are not always visible. Thus, visual decay detection and such manual monitoring could be replaced by automated real-time monitoring systems. The capabilities of such systems can range from simple monitoring, periodically reporting data, to the automatic detection of anomalous measurements that may happen due to various environmental or technical reasons. In this paper, we explore the application of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection (UAD) techniques to wood Moisture Content (MC) data. Specifically, data were obtained from a wood construction that was monitored for four years using sensors at different positions. Our experimental results prove the validity of these techniques to detect both artificial and real anomalies in MC signals, encouraging further research to enable their deployment in real use cases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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19 pages, 2133 KiB  
Article
Studies into Fungal Decay of Wood In Ground Contact—Part 1: The Influence of Water-Holding Capacity, Moisture Content, and Temperature of Soil Substrates on Fungal Decay of Selected Timbers
by Brendan Nicholas Marais, Christian Brischke, Holger Militz, Johann Hinrich Peters and Lena Reinhardt
Forests 2020, 11(12), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11121284 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2336
Abstract
This article presents the results from two separate studies investigating the decay of wood in ground contact using adapted versions of laboratory-based terrestrial microcosm (TMC) tests according to CEN/TS 15083-2:2005. The first study (A) sought to isolate the effect of soil water-holding capacity [...] Read more.
This article presents the results from two separate studies investigating the decay of wood in ground contact using adapted versions of laboratory-based terrestrial microcosm (TMC) tests according to CEN/TS 15083-2:2005. The first study (A) sought to isolate the effect of soil water-holding capacity (WHCsoil [%]) and soil moisture content (MCsoil [%WHCsoil]) on the decay of five commercially important wood species; European beech (Fagus sylvatica), English oak heartwood (Quercus robur), Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas-fir heartwood (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris), while keeping soil temperature (Tsoil) constant. Combinations of soil mixtures with WHCsoil of 30%, 60%, and 90%, and MCsoil of 30%, 70%, and 95%WHCsoil were utilized. A general trend showed higher wood decay, measured in oven-dry mass loss (MLwood [%]), for specimens of all species incubated in soils with WHCsoil of 60% and 90% compared to 30%. Furthermore, drier soils (MCsoil of 30 and 70%WHCsoil) showed higher MLwood compared to wetter soils (95%WHCsoil). The second study (B) built on the first’s findings, and sought to isolate the effect of Tsoil and MCsoil on the decay of European beech wood, while keeping WHCsoil constant. The study used constant incubation temperature intervals (Tsoil), 5–40 °C, and alternating intervals of 10/20, 10/30, and 20/30 °C. A general trend showed drier MCsoil (60%WHCsoil), and Tsoil of 20–40 °C, delivered high wood decay (MLwood > 20%). Higher MCsoil (90%WHCsoil) and Tsoil of 5–10 °C, delivered low wood decay (MLwood < 5%). Alternating Tsoil generally delivered less MLwood compared to their mean constant Tsoil counterparts (15, 20, 25 °C). The results suggest that differences in wood species and inoculum potential (WHCsoil) between sites, as well as changes in MCsoil and Tsoil attributed to daily and seasonal weather patterns can influence in-ground wood decay rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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24 pages, 3879 KiB  
Article
Predicting the Outdoor Moisture Performance of Wood Based on Laboratory Indicators
by Lukas Emmerich, Christian Brischke, Marten Sievert, Manuel S. Schulz, Anne-Cathrin Jaeger, Arne Beulshausen and Miha Humar
Forests 2020, 11(9), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11091001 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2285
Abstract
The service life of wood in outdoor use under humid conditions is mainly determined by its material resistance and the exposure situation. Different standards such as EN 350 (2016) point on the relevance of wood’s resistance against moisture for its expected service life. [...] Read more.
The service life of wood in outdoor use under humid conditions is mainly determined by its material resistance and the exposure situation. Different standards such as EN 350 (2016) point on the relevance of wood’s resistance against moisture for its expected service life. Recently, different standardized but also numerous nonstandardized methods were suggested to test the water permeability of wooden materials. In the context of this study, different European-grown soft- and hardwoods, tropical hardwoods, modified wood and wood treated with water- and oil-borne preservatives were subjected to floating and submersion tests according to CEN/TS 16818 (2018) and different short-term water uptake and release tests. Moisture performance data from field tests with the same materials were analyzed and used to assess the predictive power of different laboratory moisture indicators. The moisture characteristics suggested by CEN/TS 16818 (2018)—rm168 (residual moisture content after water uptake and release processes) and res312 (residue as a percentage of the absorbed moisture)—showed the little potential to predict the outdoor moisture performance of the tested materials. In contrast, the mean moisture content during absorption and desorption (MCmean) predicted well the outdoor moisture performance of the materials under test. Short-term water uptake and release of small specimens also showed high predictive power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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12 pages, 1464 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Evaluation of Three Stem Profile Equations for Three Precious Tree Species in Southern China
by Jun Jiang, Jie Li, Lifeng Pang and Angang Ming
Forests 2020, 11(6), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11060669 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1820
Abstract
Accurately describing the stem curve of precious tree species and estimating the quantity of various types of wood and their volume in the tropics can provide technical support for reasonable bucking. This study utilized Erythrophleum fordii, Castanopsis hystrix and Tectona grandis as [...] Read more.
Accurately describing the stem curve of precious tree species and estimating the quantity of various types of wood and their volume in the tropics can provide technical support for reasonable bucking. This study utilized Erythrophleum fordii, Castanopsis hystrix and Tectona grandis as study objects. Forty replicates of each species were used for a total of 120 individual trees. Their tape equations were constructed using simple tape equations, segmented taper equations and variable form taper equations. Statistical indicators were utilized to determine the best taper equation for the three types of precious tree species. A number of methods were compared and analyzed, including the index of correlation, the residual sum of squares, the mean prediction error, the variance of prediction errors and the root mean square error. Finally, a preliminary quantitative analysis was conducted to determine the trends of these three types of tree species. The result shows that the precision of the three predictions developed for each species is high, and, in particular, the segmented taper equations with optimized algorithms is the best. The tendency of the three species to vary was shown to be the highest for T. grandis in the range of 0.0 to 0.8 for its relative height, followed by E. fordii, while the variation of C. hystrix was the smallest. However, in the range of 0.8 to 1.0 relative height, the variation of Castanopsis hystrix was the largest, and the variation of both E. fordii and T. grandis were almost the same. Therefore, the segmented taper equations with optimization algorithms was recommended to fit the three types of tree species in the tropics. These types of equations can be used to estimate the stumpage and timber quantity and as a guide reasonable bucking for these three species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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11 pages, 3001 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Selected Accelerated Above-Ground Durability Testing Methods for Wood after Ten Years Exposure
by Tripti Singh and Dave Page
Forests 2020, 11(5), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050559 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3080
Abstract
Traditional benchmark wood durability testing methods such as stake tests take many years to give conclusive results, and in-ground tests do not always indicate the efficacy of preservatives in above-ground situations. To find test methods that would shorten the time required for wood [...] Read more.
Traditional benchmark wood durability testing methods such as stake tests take many years to give conclusive results, and in-ground tests do not always indicate the efficacy of preservatives in above-ground situations. To find test methods that would shorten the time required for wood evaluation for above-ground end uses, a series of different types of accelerated durability tests were set up. Five types of test: ground proximity, two types of decking, flat panels and double layer, were reassessed after ten years to determine whether the decay rankings given to the various types of preservative had changed over the extended exposure period. Exposure conditions varied between tests, with ground proximity being close to ground, and the double layer test carried out in very wet conditions, while raised decking and flat panel tests were relatively dry. In all of these tests, the preservative retention was 25% of the normal H3 retention. The results indicated that the ground proximity tests gave the fastest and most reliable results. Flat panels contained the next highest decay rates, followed by ground-level decking, double layer and raised decking. The evaluation and comparison of these five test methods after ten years’ field exposure confirmed the trend and relative decay rate that was observed at four-year exposure. The use of a regression model for prediction showed a statistically significant overall relationship between decay scores in 2011 and 2017 (coefficient = 0.14 ± 0.07, d.f. = 345.7, t = 2.038, p = 0.042). When resistance to decay was compared between preservatives, copper-chrome arsenate (CCA)-treated pine and naturally durable spotted gum samples were in better conditions than pine treated with any of the other preservatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

20 pages, 1892 KiB  
Review
Estimating the Service Life of Timber Structures Concerning Risk and Influence of Fungal Decay—A Review of Existing Theory and Modelling Approaches
by Philip Bester van Niekerk, Christian Brischke and Jonas Niklewski
Forests 2021, 12(5), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050588 - 8 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Wood is a renewable resource and a promising construction material for the growing bio-based economy. Efficiently utilising wood in the built environment requires a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics regarding its usability. Durability is an essential property to consider, as various types of [...] Read more.
Wood is a renewable resource and a promising construction material for the growing bio-based economy. Efficiently utilising wood in the built environment requires a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics regarding its usability. Durability is an essential property to consider, as various types of exposure create conditions for the deterioration of wood through biotic and abiotic agents. Biodegradable materials introduce increased complexity to construction and design processes, as material decomposition during a structure’s lifetime presents a physical risk to human health and safety and costs related to repairs and maintenance. Construction professionals are thus tasked with utilising wooden elements to accentuate the material’s beneficial properties while reducing the risk of in-service decomposition. In this paper, only the cause and effect of fungal induced decay on the service life of wooden buildings and other wood-based construction assets are reviewed. The service life of wood components can thus be extended if suitable growing conditions are controlled. Multiple existing modelling approaches are described throughout the text, with special attention given to the two most comprehensive ones; TimberLife and the WoodExter. In choosing an appropriate model for a specific application, the authors recommend evaluating the model’s regional specificity, complexity, practicality, longevity and adaptability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling the Performance of Wood and Wood Products)
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