Advances in Testing the Biological Durability and Quality Assurance of Wood-Based Materials and Products

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 24 June 2024 | Viewed by 6128

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Scion, Crown Research Institute (CRI), Rotorua 3046, New Zealand
Interests: timber durability; biocides; timber design; wood modification; wooden products
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Hamburg, Germany
Interests: wood quality; wood durability; wood modification; wood protection; service life prediction; structural health assessment; performance classification
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Wood and wood-based products have a high potential for sequestering carbon and can be obtained from sustainable forest resources. The longer a wood product remains in use, the more carbon remains bound. Thus, the biological durability of wood plays an important role in the service life of wooden structures and components. With the increasing regulation of wood preservatives and criticism surrounding non-sustainably produced tropical wood species, innovative approaches for improving wood durability are desirable.

Environmentally friendly and sustainable materials are becoming more popular, leading to increased interest in the development of biobased alternatives to traditional wood protection methods. These developments should improve the sustainability of wood-based materials and the products industry. Recent advancements in testing the biological durability and quality of wood-based materials and products include the use of accelerated testing methods, as well as improved, non-destructive testing techniques such as imaging and spectroscopy. The development of these advanced tests  may allow for a faster and more accurate determination of the durability and quality of wood-based materials, which is important for ensuring the long-term performance and safety of building and construction products.

We encourage studies from all fields, including method development, experimental studies, quality assurance monitoring approaches, and models to contribute to this Special Issue in order to contribute to the knowledge surrounding wood durability mechanisms, wood modification strategies and the protection of wooden structures.

Dr. Tripti Singh
Prof. Dr. Christian Brischke
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • field test
  • fungal decay
  • laboratory test
  • marine borer attack
  • performance
  • quality control
  • staining fungi
  • termite attack
  • test methodology
  • wood modification
  • wood protection
  • wood deterioration

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 8783 KiB  
Article
Study on the Process Optimization of Peanut Coat Pigment Staining of Poplar Wood
by Yiqing Qi, Ziqiang Zhang, Yue Sun, Liming Shen and Jianlin Han
Forests 2024, 15(3), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15030504 - 8 Mar 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
Wood staining is a crucial technique for enhancing the decorative effect of wood. Different mordants and mordant processes can influence the staining effect of wood. In this study, three types of mordants and mordant methods were selected to improve the color difference and [...] Read more.
Wood staining is a crucial technique for enhancing the decorative effect of wood. Different mordants and mordant processes can influence the staining effect of wood. In this study, three types of mordants and mordant methods were selected to improve the color difference and colorfastness to the washing of poplar veneer, using green peanut pigment as the dye. An orthogonal test was conducted to investigate the effects of mordant temperature, mordant time, and mordant concentration on color difference and colorfastness to washing. Range and variance analysis were employed to determine these properties’ main factors. A fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was used to evaluate and optimize the color difference value and colorfastness of washing. The results revealed that all three factors had significant impacts on both color difference and colorfastness to washing during the process of mordant staining. The optimal process conditions (temperature, concentration, time) for achieving desirable staining effects on poplar veneer were determined as 50 °C, 0.8%, and 2 h, respectively. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses demonstrated that the dye formed complexes with poplar wood, enabling it to adhere to wood grain apertures and tube walls effectively. Mordant treatment increased the crystallinity of stained wood significantly while improving its overall staining performance considerably. This study provides substantial data support for future optimization processes involving natural pigment coal staining in wood. Full article
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14 pages, 3392 KiB  
Article
Wood from Field Tests as a Model for Assessing the Suitability of Post-Consumer Wood
by Waldemar Perdoch, Mateusz Benc and Bartłomiej Mazela
Forests 2024, 15(1), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/f15010080 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 827
Abstract
The circular economy forces societies to take actions aimed at giving post-consumer products a “second life”. As we know, wood is perfect for this. Moreover, reusing wood helps keep carbon in circulation, thus limiting its emissions into the atmosphere. It turns out that [...] Read more.
The circular economy forces societies to take actions aimed at giving post-consumer products a “second life”. As we know, wood is perfect for this. Moreover, reusing wood helps keep carbon in circulation, thus limiting its emissions into the atmosphere. It turns out that extensive research on determining the durability of wood is very useful and valuable for one more reason. Well, they can be used to create a model to determine the usefulness of wood, which has only apparently lost its utility value during many years of exposure to external factors. The research subject was samples of wood impregnated with protection agents and modified, originating from many years of field tests. The aim of the research was to correlate the results of wood durability determined after a period of exposure in open space with the results of determining the potential usefulness of such wood. On this basis, a model for determining the value of post-consumer wood was created. As a main result of post-consumer wood analysis, the high durabilities against C. puteana with mass loss below 3% were noticed for acetylated, furfurylated, and CCA-treated wood. Moreover, high color stabilities (ΔE < 10) were observed for thermowood and furfurylated wood. Full article
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18 pages, 4836 KiB  
Article
ODCA-YOLO: An Omni-Dynamic Convolution Coordinate Attention-Based YOLO for Wood Defect Detection
by Rijun Wang, Fulong Liang, Bo Wang and Xiangwei Mou
Forests 2023, 14(9), 1885; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14091885 - 16 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
Accurate detection of wood defects plays a crucial role in optimizing wood utilization, minimizing corporate expenses, and safeguarding precious forest resources. To achieve precise identification of surface defects in wood, we present a novel approach called the Omni-dynamic convolution coordinate attention-based YOLO (ODCA-YOLO) [...] Read more.
Accurate detection of wood defects plays a crucial role in optimizing wood utilization, minimizing corporate expenses, and safeguarding precious forest resources. To achieve precise identification of surface defects in wood, we present a novel approach called the Omni-dynamic convolution coordinate attention-based YOLO (ODCA-YOLO) model. This model incorporates an Omni-dimensional dynamic convolution-based coordinate attention (ODCA) mechanism, which significantly enhances its ability to detect small target defects and boosts its expressiveness. Furthermore, to reinforce the feature extraction and fusion capabilities of the ODCA-YOLO network, we introduce a highly efficient features extraction network block known as S-HorBlock. By integrating HorBlock into the ShuffleNet network, this design optimizes the overall performance. Our proposed ODCA-YOLO model was rigorously evaluated using an optimized wood surface defect dataset through ablation and comparison experiments. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, achieving an impressive 78.5% in the mean average precision (mAP) metric and showing a remarkable 9% improvement in mAP compared to the original algorithm. Our proposed model can satisfy the need for accurate detection of wood surface defects. Full article
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12 pages, 3350 KiB  
Article
Durability of Wood Exposed above Ground—Experience with the Bundle Test Method
by Christian Brischke, Gry Alfredsen, Lukas Emmerich, Miha Humar and Linda Meyer-Veltrup
Forests 2023, 14(7), 1460; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14071460 - 17 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1134
Abstract
The durability against decay organisms is an essential material property for wood in outdoor use. A jack of all trades method for above-ground wood durability testing has been sought for decades, but until now no method has found its way into European standardization. [...] Read more.
The durability against decay organisms is an essential material property for wood in outdoor use. A jack of all trades method for above-ground wood durability testing has been sought for decades, but until now no method has found its way into European standardization. The method of choice shall be applicable for untreated and treated wood—ideally also for wood composites. It shall further be reproducible, objective, fast, easy, and inexpensive. Finally, it shall provide high predictive power. This study was aimed at a review of results and practical experience with the Bundle test method which could serve as a standard procedure for above-ground field tests of wood-based materials. The method allows for water-trapping, creates a moderate moisture-induced decay risk typical for UC 3 situations, and was found applicable for a wide range of wood materials. The method allows for rapid infestation and failure of non-durable reference species within five years in Central Europe. Based on results from Bundle tests with different modifications and performed at different locations, a guideline has been developed. The method is recommended as a suitable tool for determining the durability of various wood-based materials including modified and preservative-treated wood and can provide data for durability classification. Full article
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13 pages, 10840 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Durability Testing of Preservative-Treated Wood Products
by Christian Brischke, Marten Sievert, Max Schilling and Susanne Bollmus
Forests 2023, 14(5), 1001; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14051001 - 12 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Recently, certain European standards have allowed for the classification of the biological durability of chemically modified wood and preservative-treated wood, including treated products, but necessary methods for representative sampling and testing are lacking. Instead of sampling from products that can contain areas of [...] Read more.
Recently, certain European standards have allowed for the classification of the biological durability of chemically modified wood and preservative-treated wood, including treated products, but necessary methods for representative sampling and testing are lacking. Instead of sampling from products that can contain areas of varying durability, this study aimed at testing full-size products. Sections of untreated and preservative-treated terrace decking and palisades were incubated with pure cultures of brown and white rot fungi. Instead of mass loss, the decayed cross-sectional area was determined. The spatial distribution of decay and wood moisture content was investigated. After 16 weeks of incubation, all untreated product specimens showed signs of decay independent of the test fungus. The treated specimens were less affected. The mean and the maximum decayed cross-sectional areas were well correlated, for both the total and the sapwood cross-sections. The wood moisture content after incubation was always favorable for fungal decay, but highest where the specimens were in direct contact with the malt agar. Different infestation pathways became evident: (1) from the sapwood mantle, (2) via radial checks, and (3) from the end-grain. The latter should be prevented in order to better mimic real outdoor exposure conditions. Full article
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