Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Economics, Policy, and Social Science".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 58970

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Special Issue Editors

Graduate School of International Agricultural Technology, Seoul National University, 1447 Pyeongchang Daero, Pyeongchang 25354, Gangwon, Republic of Korea
Interests: forest governance; international cooperation; global regime; community-based forest management

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Guest Editor
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor Barat 16115, Indonesia
Interests: forest landscape restoration; landscape sustainability, biodiversity, ecosystem services; forest biomass; bioenergy and carbon sequestration
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Agroforestry is an intensive land management system involving the integration of tree management into crop and animal farming. It provides diverse ecosystem services by bridging agriculture, forestry, and husbandry to offer environmental, economic, and social benefits. In order to improve the benefits of agroforestry to meet development and climate goals, a systematic approach is necessary for understanding agroforestry practices, designing agroforestry policies and associated outcomes. Multiple methodologies, including systematic review and landscape restoration approaches, can be applied to analyzing agroforestry policies and ecosystem services derived from agroforestry practices. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on systematic approaches to agroforestry policies, strategies, and practices. It includes case studies from several countries from Asia to explore economic, social, and environmental dimensions.

Dr. Himlal Baral
Dr. Mi Sun Park
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • agroforestry (agrosilvopasture, silvopasture, forest farming, etc.)
  • agroforestry and ecosystem services
  • landscape restoration
  • sustainability
  • food security

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 1006 KiB  
Editorial
Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia
by Mi Sun Park, Himlal Baral and Seongmin Shin
Forests 2022, 13(5), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050635 - 19 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2946
Abstract
This paper introduces the Special Issue “Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia”. This Special Issue contains eleven papers on agroforestry at national, regional, and global levels. These papers discuss research trends; dominant services and functions of agroforestry; multiple case studies [...] Read more.
This paper introduces the Special Issue “Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia”. This Special Issue contains eleven papers on agroforestry at national, regional, and global levels. These papers discuss research trends; dominant services and functions of agroforestry; multiple case studies from Asian countries including Nepal, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Vietnam, Bangladesh, and Timor-Leste; and the benefits of agroforestry including income generation and carbon sequestration. They also interpret the goals, challenges, and social and cultural norms in agroforestry policies in national and local contexts. The research results can support policy design for the systematization and stabilization of agroforestry. This Special Issue provides us with scientific evidence and practical lessons on agroforestry policies and practices in Asia. It contributes to expanding the knowledge base for agroforestry and towards establishing and implementing agroforestry policies and practices in the region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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Research

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14 pages, 2615 KiB  
Article
Assessing Tree Coverage and the Direct and Mediation Effect of Tree Diversity on Carbon Storage through Stand Structure in Homegardens of Southwestern Bangladesh
by Md Mizanur Rahman, Gauranga Kumar Kundu, Md Enamul Kabir, Heera Ahmed and Ming Xu
Forests 2021, 12(12), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12121661 - 30 Nov 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Dealing with two major challenges, climate change mitigation and biodiversity loss, under the same management program, is more noteworthy than addressing these two separately. Homegardens, a sustainable agroforestry system and a home of diverse species, can be a possible choice to address these [...] Read more.
Dealing with two major challenges, climate change mitigation and biodiversity loss, under the same management program, is more noteworthy than addressing these two separately. Homegardens, a sustainable agroforestry system and a home of diverse species, can be a possible choice to address these two issues. In this study, we assessed tree coverage, and the direct and indirect effects of tree diversity on carbon storage in different carbon pools through stand structure in homegardens of southwestern Bangladesh, using Sentinel 2 and field inventory data from 40 homesteads in eight villages. An unsupervised classification method was followed to assess homegardens’ tree coverage. We found a high tree coverage (24.34% of total area of Dighalia) in homesteads, with a high overall accuracy of 96.52%. The biomass and soil organic carbon (p < 0.05) varied significantly among the eight villages, while total carbon stock did not vary significantly (p > 0.05). Shannon diversity had both direct and indirect effects on biomass carbon, upper layer soil organic carbon and total carbon storage, while basal area mediated the indirect effect. Both basal area and tree height had positive effects on biomass carbon and total carbon storage, with basal area having the strongest effect. These findings suggest that we must maintain higher diversity and tree height in order to maximize and sustain carbon storage, where tree diversity increases stand basal area and improves total carbon storage (including soil organic) in homegardens. Therefore, privately managed homegardens could be a potential nature-based solution for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation in Bangladesh. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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13 pages, 3857 KiB  
Article
Carbon Sequestration Potential of Agroforestry Systems in Degraded Landscapes in West Java, Indonesia
by Mohamad Siarudin, Syed Ajijur Rahman, Yustina Artati, Yonky Indrajaya, Sari Narulita, Muhammad Juan Ardha and Markku Larjavaara
Forests 2021, 12(6), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060714 - 31 May 2021
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 5050
Abstract
When restoring degraded landscapes, approaches capable of striking a balance between improving environmental services and enhancing human wellbeing need to be considered. Agroforestry is an important option for restoring degraded land and associated ecosystem functions. Using survey, key informant interview and rapid carbon [...] Read more.
When restoring degraded landscapes, approaches capable of striking a balance between improving environmental services and enhancing human wellbeing need to be considered. Agroforestry is an important option for restoring degraded land and associated ecosystem functions. Using survey, key informant interview and rapid carbon stock appraisal (RaCSA) methods, this study was conducted in five districts in West Java province to examine potential carbon stock in agroforestry systems practiced by smallholder farmers on degraded landscapes. Six agroforestry systems with differing carbon stocks were identified: gmelina (Gmelina arborea Roxb.) + cardamom (Amomum compactum); manglid (Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre) + cardamom; caddam (Neolamarckiacadamba (Roxb.) Bosser) + cardamom; caddam + elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.); mixed-tree + fishpond; and mixed-tree lots. Compared to other systems, mixed-tree lots had the highest carbon stock at 108.9 Mg ha−1. Carbon stock variations related to species density and diversity. Farmers from research sites said these systems also prevent soil erosion and help to restore degraded land. Farmers’ adoption of agroforestry can be enhanced by the implementation of supportive policies and measures, backed by scientific research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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20 pages, 2383 KiB  
Article
Global Trends in Research on Wild-Simulated Ginseng: Quo Vadis?
by Seongmin Shin, Mi Sun Park, Hansol Lee, Seongeun Lee, Haeun Lee, Tae Hoon Kim and Hyo Jin Kim
Forests 2021, 12(6), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060664 - 24 May 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3472
Abstract
To the best of our knowledge, no study has systematically reviewed and analyzed the research trends of wild-simulated ginseng (WSG) used for food or medicinal purposes in many countries. WSG, a non-timber forest product, has been traditionally produced using agroforestry practices, and it [...] Read more.
To the best of our knowledge, no study has systematically reviewed and analyzed the research trends of wild-simulated ginseng (WSG) used for food or medicinal purposes in many countries. WSG, a non-timber forest product, has been traditionally produced using agroforestry practices, and it has been consumed in various ways for a long time. WSG has a great demand in the market due to its medicinal effects, particularly in improving forest livelihoods and human health. Due to the significance of WSG, we conducted this research to explore the global research trends on WSG using systematic review methodology and keyword analysis. We used two international academic databases, the Web of Science and SCOPUS, to extract 115 peer-reviewed articles published from 1982 to 2020. The research subjects, target countries, and keywords were analyzed. Our results indicate four categories of WSG research subjects, namely growth conditions, components, effects on humans/animals, and the environment of WSG, and the case studies were mainly from the Republic of Korea, China, and the USA. Through topic modelling, research keywords were classified into five groups, namely medicinal effects, metabolite analysis, genetic diversity, cultivation conditions, and bioactive compounds. We observed that the research focus on WSG changed from the biological properties and cultivation conditions of WSG to the precise identification and characterization of bioactive metabolites of WSG. This change indicates an increased academic interest in the value-added utilization of WSG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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18 pages, 2111 KiB  
Article
Adoption of Agroforestry in Northwest Viet Nam: What Roles Do Social and Cultural Norms Play?
by Mai Phuong Nguyen, Tim Pagella, Delia C. Catacutan, Tan Quang Nguyen and Fergus Sinclair
Forests 2021, 12(4), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040493 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3830
Abstract
This article presents research about the influences of social and cultural norms on the adoption of agroforestry in the northwest mountainous region of Viet Nam. The farming systems practiced by various ethnic groups in the northwest mainly occur on sloping land, which extends [...] Read more.
This article presents research about the influences of social and cultural norms on the adoption of agroforestry in the northwest mountainous region of Viet Nam. The farming systems practiced by various ethnic groups in the northwest mainly occur on sloping land, which extends over 70% of the land area in the region. Decades of intensive monoculture of annual crops has resulted in severe soil erosion, contributing to soil degradation and decline in crop yields. Integrating agroforestry practices on sloping land has the potential to halt and reverse soil degradation and improve local livelihoods, but its adoption is conditioned by the diverse social and cultural norms of different ethnic groups. This research applies knowledge-based system methods in order to understand local opportunities, preferences, and constraints influencing the adoption of agroforestry practices, using a purposive, gender-balanced sample of sixty farmers from six villages across three provinces in the northwest region comprising people from Kinh, Thai and H’mong ethnic groups. Our results show that although farmers from all groups are aware of the economic and ecological benefits of trees for soil conservation in general, they have different perceptions about the benefits of particular agroforestry practices. Behavioural norms controlling agroforestry adoption vary amongst ethnic groups, and farmers’ individual social and cultural preferences influence their aspirations and adoption decisions. We conclude that developing appropriate agricultural interventions in a culturally rich environment such as northwest Viet Nam requires understanding of the context-specific needs and interests of socially and culturally disaggregated populations. Policies supporting agroforestry are more likely to contribute to more sustainable livelihoods and ecological benefits where they are tailored to the requirements of different ethnic groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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17 pages, 4034 KiB  
Article
Transformation of Agro-Forest Management Policy under the Dynamic Circumstances of a Two-Decade Regional Autonomy in Indonesia
by Dodik Ridho Nurrochmat, Ristianto Pribadi, Hermanto Siregar, Agus Justianto and Mi Sun Park
Forests 2021, 12(4), 419; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040419 - 31 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2876
Abstract
Agro-forest management policy is one of the most trending issues in Indonesia under the dynamics circumstances of regional autonomy. Regional autonomy has been recognized in the formal governance system of the Republic Indonesia through Regional Governance Law 5/1972 and Village Governance Law 5/1979. [...] Read more.
Agro-forest management policy is one of the most trending issues in Indonesia under the dynamics circumstances of regional autonomy. Regional autonomy has been recognized in the formal governance system of the Republic Indonesia through Regional Governance Law 5/1972 and Village Governance Law 5/1979. A strong political reform following deep economic crisis in 1998 has forced Indonesian President Suharto to step down, and the new government has to accommodate political reform agendas, included a broader regional autonomy, which has been implemented under a Regional Governance Law 22/1999, then replaced by Law 32/2004 and Law 23/2014. The existing Regional Governance Law has shifted almost all authorities in forest management from the regency to the province, and associated with the new established Law 11/2020 on job creation, a single license of multi-purpose forest utilization was introduced, including agroforestry, that will potentially reduce deforestation and improve the community welfare. This study evaluates key elements of local development goals, risks and barriers, as well as basic capitals for agro-forest management in Tebo Regency, Jambi Province, using an Interpretive Structural Modelling approach. Overall, this study concludes that weak coordination, low quality of human capital, inappropriate communication with stakeholders, and lack of financial resources are the greatest challenges to the implementation of agro-forest management, particularly agroforestry, as a part of social forestry schemes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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20 pages, 2155 KiB  
Article
Agroforestry Systems and Their Contribution to Supplying Forest Products to Communities in the Chure Range, Central Nepal
by Deepa Khadka, Anisha Aryal, Kishor Prasad Bhatta, Bed Prakash Dhakal and Himlal Baral
Forests 2021, 12(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030358 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6541
Abstract
Agroforestry (AF), an integration of agricultural and/or pastureland and trees, is a powerful tool for the maximization of profit from a small unit of land; however, it has been less well explored and recognized by existing policies. AF could be the best approach [...] Read more.
Agroforestry (AF), an integration of agricultural and/or pastureland and trees, is a powerful tool for the maximization of profit from a small unit of land; however, it has been less well explored and recognized by existing policies. AF could be the best approach to conserving the fragile soils of Chure and to supplying subsistence needs to the local people. This study endeavored to understand how the adoption of various AF practices contributed to people’s livelihoods in the Bakaiya rural municipality of Makawanpur District. To achieve this, 5 focus group discussions, 10 key informant interviews and 100 household surveys were conducted. These were analyzed using various statistical analysis tools: Kruskal–Wallis test, Games–Howell post hoc comparison test and Wilcoxon test. Thematic analysis was employed to understand the status and growth process of AF in the study area. Of three different AF systems used in the area, agri-silviculture was found to be the dominant form. Local people derived forest products, especially fuelwood, fodder and leaf litter from AF, where agri-silvi-pasture was most common. The three AF systems studied here were in turn compared with community forestry (CF), which is a participatory forest management system overseen by the community. People derived almost 75% of fuelwood from CF, whereas in the case of fodder and leaf litter, contributions from CF and AF were almost equal. Despite the potentiality of AF in fulfilling the demands of local people, promotional and development activities were lacking. This study recommends a strong collaboration of local people and concerned stakeholders for the promotion and technical facilitation of AF systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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21 pages, 4701 KiB  
Article
Assessing Sustainable Bamboo-Based Income Generation Using a Value Chain Approach: Case Study of Nongboua Village in Lao PDR
by Bohwi Lee, Hakjun Rhee, Sebin Kim, Joon-Woo Lee, Seungmo Koo, Sang-Jin Lee, Phayvanh Alounsavath and Yeon-Su Kim
Forests 2021, 12(2), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020153 - 28 Jan 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3969
Abstract
Many bamboo species are well suited for agroforestry as they are more versatile and rapidly renewable than trees. Bamboo is an important income source for rural villagers around the world, especially in tropical developing countries, such as Lao PDR (Lao People’s Democratic Republic). [...] Read more.
Many bamboo species are well suited for agroforestry as they are more versatile and rapidly renewable than trees. Bamboo is an important income source for rural villagers around the world, especially in tropical developing countries, such as Lao PDR (Lao People’s Democratic Republic). This study applied a value chain approach to compare potential incomes from different bamboo utilization models: (1) existing model of selling semi-processed raw materials (bamboo splits), and (2) new model of producing handcraft products locally. Using a rural village in eastern Lao PDR (Nongboua village in Vientiane Capital province) as a case study, we provided empirical assessments of two bamboo value chains. Based on interviews with the villagers and stakeholders and government statistical data from 2017 to 2019, existing and new bamboo production chains were evaluated. In the existing value chain, the final products, bamboo chopsticks, are worth $6.74/kg. The value chain starts with bamboo harvesting, collection, and management, which are done by villagers in Lao PDR and taxed by the Lao PDR government. Bamboo splits are then transported to Vietnam to make the final products to sell. Local villagers received only 4.9% of the total value. The new bamboo handicraft model could produce 9 bamboo cups and 60 medals from one bamboo stem worth $52.6–61.7 and $343.8. In this value chain, bamboo harvesting, management, and processing to final products are done by villagers. The handcrafts were collected by traders to be sold at souvenir shops. Local villagers could capture 29.4%–42.3% of the total values. Producing bamboo cup and medal could generate 1.12–2.17 and 234.8–244.6 times higher income for villagers per labor hour and per bamboo stem, respectively, and allow them to use more bamboo resource than producing bamboo splits to export to Vietnam. If applied to other rural areas in Lao PDR, the new bamboo product model for handicrafts can be a better income source for local villagers in Lao PDR with sustainable use of bamboo resources than the existing model. However, it requires extensive bamboo handicrafts training over a year. Although alternative uses of bamboo would be different depending on social, economic, and market contexts, the value chain analysis demonstrated in this study can be applied elsewhere to increase local retention of economic values generated from agroforestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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15 pages, 2043 KiB  
Article
Who Adopts Agroforestry in a Subsistence Economy?—Lessons from the Terai of Nepal
by Arun Dhakal and Rajesh Kumar Rai
Forests 2020, 11(5), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11050565 - 18 May 2020
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 4656
Abstract
Agroforestry is recognized as a sustainable land use practice. However, the uptake of such a promising land use practice is slow. Through this research, carried out in a Terai district of Nepal, we thoroughly examine what influences farmers’ choice of agroforestry adoption and [...] Read more.
Agroforestry is recognized as a sustainable land use practice. However, the uptake of such a promising land use practice is slow. Through this research, carried out in a Terai district of Nepal, we thoroughly examine what influences farmers’ choice of agroforestry adoption and what discourages the adoption. For this, a total of 288 households were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. Two agroforestry practices were compared with conventional agriculture with the help of the Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL) model. The likelihood of adoption was found to be influenced by gender: the male-headed households were more likely to adopt the tree-based farming practice. Having a source of off-farm income was positively associated with the adoption decision of farmers. Area of farmland was found as the major constraint to agroforestry adoption for smallholder farmers. Some other variables that affected positively included livestock herd size, provision of extension service, home-to- forest distance, farmers’ group membership and awareness of farmers about environmental benefits of agroforestry. Irrigation was another adoption constraint that the study area farmers were faced with. The households with a means of transport and with a larger family (household) size were found to be reluctant regarding agroforestry adoption. A collective farming practice could be a strategy to engage the smallholder farmers in agroforestry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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23 pages, 6335 KiB  
Article
A Systematic Map of Agroforestry Research Focusing on Ecosystem Services in the Asia-Pacific Region
by Seongmin Shin, Khaing Thandar Soe, Haeun Lee, Tae Hoon Kim, Seongeun Lee and Mi Sun Park
Forests 2020, 11(4), 368; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11040368 - 26 Mar 2020
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 7672
Abstract
Agroforestry is an intensive land management system that integrates trees into land already used for crop and animal farming. This provides a diverse range of ecosystem services by bridging the gaps between agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry. It is an important approach to [...] Read more.
Agroforestry is an intensive land management system that integrates trees into land already used for crop and animal farming. This provides a diverse range of ecosystem services by bridging the gaps between agriculture, forestry, and animal husbandry. It is an important approach to improve the environmental, economic, and social benefits of complex social–ecological systems in the Asia-Pacific region. This paper aims to examine the research trends in agroforestry and the current state of knowledge, as well as the research gaps in the ecosystem services of agroforestry in this region. A systematic mapping methodology was applied, where analysis units were academic articles related to agroforestry practices in the Asia-Pacific region. The articles published between 1970 and 2018 were collected through the international specialized academic database, SCOPUS. They were coded according to the types of agroforestry practices and ecosystem services. The research result indicates silvorable systems, especially plantation crop combinations, tree management, habitats for species, biological controls, and maintenance of genetic diversity and gene-pools, are the most prominent in the agroforestry research from the Asia-Pacific region. Approximately 60% of all research articles include case studies from India, China, Indonesia, and Australia. Research on agroforestry has changed following the international discourse on climate change and biodiversity. Therefore, this systematic map improves our understanding of the nature, volume, and characteristics of the research on ecosystem services with regard to agroforestry in the Asia-Pacific region. It provides scholars with a springboard for further meta-analysis or research on agroforestry and ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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Review

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21 pages, 1687 KiB  
Review
Agroforestry to Achieve Global Climate Adaptation and Mitigation Targets: Are South Asian Countries Sufficiently Prepared?
by Shalini Dhyani, Indu K Murthy, Rakesh Kadaverugu, Rajarshi Dasgupta, Manoj Kumar and Kritika Adesh Gadpayle
Forests 2021, 12(3), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12030303 - 6 Mar 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6250
Abstract
Traditional agroforestry systems across South Asia have historically supported millions of smallholding farmers. Since, 2007 agroforestry has received attention in global climate discussions for its carbon sink potential. Agroforestry plays a defining role in offsetting greenhouse gases, providing sustainable livelihoods, localizing Sustainable Development [...] Read more.
Traditional agroforestry systems across South Asia have historically supported millions of smallholding farmers. Since, 2007 agroforestry has received attention in global climate discussions for its carbon sink potential. Agroforestry plays a defining role in offsetting greenhouse gases, providing sustainable livelihoods, localizing Sustainable Development Goals and achieving biodiversity targets. The review explores evidence of agroforestry systems for human well-being along with its climate adaptation and mitigation potential for South Asia. In particular, we explore key enabling and constraining conditions for mainstreaming agroforestry systems to use them to fulfill global climate mitigation targets. Nationally determined contributions submitted by South Asian countries to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change acknowledge agroforestry systems. In 2016, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation’s Resolution on Agroforestry brought consensus on developing national agroforestry policies by all regional countries and became a strong enabling condition to ensure effectiveness of using agroforestry for climate targets. Lack of uniform methodologies for creation of databases to monitor tree and soil carbon stocks was found to be a key limitation for the purpose. Water scarcity, lack of interactive governance, rights of farmers and ownership issues along with insufficient financial support to rural farmers for agroforestry were other constraining conditions that should be appropriately addressed by the regional countries to develop their preparedness for achieving national climate ambitions. Our review indicates the need to shift from planning to the implementation phase following strong examples shared from India and Nepal, including carbon neutrality scenarios, incentives and sustainable local livelihood to enhance preparedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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Other

11 pages, 1397 KiB  
Opinion
Agroforestry: Opportunities and Challenges in Timor-Leste
by Shyam Paudel, Himlal Baral, Adelino Rojario, Kishor Prasad Bhatta and Yustina Artati
Forests 2022, 13(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13010041 - 1 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7331
Abstract
Agro forestry is a land management system that integrates trees, agriculture crops, and animal farming in order to provide a diverse range of ecosystem services. Timor-Leste, the newest country and one of the least developed counties, has faced multidimensional challenges on land use [...] Read more.
Agro forestry is a land management system that integrates trees, agriculture crops, and animal farming in order to provide a diverse range of ecosystem services. Timor-Leste, the newest country and one of the least developed counties, has faced multidimensional challenges on land use management, including deforestation, land degradation, and poverty. The agroforestry system is recognized as one of the viable options for balancing the socio-economic needs and ecological functions of the lands in Timor-Leste. The system has been practiced traditionally by farmers in the country; however, the lack of knowledge and experience, limited institutional capacity, and lack of funding have impeded the wider implantation of the agroforestry system in Timor-Leste. The Strategic Development Plan of Timor-Leste has recommended sustainable agriculture and natural resources management in the rural areas of the country to generate income and create employment for the youths. The paper presents the initiatives, challenges, and opportunities of agroforestry application in Timor-Leste to support sustainable forest management and livelihood improvement. Learning from existing initiatives, capacity building, market access, and financial incentives could promote the agroforestry system in the country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Systematic Approach to Agroforestry Policies and Practices in Asia)
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