Physiological Responses of Trees to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 6102

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Senior Lecturer in Ecology, School of Science, Auckland University of Technology, 34 St Paul St, Auckland 1010, New Zealand
Interests: plant ecology; tree physiology; global change ecology; plant–insect interactions; plant–pathogen interactions
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In many habitats, environmental stresses such as widely fluctuating temperatures, water shortage, or insect and pathogen infestations occur on a regular basis and often interact with each other. In adaptation to these recurring challenges, complex perception, signaling, and response pathways have evolved, allowing trees to cope with environmental constraints. The potential impact of environmental stresses on tree vitality was neatly captured in Manion’s famous decline spiral, illustrating how the interplay between biotic and abiotic drivers may amplify each other’s effect. The ability of trees to withstand adverse environmental conditions largely relies on physiological mechanisms governing stress acclimation and associated improvements in stress tolerance. The timing, intensity, and duration of single or co-occurring stressors certainly matter, and unfavorable combinations may push trees toward tipping points. Therefore, climate and land-use change often exacerbate stress levels, making trees weaker and more vulnerable to biotic attack. Climate-driven range shifts expose tree species to new environments with a different suite of stressors. At the same time, range expansions of biotic agents allow the colonization of new host tree species, often with deleterious effects on tree health.

Understanding stress physiology mechanisms and the boundaries within which the underlying processes operate is vitally important for assessing tree responses in a rapidly changing world. This Special Issue therefore calls for research or review articles contributing to this increasingly important topic.

Dr. Martin Bader
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • insects
  • pathogens
  • drought
  • heat
  • fire
  • cold
  • flood
  • salinity
  • wind
  • invasive species

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 7750 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of the 4-Coumarate: CoA Ligase (4CL) Gene Family in Eucommia ulmoides
by Jian Zhong, Jun Qing, Qi Wang, Chenlu Liu, Hongyan Du, Panfeng Liu, Qingxin Du, Lanying Du and Lu Wang
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081253 - 8 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is an important rate-limiting enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism that plays an important role in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, lignin and other secondary metabolites in plants. However, the family members and functions have not been identified [...] Read more.
4-Coumarate: coenzyme A ligase (4CL) is an important rate-limiting enzyme in phenylpropanoid metabolism that plays an important role in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, lignin and other secondary metabolites in plants. However, the family members and functions have not been identified in Eucommia ulmoides (E. ulmoides). In this study, 35 Eu4CLs were identified in the E. ulmoides genome, and the gene structure, conserved domain, evolutionary relationship and expression pattern were comprehensively analyzed. The results show that 35 Eu4CLs were assembled into three subgroups according to the classification in Arabidopsis, where Eu4CLs in the same subgroup had similar gene structures and conserved protein motifs. Putative cis-element analysis of Eu4CL promoter regions uncovered numerous elements related to the response of stress and plant hormones. Expression patterns showed that Eu4CL4/5/13/34 expression levels were positively related to chlorogenic acid content in different periods, which indicate that the synthesis of chlorogenic acid in E. ulmoides was regulated by multiple genes, and the genes regulating the synthesis of chlorogenic acid in different tissues were different. In addition, nine selected Eu4CL genes showed different expression patterns under cold, WeJA (methyl jasmonate), and ethylene by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay, suggesting that Eu4CL genes not only play an important role in the synthesis of chlorogenic acid, but also plays an important role in the process of biotic and abiotic stress. Taken together, these findings provide theoretical reference for further exploring the molecular characteristics and biological functions of Eu4CL genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses of Trees to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
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14 pages, 2878 KiB  
Article
Influences of Shading on Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis of Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.)
by Huixin Gang, Danni Zhang, Xiaojuan Sun, Junwei Huo and Dong Qin
Forests 2022, 13(7), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13071127 - 17 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Cultivation conditions may greatly affect fruit quality, especially in the accumulation of functional metabolites. Blackcurrant fruits (Ribes nigrum L.) have high ascorbic acid (AsA) concentrations. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of different shading treatments (full sunlight, [...] Read more.
Cultivation conditions may greatly affect fruit quality, especially in the accumulation of functional metabolites. Blackcurrant fruits (Ribes nigrum L.) have high ascorbic acid (AsA) concentrations. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the influence of different shading treatments (full sunlight, and 40% and 60% sunlight) on the fruits’ maturity, and on the levels of fruit firmness, soluble solid, AsA, and enzyme activity involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling in two blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) cultivars, ‘Heifeng’ and ‘Adelinia’. Shading conditions of 40% and 60% sunlight delayed fruit ripening and increased fruit firmness in both ‘Adelinia’ and ‘Heifeng’. Soluble solids in ‘Adelinia’ were markedly reduced by shading compared with ‘Heifeng’. Compared with full sunlight, the AsA content was significantly decreased in the ripe fruits under the 40% and 60% shading treatments. Additionally, the AsA content was decreased during the fruit development process under the 60% shading treatment, which was associated with the reduced activity of the enzymes monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione oxidoreductase (GR), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and L-galactose dehydrogenase (GalDH) involved in the biosynthesis and recycling pathway of AsA. The correlation analysis results showed that the activity of MDHAR, DHAR, GR, APX, and GalDH was significantly positively correlated with AsA concentrations during the 60% shading treatment in ‘Adelinia’ and ‘Heifeng’ fruits, suggesting that AsA biosynthesis and recycling were affected and the two cultivars have similar mechanisms to deal with shading. Our results not only provide a better understanding of the regulation mechanism of AsA accumulation under shading, but also provide a theoretical basis for taking effective cultivation measures aimed at the improvement of AsA levels in blackcurrant fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses of Trees to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
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10 pages, 2629 KiB  
Article
Endogenous Hormones and Biochemical Changes during Flower Development and Florescence in the Buds and Leaves of Lycium ruthenicum Murr
by Youyan Guo, Lizhe An, Hongyuan Yu and Miaomiao Yang
Forests 2022, 13(5), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13050763 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is one of the most important shrubs grown in northwest China. Healthy buds and leaves of L. ruthenicum Murr. were selected for the present study. Flower development was divided into six stages, namely, flower bud pre-differentiation (I), late flower differentiation [...] Read more.
Lycium ruthenicum Murr. is one of the most important shrubs grown in northwest China. Healthy buds and leaves of L. ruthenicum Murr. were selected for the present study. Flower development was divided into six stages, namely, flower bud pre-differentiation (I), late flower differentiation (II), squaring stage (III), dew crown period (IV), open stage (V) and senescent stage (VI). Endogenous hormone content and specific value, soluble sugar, sucrose, starch, and soluble protein were measured, and ABA/IAA, ABA/GA3, ZR/IAA, ZR/GA3, and C/N were calculated in buds and leaves at stage VI. The results showed that ABA, GA3, and ZR content of buds significantly increased from flower bud pre-differentiation to late flower differentiation stage. However, ABA, GA3, and ZR content of leaves had the opposite change trend. From open stage to senescent stage, IAA, ABA, and GA3 content of buds and leaves significantly increased in L. ruthenicum Murr. However, ZR content of buds and leaves significantly decreased from open stage to senescent stage. ABA/IAA, ABA/GA3, ZR/IAA, and ZR/GA3 values of buds significantly increased from lower bud pre-differentiation to late flower differentiation stage. However, ABA/IAA, ABA/GA3, ZR/IAA, and ZR/GA3 values of leaves significantly decreased from lower bud pre-differentiation to late flower differentiation stage. ABA/IAA and ABA/GA3 of buds significantly increased from open stage to senescent stage, but ZR/IAA and ZR/GA3 of buds significantly decreased from open to senescent. At this stage, ABA/IAA, ABA/GA3, ZR/IAA, and ZR/GA3 significantly decreased in L. ruthenicum Murr. The higher soluble sugar and sucrose content in the buds and leaves were beneficial to the flower bud differentiation of L. ruthenicum. The increasing of soluble sugar improved the energy basis to florescence and senescent. The carbohydrates metabolism enhanced from open stage to senescent stage and nitrogen metabolism reduced from open stage to senescent stage of L. ruthenicum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses of Trees to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses)
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