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Use of Unconventional Solutions for the Production of "Green Gas" in Terms of Environmental, Economic and Innovative

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A4: Bio-Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 6786

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, National Research Institute, Falenty, 3 Hrabska Avenue, 05-090 Raszyn, Poland
Interests: agricultural biogas; polydisperse substrate; underground coal gasification; georeactor; char; melted waste rock; syngas; gas permeability; tortuosity; porosity; flow resistance; isotropic porous material; polyamide sinter; orthogonal networks; CFD - computational fluid dynamics; turbulence; mechanisms of gas movement; unconventional technologies.

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Guest Editor
Central Mining Institute, Plac Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice, Poland
Interests: energy environmental science; thermochemical conversion of various fuels; biomass/biowaste/ sewadge sludge; sustainable development; energy technologies in particular coal and biomass gasification/co-gasification; combustion/co-combustion; cogeneration; renewable energy; hydrogen technologies; sustainable energy systems; environmental impact of industrial systems; energy storage; carbon dioxide capture; storage and chemical utilization (CCS and CCU); advanced methods of data mining (chemometrics); work health and safety culture in mining; risk assessment and strata monitoring
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The importance of technological innovation and its application is an indispensable element of industrial and research "foresight". The characteristic microflora of polydisperse substrates can be used in the biogas production process. The practical application of organic carriers in the form of a bed in "ex-situ" and "in-situ" conditions results in a more favorable use of substrates for the production of agricultural biogas in the context of renewable energy. The hydrodynamic conditions resulting from the permeability of porous materials are knowledge based not only on the assessment of gas flow through these materials, but also the related losses to the energy in this flow. The analysis of hydrodynamic phenomena occurring in a porous material with a skeleton structure allows to confront experimental research with numerical CFD calculations.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide original research papers and review articles about the latest developments and research efforts. This Special Issue focuses on unconventional techniques, methods and technologies for the production of biogas, biomethane, biohydrogen from biomass, bio-waste, sewage sludge and coal. For the successful production of "green gas" with ecological calorific value, it is necessary to develop new models or concepts from an environmental, economic and innovative aspect.

Dr. Grzegorz Wałowski
Prof. Dr. Adam Smoliński
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • substrates of biomass, bio-waste, sewage sludge, coal
  • production of biogas, biomethane, biohydrogen, green gas
  • CFD - computational fluid dynamics
  • mechanisms of gas movement
  • unconventional technologies
  • technical and technological aspects
  • economic and environmental aspects
  • thermochemical conversion

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

28 pages, 2742 KiB  
Article
Method of Evaluation of Materials Wear of Cylinder-Piston Group of Diesel Engines in the Biodiesel Fuel Environment
by Magdalena Kapłan, Kamila Klimek, Grzegorz Maj, Dmytro Zhuravel, Andrii Bondar, Viktoriia Lemeshchenko-Lagoda, Boris Boltianskyi, Larysa Boltianska, Hanna Syrotyuk, Serhiy Syrotyuk, Ryszard Konieczny, Gabriel Filipczak, Dorota Anders, Barbara Dybek and Grzegorz Wałowski
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3416; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093416 - 07 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
This article concerns the method of material consumption assessment of the cylinder-piston group of diesel engines in the biodiesel environment. The obtained experimental dependences of the wear coefficients on the example of the tribounit cylinder liner and the piston ring can be used [...] Read more.
This article concerns the method of material consumption assessment of the cylinder-piston group of diesel engines in the biodiesel environment. The obtained experimental dependences of the wear coefficients on the example of the tribounit cylinder liner and the piston ring can be used to forecast the resource use during operation under specific conditions of the engine and the environment as a whole. The article systematizes the types of biofuels, depending on the type of raw materials from which they were made, taking into account the process and application. The physical and chemical aspects of the catalysts used for biofuels were indicated. The applied experimental methods for tribological wear of the piston-cylinder pair were analyzed. B70 biodiesel was used in the research, i.e., 70% mineral diesel oil and 30% methyl esters of rapeseed oil. Experimental tribotechnical studies of the influence of biofuels on the behavior of various materials have shown that when using this type of fuel, it is necessary to replace the materials from which some parts of the cylinder-piston group are made. To solve this problem, research has been carried out on a specially designed friction machine. The novelty in the article concerns the association, based on the literature, of hydrogen consumption causing material wear in friction contacts. The mechanism of the interaction of various construction materials during such friction has been disclosed. Full article
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11 pages, 2738 KiB  
Article
Efficient Conversion of Ethanol to Hydrogen in a Hybrid Plasma-Catalytic Reactor
by Bogdan Ulejczyk, Paweł Jóźwik, Łukasz Nogal, Michał Młotek and Krzysztof Krawczyk
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3050; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093050 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The present work describes highly efficient hydrogen production from ethanol in a plasma-catalytic reactor depending on the discharge power and catalyst bed temperature. Hydrogen production increased as the power increased from 15 to 25 W. A further power increase to 35 W did [...] Read more.
The present work describes highly efficient hydrogen production from ethanol in a plasma-catalytic reactor depending on the discharge power and catalyst bed temperature. Hydrogen production increased as the power increased from 15 to 25 W. A further power increase to 35 W did not increase hydrogen production. The catalyst was already active at a temperature of 250 °C, and its activity increased with increasing temperature to 450 °C. The further temperature increase did not increase the activity of the cobalt catalyst. The most important advantage of using the catalyst was the increased ethanol conversion to CO2 instead of CO production. As a result, the hydrogen yield was very high and reached 4.1 mol(H2)/mol(C2H5OH). This result was obtained with a stoichiometric molar ratio of water to ethanol of 3. Full article
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14 pages, 4220 KiB  
Article
The Hydrodynamics of Translational−Rotational Motion of Incompressible Gas Flow within the Working Space of a Vortex Heat Generator
by Valeriy Nikolsky, Roman Dychkovskyi, Edgar Cáceres Cabana, Natalia Howaniec, Bartłomiej Jura, Katarzyna Widera and Adam Smoliński
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1431; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041431 - 16 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
The paper presents the results of analytical and experimental studies of the hydrodynamics of the translational−rotational motion of incompressible gas flow within a working space of a variable-geometry vortex heat generator. The terminal velocity and pressure have been identified analytically. The effect of [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of analytical and experimental studies of the hydrodynamics of the translational−rotational motion of incompressible gas flow within a working space of a variable-geometry vortex heat generator. The terminal velocity and pressure have been identified analytically. The effect of vortex generation on the ratio of the parameters has been analyzed. A mathematical model has been developed with a simplified design scheme that simulates the movement inside a vortex channel with fixed elements. On the basis of mathematical modelling, the influence of the apparatus-constructive (AC) design of the working space of a vortex heat generator on the generation of vortices inside the apparatus has been analyzed. The influence of the main geometric and hydrodynamic parameters of the device on the indicators of its energy efficiency has been investigated. The obtained models show the critical regions where the most intense cavitation zones are possible. An analysis of the hydrodynamics of the incompressible gas motion within the working space of the newly designed vortex heat generator with variable geometry has helped define both the terminal velocity and pressure. In addition, the effect of the facility geometry on the generation of vortices favoring cavitation was determined. The model studies have been carried out in terms of liquid loading changes in the 0.001–0.01 m3/s range. The changes in a velocity field within a working channel have been analyzed for the channel geometry, where a cone angle γ is 0° to 25°, with 130, 70, and 40 mm widths for the working channel. It has been identified that a sufficient axial symmetry of the heat carrier along a vortex accelerator enables the heat carrier inlet through a turbulizing nozzle. The dependence of the nozzle area, the effect on the efficiency of the vortex heat generator angle of attack of the vortex accelerator, and the ratio of the length and diameter of the vortex zone of the heat generator to its energy efficiency in general have been defined experimentally. These studies could be instrumental in the design of vortex heat generators whose geometry corresponds to the current requirements concerning energy efficiency. It has been found that the geometry of the vortex accelerator improves the operation of the heat generator by 35% in comparison with similar available designs. Full article
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22 pages, 2438 KiB  
Article
Raw Biogas Desulphurization Using the Adsorption-Absorption Technique for a Pilot Production of Agricultural Biogas from Pig Slurry in Poland
by Magdalena Kapłan, Kamila Klimek, Serhiy Syrotyuk, Ryszard Konieczny, Bartłomiej Jura, Adam Smoliński, Jan Szymenderski, Krzysztof Budnik, Dorota Anders, Barbara Dybek, Agnieszka Karwacka and Grzegorz Wałowski
Energies 2021, 14(18), 5929; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14185929 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1945
Abstract
The article reviews selected methods and techniques of agricultural biogas desulphurization. Presented is the current state of technological and measurement systems as well as raw biogas purification methods in terms of control and measurement-socio-economic aspects were also pointed out. On the example of [...] Read more.
The article reviews selected methods and techniques of agricultural biogas desulphurization. Presented is the current state of technological and measurement systems as well as raw biogas purification methods in terms of control and measurement-socio-economic aspects were also pointed out. On the example of a pilot agricultural biogas with the use of pig slurry, the required technical and technological criteria for the production and processing of agricultural biogas were indicated. The article presents the preliminary results of experimental studies on the course of changes in the volumetric composition of biogas on the basis of the average daily production of agricultural biogas.The amount of H2S in raw and purified biogas was analyzed with the proprietary biogas desulphurization method in terms of the process parameters. A novelty is the use of a developed carbon mixture (activated carbon) with turf ore (iron compounds), which allows for 100% desulfurization of raw agricultural biogas under process conditions for mesophilic fermentation. The measurement results show a clear influence of desulphurization using the proprietary adsorption-absorption technique-agricultural biogas. Full article
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