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Smart and Sustainable Energy Hubs for a Future Integrated Energy System

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 12 June 2024 | Viewed by 17541

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Electrical Power Engineering and Mechatronics, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Interests: power system planning; mathematical optimization; data science; machine learning

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Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway
Interests: energy Informatics; mathematical modelling; optimization; operations research; energy and power systems modelling

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Guest Editor
Department of Computer Science, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
Interests: energy informatics; distributed systems; Internet of things; fog computing; cyber-physical systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

An enticing concept for future energy systems is the so-called energy hub, which represents an interface between the energy infrastructure and the end-users. Energy hubs provide the flexibility to facilitate the management of integrated multi-energy systems. To facilitate the transition towards low carbon energy systems, energy hubs must be smart and sustainable. From the perspective of sustainability, the integration of renewable energy with storage technologies becomes crucial. From the perspective of smartness, an interdisciplinary approach is needed, where key subjects of computer science, mathematics, power engineering, economics, and social science should work together to enhance the overall performance. Energy informatics, an interdisciplinary domain tackling energy issues with the use of computer science, becomes key to unlock the potential of energy hubs and should be addressed at educational, research, and industrial levels.

With this Special Issue, researchers are invited to submit new and ongoing interdisciplinary research to increase knowledge and awareness on how a smart and sustainable energy future can be achieved through integrated energy systems and smart and sustainable energy hubs. This Special Issue welcomes both theoretical and applied works as well as position papers aimed at introducing new concepts and paradigms within the field.

Dr. Sambeet Mishra
Dr. Chiara Bordin
Prof. Dr. Frank Eliassen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • integrated energy system
  • optimization
  • energy systems modelling
  • operations research
  • energy hubs
  • energy informatics
  • cyber physical systems
  • energy analytics
  • machine learning
  • artificial intelligence
  • mechatronics
  • agent based systems
  • blockchain
  • interdisciplinary research in energy

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 5585 KiB  
Article
Prediction of the Spatial and Temporal Adoption of an Energy Management System in Automated Dairy Cattle Barns in Bavaria—“CowEnergySystem”
by Christoph Bader, Jörn Stumpenhausen and Heinz Bernhardt
Energies 2024, 17(2), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/en17020435 - 16 Jan 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
In view of rising global demand, energy is becoming a significant cost factor in industry and society. In addition to the global players China, India, and the USA, Africa will also become a driver of the world’s primary energy demand in the future [...] Read more.
In view of rising global demand, energy is becoming a significant cost factor in industry and society. In addition to the global players China, India, and the USA, Africa will also become a driver of the world’s primary energy demand in the future due to the rapidly growing developing countries. In addition to the armed conflicts in Ukraine and the Middle East, global energy markets are tense and volatile due to inflation and higher borrowing costs. Because of society’s desire to phase out the use of fossil fuels, the use of renewable energies is increasingly taking center stage worldwide and especially in Germany. Rural areas and agriculture, especially energy-intensive livestock farms, are particularly affected by this development and are therefore faced with additional economic challenges. Additional energy can be generated by using photovoltaic systems on the roofs of farm buildings or by utilizing the liquid manure from livestock farming in biogas plants. For these farms, such alternative sources of energy could open previously untapped potential and additional synergies for using their own inexpensive energy on the farm or supplying surplus electricity directly to the public grid as a market participant. Agriculture could thus serve as an actor in a decentralized energy supply and thus build up regional energy networks. However, intelligent electricity storage concepts and a corresponding energy management system (EMS) are essential to be able to utilize the potential for renewable energy generation at all, to coordinate both internal production processes and the varying energy demand and supply on the electricity grid. As agricultural production processes differ greatly from farm to farm and region to region, the introduction of an energy management system is strongly dependent on user acceptance. The purpose of this study is to use the web-based software tool ADOPT (CSIRO 2018) to predict the level of acceptance and the duration of the market launch of an EMS based on the region of Bavaria. Individual important influencing factors for the subsequent regional marketing concept are also identified. Full article
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27 pages, 1116 KiB  
Article
Pedagogical Perspectives of Interdisciplinary Teaching and Research: An Energy System Modelling Outlook in Relation to Energy Informatics
by Chiara Bordin, Sambeet Mishra and Fred Espen Benth
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5757; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155757 - 2 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1221
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss pedagogical frameworks and approaches to developing, delivering, and evaluating a new interdisciplinary course within the domain of energy informatics at both Master’s and PhD levels. This study is needed because many papers on [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss pedagogical frameworks and approaches to developing, delivering, and evaluating a new interdisciplinary course within the domain of energy informatics at both Master’s and PhD levels. This study is needed because many papers on sustainable energy engineering education concentrate on course content but provide very little information on the pedagogical methods employed to deliver that content. The proposed new course is called “smart energy and power systems modelling” and is aimed at discussing how mathematical optimization, in the context of computer science, can contribute to more effectively managing smart energy and power systems. Different pedagogical frameworks are discussed and adapted for the specific domain of energy informatics. An ASSURE model coupled with Bloom’s taxonomy is presented for the design of the course and identification of learning objectives; self-regulated learning strategies are discussed to enhance the learning process; a novel model called GPD (Gaussian Progression of Difficulty) for lecture planning was proposed; a teaching-research nexus is discussed for the course planning and enhancement. Adopting qualitative analyses and an inductive approach, this paper offers a thorough reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of the new course, together with improvement possibilities based on fieldwork and direct experience with the students and colleagues. Opportunities and challenges of interdisciplinary teaching are presented in light of real-world experience, with a particular focus on the interaction between mathematics and computer science to study the specific application of energy and power systems. Full article
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21 pages, 5562 KiB  
Article
Full-Scale Demonstration of Combined Ground Source Heating and Sustainable Urban Drainage in Roadbeds
by Søren Erbs Poulsen, Theis Raaschou Andersen and Karl Woldum Tordrup
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4505; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124505 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1643
Abstract
This paper proposes and demonstrates, in full scale, a novel type of energy geostructure (“the Climate Road”) that combines a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) with a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) by utilizing the gravel roadbed simultaneously as an energy source and a [...] Read more.
This paper proposes and demonstrates, in full scale, a novel type of energy geostructure (“the Climate Road”) that combines a ground-source heat pump (GSHP) with a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) by utilizing the gravel roadbed simultaneously as an energy source and a rainwater retarding basin. The Climate Road measures 50 m × 8 m × 1 m (length, width, depth, respectively) and has 800 m of geothermal piping embedded in the roadbed, serving as the heat collector for a GSHP that supplies a nearby kindergarten with domestic hot water and space heating. Model analysis of operational data from 2018–2021 indicates sustainable annual heat production levels of around 0.6 MWh per meter road, with a COP of 2.9–3.1. The continued infiltration of rainwater into the roadbed increases the amount of extractable heat by an estimated 17% compared to the case of zero infiltration. Using the developed model for scenario analysis, we find that draining rainwater from three single-family houses and storing 30% of the annual heating consumption in the roadbed increases the predicted extractable energy by 56% compared to zero infiltration with no seasonal energy storage. The Climate Road is capable of supplying three new single-family houses with heating, cooling, and rainwater management year-round. Full article
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16 pages, 1299 KiB  
Article
Harnessing Task Usage Prediction and Latency Sensitivity for Scheduling Workloads in Wind-Powered Data Centers
by Idun Osnes, Anis Yazidi, Hans-Arno Jacobsen, Frank Eliassen and Sabrina Sartori
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4469; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124469 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
The growing number of data centers consumes a vast amount of energy for processing. There is a desire to reduce the environmental footprint of the IT industry, and one way to achieve this is to use renewable energy sources. A challenge with using [...] Read more.
The growing number of data centers consumes a vast amount of energy for processing. There is a desire to reduce the environmental footprint of the IT industry, and one way to achieve this is to use renewable energy sources. A challenge with using renewable resources is that the energy output is irregular as a consequence of the intermittent nature of this form of energy. In this paper, we propose a simple and yet efficient latency-aware workload scheduler that creates an energy-agile workload, by deferring tasks with low latency sensitivity to periods with excess renewable energy. The scheduler also increases the overall efficiency of the data center, by packing the workload into as few servers as possible, using neural-network-based predictions of resource usage on an individual task basis to avoid unnecessarily provisioning an excess number of servers. The scheduler was tested on a subset of real-world workload traces, and real-world wind-power generation data, simulating a small-scale data center co-located with a wind turbine. Extensive experimental results show that the devised scheduler reduced the number of servers doing work in periods of low wind-power production up to 93% of the time, by postponing tasks with a low latency sensitivity to a later interval. Full article
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15 pages, 2084 KiB  
Article
Operation Optimization of an Integrated Energy Service Provider with Ancillary Service Provision
by Xinyi Lai, Zhihan Xie, Danlu Xu, Shuyang Ying, Yiming Zeng, Chenwei Jiang, Fei Wang, Fushuan Wen and Ivo Palu
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4376; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124376 - 15 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1319
Abstract
During the transition towards a low carbon energy system, and as a result of the increasing penetration of renewable energy generation, ancillary services play an important role in ensuring the security and economics of power system operation. An integrated energy service provider (IESP), [...] Read more.
During the transition towards a low carbon energy system, and as a result of the increasing penetration of renewable energy generation, ancillary services play an important role in ensuring the security and economics of power system operation. An integrated energy service provider (IESP), with the energy coupling and storage devices inside, can flexibly participate in electric energy markets and ancillary service markets. In this paper, a mixed-integer optimization problem is formulated to determine the optimal operating strategy for the IESP with ancillary service provision. First, the mathematical model of a regional integrated energy system (RIES) is established, including energy coupling devices and energy storage devices. Then, an optimization model for the IESP operation is formulated with the objective of maximizing daily operation profit, and the corresponding optimal capacity of ancillary service provision from the IESP is attained. Finally, case studies of an RIES are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method, and the impacts of the IESP with ancillary service provision on operational characteristics and economic benefits are analyzed. Full article
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18 pages, 3865 KiB  
Article
Multi-Time Period Optimal Dispatch Strategy for Integrated Energy System Considering Renewable Energy Generation Accommodation
by Chutian Yu, Xinyi Lai, Fei Chen, Chenwei Jiang, Yikai Sun, Lijun Zhang, Fushuan Wen and Donglian Qi
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4329; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124329 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
With the target of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, renewable energy generation (REG) develops rapidly. The increasing penetration of REG brings along the problems of fluctuation in power flow and the possible abandonment of wind and photovoltaics (PV) generation. In this context, the [...] Read more.
With the target of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, renewable energy generation (REG) develops rapidly. The increasing penetration of REG brings along the problems of fluctuation in power flow and the possible abandonment of wind and photovoltaics (PV) generation. In this context, the so-called integrated energy system (IES) becomes a promising solution to the accommodation of REG thanks to energy storage systems and coupling devices inside. In this paper, the optimal operation model of an IES is first presented, with the schemes of green certificate trading and carbon emission right trading included to provide economic incentives for accommodating REG. Next, in order to address the problem of uncertainty in REG, the devices in the IES are divided into three types based on regulation flexibility, and a multi-time period optimal dispatching scheme is proposed, including day-ahead optimal scheduling, rolling optimal dispatching, and real-time control strategy. Finally, it is demonstrated by simulation results of a numerical example that the proposed method not only promotes the accommodation capability for REG but can also cope well with contingencies. Full article
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14 pages, 4784 KiB  
Article
Distributed Voltage Optimization Control of BESS in AC Distribution Networks with High PV Penetration
by Zhenming Li, Yunfeng Yan, Donglian Qi, Shuo Yan and Minghao Wang
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4120; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114120 - 3 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Large-scale integration of PV generators in distribution grids will impair the voltage stability due to the stochastic and fluctuated PV power generation. To tame the volatile PV power generation, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are deployed as an effective yet expensive power buffering [...] Read more.
Large-scale integration of PV generators in distribution grids will impair the voltage stability due to the stochastic and fluctuated PV power generation. To tame the volatile PV power generation, battery energy storage systems (BESS) are deployed as an effective yet expensive power buffering mechanism. In this paper, a dual ascent-based voltage optimization control is proposed to achieve the concurrent regulation of battery State-of-Charge (SoC), nodal voltages, and distribution loss. This control features the limited dependence on the communication network with information interaction between neighboring nodes. Besides, it can achieve the optimal power flow minimizing the distribution loss while maintaining the BESS SoC within a healthy range. The derivation of the control framework is provided, and comparative simulations in the IEEE 37-node distribution system are performed to validate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. Full article
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Review

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22 pages, 2254 KiB  
Review
Applications of Blockchain Technology in Modern Power Systems: A Brief Survey
by Xiuli Wang, Fang Yao and Fushuan Wen
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4516; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134516 - 21 Jun 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 6153
Abstract
In the context of modern power system development to support the evolution towards green energy and carbon-neutral emission goals, many existing problems and even challenges demand new technical solutions. In recent years, decentralized blockchain technology has been employed to address some problems in [...] Read more.
In the context of modern power system development to support the evolution towards green energy and carbon-neutral emission goals, many existing problems and even challenges demand new technical solutions. In recent years, decentralized blockchain technology has been employed to address some problems in power systems, and many papers have been published. In this paper, the concept of blockchain is first introduced. A brief survey of the existing publications regarding the applications of blockchain in power systems, including power system dispatching, microgrid operation, energy trading, electricity trading settlement, transmission, and distribution system operation, is then carried out. In addition, several application scenarios of blockchain technology in power systems are also introduced. Through the discussion, we found that we still need to weigh the advantages and disadvantages, overcome its leakage, and bring its value into play if we apply blockchain technology in modern power systems in support of zero carbon goals. Full article
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