energies-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "H1: Petroleum Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 October 2022) | Viewed by 14605

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Energy Technologies, University of Vaasa, P.O. Box 700, FIN-65101 Vaasa, Finland
2. Civil Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11000, FIN-02130 Espoo, Finland
Interests: energy efficient low carbon buildings; heat recovery technologies; demand control ventilation; heat and moisture transfer in buildings; indoor air quality; renewable energies; thermal energy storage; unconventional energy (gas hydrate, oil shale); smart cities
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
National-Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of in Situ Conversion, Drilling and Exploitation Technology for Oil Shale, Jilin University, Jilin 130021, China
Interests: natural gas hydrate drilling; underground oil shale
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Earth Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Interests: mineral census; mineralogy; petrology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
Interests: oil shale; synthesis of polymer materials; in-situ mining
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Jilin 130021, China
Interests: oil shale; kinetic analysis; thermogravimetric
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Key Laboratory of In-Situ Property-Improving Mining of Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China
Interests: oil shale; coupling theory; in-situ conversion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
College of Construction Engineering, Jilin University, Jilin 130021, China
Interests: energy storage; biomimetic drilling technology; energy transfer and rock fragmentation mechanisms in geological engineering
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Energy and Power Engineering, Northeast Electric Power University, Jilin 132012, China
Interests: oil shale; semi-coke combustion; semi-coke power generation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Oil shale is an unconventional oil and gas resource that is listed as an especially important alternative energy resource in the 21st century for its rich resources and the feasibility of development and utilization. Due to the increasing demand for energy, theoretical research, exploration, exploitation, and utilization of oil shale have achieved fruitful results but also faced challenges. With the successful tests of high value-added utilization technology and in situ conversion technology of oil shale, oil shale scale development and utilization have shown broad potential for use in future fuels. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles addressing the geology, genesis, exploration, evaluation, mining, methods of processing and combustion, in situ conversion, economics and utilization of oil shale, as well as issues of environment problems.

Topics of interest for publication in this Special Issue include but are not limited to:

  • Genesis and metallogenic mechanism;
  • Exploration and resource evaluation;
  • Mining technology;
  • Composition and characteristics of oil shale;
  • Processing and combustion;
  • Economics and comprehensive utilization;
  • In situ conversion technology and challenges;
  • Oil shale’s environmental issues and challenges;
  • Socioeconomic impact and policy.

Prof. Dr. Xiaoshu Lu
Prof. Dr. Wei Guo
Prof. Dr. Qingtao Meng
Prof. Dr. Sunhua Deng
Dr. Fengtian Bai
Prof. Dr. Zhiqin Kang
Prof. Dr. Yan Zhao
Prof. Dr. Jingru Bai
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Oil shale
  • Kerogen&nbsp
  • Pyrolysis
  • Combustion
  • Retorting
  • In situ conversion
  • Oil shale ash

Published Papers (9 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

16 pages, 6100 KiB  
Article
Evolution of the Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Oil Shale with Temperature and Its Relationship with Anisotropic Pore Structure Evolution
by Juan Jin, Jiandong Liu, Weidong Jiang, Wei Cheng and Xiaowen Zhang
Energies 2022, 15(21), 8021; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15218021 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1168
Abstract
Due to its sedimentary characteristics and natural fractures, oil shale shows anisotropy in heat transfer characteristics. Moreover, the anisotropic thermal conductivity will change with the temperature. This change in the anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficient affects the temperature field distribution and heating efficiency during [...] Read more.
Due to its sedimentary characteristics and natural fractures, oil shale shows anisotropy in heat transfer characteristics. Moreover, the anisotropic thermal conductivity will change with the temperature. This change in the anisotropic thermal conductivity coefficient affects the temperature field distribution and heating efficiency during the in situ electric heating pyrolysis of oil shale. Therefore, it is very important to study the evolution of the anisotropy thermal conductivity coefficient of oil shale with temperature. In this study, the variation of weight loss and the specific heat of an oil shale with temperature is investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter. The variation of the anisotropic pore and fracture structure of the oil shale with temperature is studied through CT scanning technology. The variation of the anisotropic thermal conductivity with temperature is studied through the hot disk method. Finally, the relationship between the change in the anisotropic heat conductivity of the oil shale and the evolution of the anisotropic pore and fracture structure is discussed. The results show that the mass loss of oil shale mainly occurs after 400 °C. The thermal conductivity of both perpendicular and parallel to bedding directions decreases linearly with the increase of temperature. The research results of this study can serve as an important reference in the study of the in situ pyrolysis of oil shale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Factors of the Oil Shale Thermal Breakdown in High-Voltage Power Frequency Electric Heating Technology
by Youhong Sun, Shichang Liu, Qiang Li and Xiaoshu Lü
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7181; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197181 - 29 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1151
Abstract
We conducted an experimental study on the breakdown process of oil shale by high-voltage power frequency electric heating in-situ pyrolyzing (HVF) technology to examine the impact mechanisms of the electric field intensity, initial temperature, and moisture content on a breakdown, using Huadian oil [...] Read more.
We conducted an experimental study on the breakdown process of oil shale by high-voltage power frequency electric heating in-situ pyrolyzing (HVF) technology to examine the impact mechanisms of the electric field intensity, initial temperature, and moisture content on a breakdown, using Huadian oil shale samples. A thermal breakdown occurred when the electric field intensity was between 100 and 180 V/cm. The greater the electric field intensity, the easier the thermal breakdown and the lower the energy consumption. The critical temperature of the oil shale thermal breakdown ranged from 93 to 102 °C. A higher initial temperature increases the difficulty of breakdown, which is inconsistent with the classical theory of a solid thermal breakdown. The main factor that affects the electrical conductivity of oil shale is the presence of water, which is also a necessary condition for the thermal breakdown of oil shale. There should be an optimal moisture content that minimizes both the breakdown time and energy consumption for oil shale’s thermal breakdown. The thermal breakdown of oil shale results from heat generation and dissipation. The electric field intensity only affects the heat generation process, whereas the initial temperature and moisture content impact both the heat generation and dissipation processes, and the impacts of moisture content are greater than those of the initial temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5164 KiB  
Article
Study on Geometric Characteristics and Quantitative Description Method of Casing Deformation during Shale Reservoir Hydraulic Fracturing
by Kongyang Wang, Jingen Deng, Wei Yan, Dickson Muchiri Nguu, Qiwu Yin and Shengsong Huang
Energies 2022, 15(6), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15062280 - 21 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Casing deformation is a common but serious problem experienced during hydraulic fracturing operations in shale reservoirs. The Multi-Finger Imaging Tool is used to measure the casing deformation where the casing inner diameter is the only parameter used to characterize the deformation. Many deformed [...] Read more.
Casing deformation is a common but serious problem experienced during hydraulic fracturing operations in shale reservoirs. The Multi-Finger Imaging Tool is used to measure the casing deformation where the casing inner diameter is the only parameter used to characterize the deformation. Many deformed casing geometric details are often ignored, and these geometric characteristics are helpful for revealing the casing deformation mechanism. In this study, we established a quantitative method to describe the casing deformation using methods of judging the similarity of curves. By comparing the field casing deformation sections and the initial casing section, we categorized the casing deformation sections into concave and elliptical types. Furthermore, using the centroid calculation, elliptical type was sub-divided into symmetric ellipse type and eccentric ellipse type. On the basis of the Weiyuan and Guandong oil field’s fault distribution maps, we demonstrated that the fault slip could be the main cause of concave type and eccentric ellipse type. A numerical study was then carried out to ascertain whether fault slip can cause concave type and eccentric ellipse type casing deformations and to establish the relationship between fault slip magnitude and casing deformation. The results support the idea that concave type and eccentric ellipse type casing deformation are caused by the fault slip. Sensitivity analysis showed that the shape of the casing section was largely influenced by the dip angle, while the change of the casing inner diameter was largely influenced by the strike angle. The method proposed herein presents a useful step towards the prediction of the causes of casing deformation and provides a relationship between casing inner diameter change and fault slip. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 7955 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of Different Quality Oil Shales Developed in the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation, Yuqia Area, Northern Qaidam Basin, China
by Yueyue Bai, Zhaojun Liu, Simon C. George and Jingyao Meng
Energies 2022, 15(3), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15031231 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1745
Abstract
Oil shales are developed in the Shale Member of the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation in the Qaidam Basin, China. The oil shales can be classified into three quality groups (low-, medium-, and high-quality oil shales) through a comprehensive analysis protocol that includes Rock-Eval [...] Read more.
Oil shales are developed in the Shale Member of the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation in the Qaidam Basin, China. The oil shales can be classified into three quality groups (low-, medium-, and high-quality oil shales) through a comprehensive analysis protocol that includes Rock-Eval pyrolysis, total organic carbon (TOC) content, proximate analysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), major and trace element analyses, and maceral analysis. The low-quality oil shales mainly contain type II1 kerogen, the medium-quality oil shales mainly contain type I-II1 kerogen, and the high-quality oil shales mainly contain type I kerogen. All are immature to early thermally mature. The oil yield of the oil shales is directly related to their quality and are positively correlated with TOC content and calorific value. All studied samples were deposited under anaerobic conditions but in different paleoenvironments. The low-quality oil shales were mainly deposited in fresh-water environments, whereas the high-quality oil shales were usually developed in highly saline and reducing environments. Salinity stratification and evidence of algal blooms that are conducive to organic matter enrichment were identified in both medium- and high-quality oil shales, the latter having the highest paleoproductivity and the best preservation conditions. In summary, shale quality is controlled by a combination of factors, including algal abundance, preservation conditions, the existence of algal blooms and salinity stratification, and paleoproductivity. This study reveals how these different factors affect the quality of oil shales, which might provide an in-depth explanation for the formation process of lacustrine oil shales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2918 KiB  
Article
Influence of Gas Flooding Pressure on Groundwater Flow during Oil Shale In Situ Exploitation
by Lihong Yang, Zhao Liu, Hao Zeng, Jianzheng Su, Yiwei Wang, Xudong Chen and Wei Guo
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8363; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248363 - 11 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
In order to weaken the influence of external groundwater on in situ pyrolysis exploitation, the flow characteristics of groundwater were studied according to the oil shale reservoir characteristics of Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin, China. In addition, the parameters of marginal gas flooding [...] Read more.
In order to weaken the influence of external groundwater on in situ pyrolysis exploitation, the flow characteristics of groundwater were studied according to the oil shale reservoir characteristics of Qingshankou Formation in Songliao Basin, China. In addition, the parameters of marginal gas flooding for water-stopping were optimized. Taking a one-to-one pattern and a five-spot pattern as examples, the characteristics of groundwater flow under the in situ process were studied. Under the one-to-one pattern, the external groundwater flows into the production well from the low-pressure side, and the water yield was basically stable at 1000 kg/d. In the five-spot pattern, the groundwater can flow into the production wells directly from the windward side, and the water yield of the production well on the leeward side mainly comes from the desaturated zone; the water yield of each production well remains at a high level. By setting water-stopping wells around the production well and keeping the gas flooding pressure slightly higher than the production well, the water yield of the production well can be reduced and stabilized within 100 kg/d under gas flooding pressures of 3 and 5 MPa. However, the gas yield of the production well slightly decreased when the gas flooding pressure reduced from 5 to 3 MPa. Therefore, the gas flooding pressure of water-stopping wells shall be determined in combination with the water yield and gas yield, so as to achieve the best process effect. It is expected that the results will provide technical support for large-scale oil shale in situ pyrolysis exploitation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 2564 KiB  
Article
Constrain on Oil Recovery Stage during Oil Shale Subcritical Water Extraction Process Based on Carbon Isotope Fractionation Character
by Rongsheng Zhao, Luquan Ren, Sunhua Deng, Youhong Sun and Zhiyong Chang
Energies 2021, 14(23), 7839; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14237839 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1160
Abstract
In this work, Huadian oil shale was extracted by subcritical water at 365 °C with a time series (2–100 h) to better investigate the carbon isotope fractionation characteristics and how to use its fractionation characteristics to constrain the oil recovery stage during oil [...] Read more.
In this work, Huadian oil shale was extracted by subcritical water at 365 °C with a time series (2–100 h) to better investigate the carbon isotope fractionation characteristics and how to use its fractionation characteristics to constrain the oil recovery stage during oil shale in situ exploitation. The results revealed that the maximum generation of oil is 70–100 h, and the secondary cracking is limited. The carbon isotopes of the hydrocarbon gases show a normal sequence, with no “rollover” and “reversals” phenomena, and the existence of alkene gases and the CH4-CO2-CO diagram implied that neither chemical nor carbon isotopes achieve equilibrium in the C-H-O system. The carbon isotope (C1–C3) fractionation before oil generation is mainly related to kinetics of organic matter decomposition, and the thermodynamic equilibrium process is limited; when entering the oil generation area, the effect of the carbon isotope thermodynamic equilibrium process (CH4 + 2H2O ⇄ CO2 + 4H2) becomes more important than kinetics, and when it exceeds the maximum oil generation stage, the carbon isotope kinetics process becomes more important again. The δ13CCO2CH4 is the result of the competition between kinetics and thermodynamic fractionation during the oil shale pyrolysis process. After oil begins to generate, δ13CCO2CH4 goes from increasing to decreasing (first “turning”); in contrast, when exceeding the maximum oil generation area, it goes from decreasing to increasing (second “turning”). Thus, the second “turning” point can be used to indicate the maximum oil generation area, and it also can be used to help determine when to stop the heating process during oil shale exploitation and lower the production costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 81894 KiB  
Article
Particle-Size Fractionation and Thermal Variation of Oil Shales in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Implication for Hydrocarbon-Generated Process
by Jianliang Jia and Zhaojun Liu
Energies 2021, 14(21), 7191; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14217191 - 02 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1475
Abstract
The synchronous variation and association of organic matter (OM) and minerals in the hydrocarbon-generated process of oil shales are poorly understood. The goal of the paper is to investigate OM occurrence and thermal variation so as to reveal the hydrocarbon generation potential of [...] Read more.
The synchronous variation and association of organic matter (OM) and minerals in the hydrocarbon-generated process of oil shales are poorly understood. The goal of the paper is to investigate OM occurrence and thermal variation so as to reveal the hydrocarbon generation potential of oil shales. Based on detailed analyses of particle, organic, mineral, and thermal data from lacustrine oil shales in the Songliao Basin, we observed three layers of shale particles after settling in the water column characterized by a distinct color, degree of consolidation, and particle size. The particle sizes are divided into three ranges of fine grain (<1 μm), medium grain (1–20 μm), and coarse grain (>20 μm) via laser particle analysis. The particle-size distribution indicates the presence of OM polymerization and dominant contribution of the associated mineral surface and bioclastic OMs to the OM abundance of oil shale. Various OM occurrences are influenced by OM sources and redox conditions, whereas the degree of biodecomposition and particle sizes affect the placement of OM occurrences. Based on multiple thermal analyses, a synchronous response of OM and minerals to thermal variation dominates at 300–550 °C. The I/S and chlorite minerals are characterized by an entire illitization, while solid/absorbed OMs and hydrocarbon-generated water were expelled in large quantities. This contributes to major loss weights of oil shales during heating. The peak hydrocarbon-generated rate occurred at 457 °C for oil shales, corresponding to around 1.3% vitrinite reflectance value. These results are suggested to improve the understanding of OM occurrences and the thermal degradation constraint on the hydrocarbon-generated process, and contribute to the interpretation of the hydrocarbon generation potential and in-situ exploitation of oil shales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4488 KiB  
Article
Productivity Analysis of Fuyu Oil Shale In-Situ Pyrolysis by Injecting Hot Nitrogen
by Shuai Zhao, Qiang Li, Xiaoshu Lü and Youhong Sun
Energies 2021, 14(16), 5114; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165114 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of heat injection on productivity of Fuyu oil shale during in-situ pyrolysis was studied by using heat flow coupling analysis method. It is found that fluid conducts heat transmission to the oil shale stratum mainly along the fissure [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of heat injection on productivity of Fuyu oil shale during in-situ pyrolysis was studied by using heat flow coupling analysis method. It is found that fluid conducts heat transmission to the oil shale stratum mainly along the fissure formed by hydraulic fracturing. With the increase of heating time, the oil shale on both sides of fissures were effectively pyrolyzed, and the porosity of the formation increases and the diffusion range of the nitrogen to the oil shale stratum is also improved. After 200 days, the oil shale around the fractures first reaches the pyrolysis temperature, and 700 days later, the average temperature of the oil shale stratum reaches 500 °C; therefore, the whole oil shale can be effectively pyrolyzed. Productivity analysis shows that the best exploitation temperature is 500 °C. When the gas injection rate is in the range of 1.0~11.0 m3/min, different degrees of heat loss will occur, and the output is also different. The pyrolysis time reaches 100~150 days, showing the peak value of daily production, which is between 0.5~3.2 m3/day. The pressure of displacement fluid affects oil shale product recovery in in-situ pyrolysis. High pressure helps to improve the displacement efficiency of oil and gas products and increase the productivity of oil shale in-situ pyrolysis. The best acting pressure is 9.5 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4637 KiB  
Article
Paleovegetational Reconstruction and Implications on Formation of Oil Shale and Coal in the Lower Cretaceous Laoheishan Basin (NE China): Evidence from Palynology and Terpenoid Biomarkers
by Yu Song, Kai Zhu, Yinbo Xu, Qingtao Meng, Zhaojun Liu, Pingchang Sun and Xiang Ye
Energies 2021, 14(15), 4704; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14154704 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
In some cases, the oil shale deposited in shallow lakes may be genetically associated with the coal-bearing successions. Although paleovegetation is an important controlling factor for the formation of oil shale- and coal-bearing successions, few studies have focused on their joint characterization. In [...] Read more.
In some cases, the oil shale deposited in shallow lakes may be genetically associated with the coal-bearing successions. Although paleovegetation is an important controlling factor for the formation of oil shale- and coal-bearing successions, few studies have focused on their joint characterization. In this study, a total of twenty-one oil shale and coal samples were collected from the upper member of the Lower Cretaceous Muling Formation (K1ml2) in the Laoheishan Basin, and investigated for their bulk geochemical, maceral, palynological, and terpenoid biomarker characteristics, in order to reconstruct the paleovegetation and reveal its influence on the formation of oil shale and coal. The K1ml2 is subdivided into lower, middle, and upper units. The studied oil shale samples from the lower and upper units display a high ash yield (Ad), low total organic carbon (TOC) and sulfur (S) contents, and limited hydrocarbon generation potential. The studied coal samples from the middle unit are characterized by low Ad, and high TOC and low S values, and show significant hydrocarbon generation potential. The paleovegetation during the formation of the lower unit was dominated by mire vegetation, such as shrubs (e.g., Lygodiaceae, Schizaeaceae), tree ferns (e.g., Dicksoniaceae/Cyatheaceae), and coniferous trees (e.g., Podocarpaceae). In the middle unit interval, the paleovegetation was represented by highland vegetation (Pinaceae and Araucariaceae) and peat-forming coniferous plants (e.g., Podocarpaceae, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae). Various vegetation, such as herbs (e.g., Osmundaceae), shrubs (e.g., Schizaeaceae), and coniferous trees (e.g., Podocarpaceae) was prosperous during the upper unit interval. Coniferous trees could provide abundant hydrogen-rich materials (e.g., resins) to the mire/lake, which may elevate the hydrogen content in peat/lake sediments, and finally result in higher hydrocarbon generation potential in the coal than in the oil shale. Therefore, the influence of paleovegetation on the formation of oil shale and coal should be fully considered when studying oil shale- and coal-bearing successions. The results also provide guidance for further exploration studies on oil shale and coal in northeast China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research and Development Progress in Oil Shale)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop