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Gas Hydrate Energy Technologies for Net-Zero Carbon Emissions

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "I1: Fuel".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 6855

Special Issue Editors


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Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, USA
Interests: marine geophysics; natural gas hydrates; shallow gas; subduction zones; submarine geohazards
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Guest Editor
School of Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
Interests: flow assurance; gas hydrates; subsea petroleum systems; interfacial thermodynamics
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Guest Editor
National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
Interests: gas hydrates; unconventional resource assessment; geophysical prospecting; numerical simulation

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Guest Editor
Centre for Gas Hydrate Research, Institute of Petroleum Engineering Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
Interests: natural gas hydrates; hydrocarbon production systems; flow assurance; low dosage hydrate inhibitors; phase behaviour; hydrate kinetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Gas hydrate, a solid clathrate structure containing gas, offers a variety of potential applications that may aid in reaching net-zero carbon emissions by offering a carbon-neutral energy source and by supporting the hydrogen economy.  

We are requesting contributions to a Special Issue on such applications of gas hydrate. Topics include subsurface CO2 sequestration in the form of CO2 hydrate, the potential for CO2 to replace CH4 in gas hydrates as a pathway toward carbon-neutral production of natural gas, hydrate technologies that provide a means for CO2 and H2 gas capture/storage, novel low-dosage hydrate inhibition (AAs, KHIs, cold flow) that could displace traditional energy-intensive THI (thermodynamic inhibitor) regeneration, and emerging flow assurance issues related to greener energy production such as in the case of H2 storage in depleted gas reservoirs and subsurface CO2 disposal.

This Special Issue aims at covering a broad, interdisciplinary range of topics including chemical engineering, flow-assurance studies, H2 hydrate properties, laboratory and field experiments on natural gas hydrates, gas hydrate production modelling, and others.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript. Full papers, communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Dr. Ingo Pecher
Prof. Dr. Zachary M. Aman
Dr. Ray Boswell
Dr. Ross Anderson
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • gas hydrates
  • CO2-CH4 exchange
  • CO2/H2 capture and storage
  • carbon-neutral technologies

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

29 pages, 82912 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamic Feasibility of the Black Sea CH4 Hydrate Replacement by CO2 Hydrate
by Bjørn Kvamme and Atanas Vasilev
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031223 - 23 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1358
Abstract
There is an international consensus that reductions of CO2 emissions are needed in order to reduce global warming. So far, underground aquifer storage of CO2 is the only commercially active option, and it has been so since 1996, when STAOIL started [...] Read more.
There is an international consensus that reductions of CO2 emissions are needed in order to reduce global warming. So far, underground aquifer storage of CO2 is the only commercially active option, and it has been so since 1996, when STAOIL started injecting a million tons of CO2 per year into the Utsira formation. Storage of CO2 in the form of solid hydrate is another option that is safer. Injection of CO2 into CH4 hydrate-filled sediments can lead to an exchange in which the in situ CH4 hydrate dissociates and releases CH4. Two types of additives are needed, however, to make this exchange feasible. The primary objective of the first additive is related to hydrodynamics and the need to increase injection gas permeability relative to injection of pure CO2. This type of additive is typically added in amounts resulting in concentration ranges of additive in the order of tens of percentages of CO2/additive mixture. These additives will, therefore, have impact on the thermodynamic properties of the CO2 in the mixture. A second additive is added in order to reduce the blocking of pores by new hydrates created from the injection gas and free pore water. The second additive is a surfactant and is normally added in ppm amounts to the gas mixture. A typical choice for the first additive has been N2. The simple reasons for that are the substantial change in rheological properties for the injection gas mixture and a limited, but still significant, stabilization of the small cavities of structure I. There are, however, thermodynamic limitations related to adding N2 to the CO2. In this work, we discuss a systematic and consistent method for the evaluation of the feasibility of CO2 injection into CH4 hydrate-filled reservoirs. The method consists of four thermodynamic criterions derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. An important goal is that utilization of this method can save money in experimental planning by avoiding the design of CO2 injection mixtures that are not expected to work based on fundamental thermodynamic principles. The scheme is applied to hydrates in the Black Sea. Without compositional information and the knowledge that there is some verified H2S in some sites, we illustrate that the observed bottom hydrate stability limits are all with hydrate stability limits of hydrates containing from 0 to 3 mole% H2S. A limited number of different injection gas mixtures has been examined, and the optimum injection gas composition of 70 mole% CO2, 20 mole% N2, 5 mole% CH4, and 5 mole% C2H6 is feasible. In addition, a surfactant mixture is needed to reduce blocking hydrate films from injection gas hydrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrate Energy Technologies for Net-Zero Carbon Emissions)
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23 pages, 3651 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Particle Size and Hydrate Formation Path on the Geomechanical Behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sands
by Mandeep R. Pandey, Jeffrey A. Priest and Jocelyn L. Hayley
Energies 2022, 15(24), 9632; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15249632 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Determining the geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sands (HBS), such as strength and stiffness, are critical for evaluating the potential for the economic and safe recovery of methane gas from HBS reservoirs. To date, results from numerous independent laboratory studies on synthesized HBS have [...] Read more.
Determining the geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sands (HBS), such as strength and stiffness, are critical for evaluating the potential for the economic and safe recovery of methane gas from HBS reservoirs. To date, results from numerous independent laboratory studies on synthesized HBS have shown that strength and stiffness are largely influenced by hydrate saturation, the method adopted for hydrate formation, and to a lesser extent, the confining stresses applied during testing. However, a significant scatter is observed in the data even when these conditions are similar. These include recent studies on natural HBS where sands with larger particle size distribution (PSD) exhibited higher strengths despite lower hydrate saturation. To investigate the impact of PSD, and the role that specific hydrate formation conditions might impose, on the strength and stiffness of HBS, a series of laboratory tests were carried out on sand specimens formed with different particle size distributions and utilizing different approaches for forming gas saturated HBS. The laboratory apparatus included a resonant column drive head to measure the small-strain stiffness of the specimen during hydrate formation, and subsequent drained compressional shearing to capture the stress-strain response of the HBS. Results indicate that the PSD significantly affects both the stiffness evolution (during hydrate formation) and peak strength at failure after formation compared to the effect of the methodology adopted for hydrate formation. These observations improve our understanding of the geomechanical behavior of laboratory-synthesized HBS and allow more robust relationships to be developed between them and natural HBS. This may aid in the development of economic and safe methane gas production methods to help realize the energy resource potential of HBS reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrate Energy Technologies for Net-Zero Carbon Emissions)
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16 pages, 4444 KiB  
Article
Monitoring Offshore CO2 Sequestration Using Marine CSEM Methods; Constraints Inferred from Field- and Laboratory-Based Gas Hydrate Studies
by Steven Constable and Laura A. Stern
Energies 2022, 15(19), 7411; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15197411 - 09 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Offshore geological sequestration of CO2 offers a viable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Strategies include injection of CO2 into the deep-ocean or ocean-floor sediments, whereby depending on pressure–temperature conditions, CO2 can be trapped physically, gravitationally, or [...] Read more.
Offshore geological sequestration of CO2 offers a viable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Strategies include injection of CO2 into the deep-ocean or ocean-floor sediments, whereby depending on pressure–temperature conditions, CO2 can be trapped physically, gravitationally, or converted to CO2 hydrate. Energy-driven research continues to also advance CO2-for-CH4 replacement strategies in the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), producing methane for natural gas needs while sequestering CO2. In all cases, safe storage of CO2 requires reliable monitoring of the targeted CO2 injection sites and the integrity of the repository over time, including possible leakage. Electromagnetic technologies used for oil and gas exploration, sensitive to electrical conductivity, have long been considered an optimal monitoring method, as CO2, similar to hydrocarbons, typically exhibits lower conductivity than the surrounding medium. We apply 3D controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) forward modeling code to simulate an evolving CO2 reservoir in deep-ocean sediments, demonstrating sufficient sensitivity and resolution of CSEM data to detect reservoir changes even before sophisticated inversion of data. Laboratory measurements place further constraints on evaluating certain systems within the GHSZ; notably, CO2 hydrate is measurably weaker than methane hydrate, and >1 order of magnitude more conductive, properties that may affect site selection, stability, and modeling considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrate Energy Technologies for Net-Zero Carbon Emissions)
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14 pages, 6085 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on the Distribution Characteristics of CO2 in Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediment during CH4/CO2 Replacement
by Jianye Sun, Xiluo Hao, Chengfeng Li, Nengyou Wu, Qiang Chen, Changling Liu, Yanlong Li, Qingguo Meng, Li Huang and Qingtao Bu
Energies 2022, 15(15), 5634; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15155634 - 03 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
CH4/CO2 replacement is of great significance for the exploitation of natural gas hydrate resources and CO2 storage. The feasibility of this method relies on our understanding of the CH4/CO2 replacement efficiency and mechanism. In this study, [...] Read more.
CH4/CO2 replacement is of great significance for the exploitation of natural gas hydrate resources and CO2 storage. The feasibility of this method relies on our understanding of the CH4/CO2 replacement efficiency and mechanism. In this study, CH4/CO2 replacement experiments were carried out to study the distribution characteristics of CH4 and CO2 in hydrate-bearing sediments during and after replacement. Similar to previously reported data, our experiments also implied that the CH4/CO2 replacement process could be divided into two stages: fast reaction and slow reaction, representing CH4/CO2 replacement in the hydrate-gas interface and bidirectional CH4/CO2 diffusion caused replacement, respectively. After replacement, the CO2 content gradually decreased, and the methane content gradually increased with the increase of sediment depth. Higher replacement percentage can be achieved with higher replacement temperature and lower initial saturation of methane hydrate. Based on the calculation of CO2 consumption amounts, it was found that the replacement mainly took place in the fast reaction stage while the formation of CO2 hydrate by gaseous CO2 and water almost runs through the whole experimental process. Thus, the pore scale CH4/CO2 replacement process in sediments can be summarized in the following steps: CO2 injection, CO2 diffusing into sedimentary layer, occurrence of CH4/CO2 replacement and CO2 hydrate formation, wrapping of methane hydrate by mixed CH4-CO2 hydrate, continuous CO2 hydrate formation, and almost stagnant CH4/CO2 replacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Hydrate Energy Technologies for Net-Zero Carbon Emissions)
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