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Chemical and Biochemical Processes for Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources II

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 4201

Special Issue Editor


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Institute of Chemical Engineering, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Bl. 103, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
Interests: chemical engineering; biochemical engineering; fuel cells; environment protection
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue considers various approaches and technologies for a circular economy either by renewable energy production or recycling waste (household or industrial) for the needs of energy demand. Such technologies are biofuel production (biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel, and higher alcohols), hydrogen energy, fuel cell applications with various reductors serving as fuel, and waste recycling to obtain energy sources—pyrolysis to produce synthesis gas, as well as carbon dioxide recycling to obtain fuels (carbon monoxide, methanol, and methane) and chemicals.

The chemical methods involved in these energy productions are catalysis and electrochemistry, being compatible and complementary as technology and a final goal. Energy storage in batteries, or as hydrogen in adsorbents, is also a topic in this Issue.

Biofuels are produced by biotechnologies, mainly being used as feedstock for other chemical applications, besides being directly used as fuels. Articles for advanced botechnologies in this field are welcome.

Integrated technologies for energy production and waste recycling for energy and secondary feedstocks are welcome too.

Prof. Dr. Venko N. Beschkov
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • chemicals for energy storage
  • electrochemical methods for chemical and fuel production
  • pyrolysis for energy and fuel production
  • hydrogen production and storage
  • fuel cells with renewable sources
  • biomass for energy and fuel production
  • hydrogen sulfide for energy production

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Review

23 pages, 4005 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on the Development of Technologies for Hydrogen as a Carrier of Sustainable Energy
by Venko Beschkov and Evgeniy Ganev
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6108; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176108 - 22 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
Hydrogen is a prospective energy carrier because there are practically no gaseous emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during its use as a fuel. The great benefit of hydrogen being a practically inexhaustible carbon-free fuel makes it an attractive alternative to fossil [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a prospective energy carrier because there are practically no gaseous emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere during its use as a fuel. The great benefit of hydrogen being a practically inexhaustible carbon-free fuel makes it an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. I.e., there is a circular process of energy recovery and use. Another big advantage of hydrogen as a fuel is its high energy content per unit mass compared to fossil fuels. Nowadays, hydrogen is broadly used as fuel in transport, including fuel cell applications, as a raw material in industry, and as an energy carrier for energy storage. The mass exploitation of hydrogen in energy production and industry poses some important challenges. First, there is a high price for its production compared to the price of most fossil fuels. Next, the adopted traditional methods for hydrogen production, like water splitting by electrolysis and methane reforming, lead to the additional charging of the atmosphere with carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas. This fact prompts the use of renewable energy sources for electrolytic hydrogen production, like solar and wind energy, hydropower, etc. An important step in reducing the price of hydrogen as a fuel is the optimal design of supply chains for its production, distribution, and use. Another group of challenges hindering broad hydrogen utilization are storage and safety. We discuss some of the obstacles to broad hydrogen application and argue that they should be overcome by new production and storage technologies. The present review summarizes the new achievements in hydrogen application, production, and storage. The approach of optimization of supply chains for hydrogen production and distribution is considered, too. Full article
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39 pages, 1828 KiB  
Review
Influence of Catalyst on the Yield and Quality of Bio-Oil for the Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass: A Comprehensive Review
by Md Sumon Reza, Zhanar Baktybaevna Iskakova, Shammya Afroze, Kairat Kuterbekov, Asset Kabyshev, Kenzhebatyr Zh. Bekmyrza, Marzhan M. Kubenova, Muhammad Saifullah Abu Bakar, Abul K. Azad, Hridoy Roy and Md Shahinoor Islam
Energies 2023, 16(14), 5547; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16145547 - 22 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2094
Abstract
In the modern world, as the population rises and fossil fuel supplies decline, energy demands continue to rise. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels harms the ecology, contributing to pollution and global warming. In order to overcome these difficulties, several approaches are revealed, [...] Read more.
In the modern world, as the population rises and fossil fuel supplies decline, energy demands continue to rise. Moreover, the use of fossil fuels harms the ecology, contributing to pollution and global warming. In order to overcome these difficulties, several approaches are revealed, such as the utilization of biomass as a renewable source of energy. Studies revealed that biomass can be converted into bioenergy via several thermal conversion processes, like pyrolysis, gasification, and torrefaction. Pyrolysis is the most convenient process to obtain three different types of biofuels (biochar as a solid, bio-oil as a liquid, and syngas as a gas). The biofuels produced in this process are normally lower in quality and cannot be used directly as fuel because they contain many undesirable components. Catalytic pyrolysis is one of the best processes to upgrade the quality of biofuels. Several varieties of catalysts are used in the catalytic pyrolysis process (ex situ and in situ). Due to stable operating conditions, both catalytic and non-catalytic pyrolysis procedures produce biochar that has a consistent output. Meanwhile, the effects of catalysts in the catalytic pyrolysis process considerably enhance the quality and quantity of bio-oils and syngas. By removing the unwanted oxygenated and nitrogenous components, the bio-oils produced through the catalytic pyrolysis method have a higher calorific value, reduced viscosity, and improved stability. Many researchers have looked at ways to increase the rate of pyrolysis, whereas a few have focused on maximizing the effects of the factors in order to improve the efficiency of catalytic pyrolysis. This review addresses the impact of catalysts on the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass to enhance the quality of the bio-oils in great detail. Machine learning and techno-economic analysis were investigated, as well as the future potential of the catalytic pyrolysis method for the generation of bio-oil. Full article
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