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Challenges and Opportunities for Renewable Energy

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "A: Sustainable Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2024 | Viewed by 1507

Special Issue Editors

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Guest Editor
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Grid Resilience Team Lead, Electricity Security Group, Electricity Infrastructure and Buildings Division, Energy and Environment Directorate, PNNL, Richland, WA, USA
Interests: grid Resilience; renewable integration; hydropower; power system modeling; risk evaluation

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Guest Editor
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Interests: control; power electronics; electric drives; advanced control techniques applied to renewable energy systems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the world is stepping into the decarbonized future, the biggest transition is expected to come to the electrical grid. This transition is being enabled and driven by all different types of renewable energy sources (RESs) such as hydropower, solar and wind energy. To have the future power grid operate only with RESs, the renewable build out would need to be well planned in order to provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate the fluctuations on the demand side. Each of these different types of renewable energy generation technologies have their own challenges such as the intermittency of solar and wind resources and reliance on the consistent availability of water resource for hydropower, which would change as the climate changes. To that end, any capacity expansion planning for the future decarbonized grid would need to account for these challenges and would need to come up with innovative solutions (such as different types of energy storage like battery storage, pumped storage hydropower, etc.) to keep the power grid reliable and resilient. However, as the grid is evolving, so are the energy markets (e.g., energy imbalance markets, etc.), and there are new mechanisms being discussed to incentivize RESs (e.g., carbon tax, etc.) leading to new opportunities for these generation sources.

This Special Issue will address these challenges and opportunities for RESs and for all the supporting technologies that would enable renewable energy integration to the power grid. This Special Issue will focus on and include methods, techniques and studies that will investigate the role of RESs and energy storage in the reliable and resilient operations of the future decarbonized power grid. This issue will also include different challenges faced by different RESs and the needs arising from these challenges as we move towards fast paced but sustainable growth of the future decarbonized power grid.

Dr. Vishvas Chalishazar
Prof. Dr. Ted K. A. Brekken
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • renewable energy sources
  • photovoltaics
  • wind energy
  • hydropower
  • energy storage
  • electrical grid
  • decarbonization
  • distributed energy resources
  • capacity expansion planning
  • grid resilience
  • grid reliability

Published Papers (1 paper)

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24 pages, 6208 KiB  
Investigation on Tuning Power–Frequency Droop for Improved Grid–Forming Inverter and Synchronous Generator Transient Load Sharing
by Jan Westman and Ramtin Hadidi
Energies 2023, 16(18), 6758; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16186758 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1006
Poor transient load sharing has been observed during the parallel operation of synchronous generators (SGs) and droop-controlled grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resources (IBRs) in islanded microgrids. This can result in overcurrent protections, causing the inverters to trip, which leads to the collapse of voltage [...] Read more.
Poor transient load sharing has been observed during the parallel operation of synchronous generators (SGs) and droop-controlled grid-forming (GFM) inverter-based resources (IBRs) in islanded microgrids. This can result in overcurrent protections, causing the inverters to trip, which leads to the collapse of voltage and frequency. In this article, small-signal analysis supported by electromagnetic transients (EMTs) simulation is performed on a detailed model of a microgrid containing IBRs and an SG to identify underdamped modes and their sensitivities to the power–frequency (P-F) droop parameter. Further EMT simulation of a more complex microgrid model with multiple GFM IBRs and SGs is performed to determine whether trends identified from the modal analysis extend to cases where the number of SGs in operation may vary. The objective is to investigate the effectiveness of tuning this parameter to reduce the likelihood of overcurrents in response to load and generation disturbances. The work uncovers both fast and slow modes of concern. Primarily, the findings show that increasing the P-F droop value improves the damping of the slower mode while degrading the damping of the faster mode, leading to an upper limit on the damping improvement of the GFM IBR output current. In EMT simulations of the more complex microgrid, the greatest damping improvement still exhibits significant maximum overshoot. Furthermore, the optimal value of the P-F droop parameter is sensitive to the number of SGs in operation. The conclusion is that tuning the P-F droop parameter is not an effective means to avoid the overcurrent tripping of GFM IBRs during response to large load or generation disturbances when operating in parallel to SGs in islanded microgrids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Opportunities for Renewable Energy)
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