New Aspects in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Surgical Conditions in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Pediatric Surgery".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2023) | Viewed by 23757

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital of Split, Spinčićeva 1, 21000 Split, Croatia
Interests: laparoscopy; pediatric surgery; minimally invasive surgery; pediatric urology; testis; appendicitis; thoracoscopic surgery; testicular torsion; neonatal surgery; esophageal atresia; varicocele; acute scrotum; surgical infection
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is a great honour to serve as the Guest Editors for this Special Issue of Children entitled “New aspects in the diagnosis and treatment of acute surgical conditions in children”.

In children a surgical emergency is a medical emergency in which immediate surgical intervention is the only way to solve the problem successfully. Many conditions in children require urgent diagnostic procedures and treatment because they can otherwise lead to irreversible damage, loss of organs or parts of organs, and in the worst case, to death. Therefore, recognizing such conditions is extremely important. In the majority of countries, at least 60% of the surgical operations performed are for emergencies. The most common types of general surgical emergencies include acute abdominal emergencies, urinary obstructions, respiratory obstructions/pleural disease, and trauma.

Despite the significant advances in medicine, it has become clear in recent years that there are still no ideal diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for all emergencies, so unfortunately, some remain unrecognized.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight new diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical options for the treatment of emergency conditions in children.

Pediatric surgeons and anyone who deals with paediatric surgical emergencies are invited to contribute manuscripts to this Special Issue. Contributions can be original articles (prospective/retrospective studies), experimental studies, systemic reviews and meta-analyses, or new diagnostics or surgical techniques. Please avoid single-case reports and narrative reviews.

Dr. Zenon Pogorelić
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • otorhinolaryngological emergencies
  • cardiovascular and thoracic emergencies
  • gastrointestinal emergencies
  • gynecological emergencies
  • urological emergencies
  • orthopedic emergencies
  • hand surgical emergencies
  • skin and soft tissue injuries
  • bleeding and polytrauma
  • biomarkers for inflammatory conditions

Published Papers (13 papers)

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11 pages, 749 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Pediatric Adnexal Torsion Diagnosis: Prediction Method Utilizing Machine Learning Techniques
by Ahmad Turki and Enas Raml
Children 2023, 10(10), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10101612 - 27 Sep 2023
Viewed by 772
Abstract
This study systematically examines pediatric adnexal torsion, proposing a diagnostic approach using machine learning techniques to distinguish it from acute appendicitis. Our retrospective analysis involved 41 female pediatric patients divided into two groups: 21 with adnexal torsion (group 1) and 20 with acute [...] Read more.
This study systematically examines pediatric adnexal torsion, proposing a diagnostic approach using machine learning techniques to distinguish it from acute appendicitis. Our retrospective analysis involved 41 female pediatric patients divided into two groups: 21 with adnexal torsion (group 1) and 20 with acute appendicitis (group 2). In group 1, the average age was 10 ± 2.6 years, while in group 2, it was 9.8 ± 21.9 years. Our analysis found no statistically significant age distinctions between these two groups. Despite acute lower abdominal pain being a common factor, group 1 displayed shorter pain duration (28.9 h vs. 46.8 h, p < 0.05), less vomiting (28% vs. 50%, p < 0.05), lower fever incidence (4.7% vs. 50%, p < 0.05), reduced leukocytosis (57% vs. 75%, p < 0.05), and CRP elevation (30% vs. 80%, p < 0.05) compared to group 2. Machine learning techniques, specifically support vector classifiers, were employed using clinical presentation, pain duration, white blood cell counts, and ultrasound findings as features. The classifier consistently demonstrated an average predictive accuracy of 87% to 97% in distinguishing adnexal torsion from appendicitis, as confirmed across various SVM models employing different kernels. Our findings emphasize the capacity of support vector machines (SVMs) and machine learning as a whole to augment diagnostic accuracy when distinguishing between adnexal torsion and acute appendicitis. Nevertheless, it is imperative to validate these results through more extensive investigations and explore alternative machine learning models for a comprehensive understanding of their diagnostic capabilities. Full article
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9 pages, 389 KiB  
Article
Children with an Anorectal Malformation Going to Primary School: The Parent’s Perspective
by Cunera M. C. de Beaufort, Joep P. M. Derikx, Marijke E. Voskeuil, Josef Atay, Caroline F. Kuijper, Sjoerd A. de Beer, Justin R. de Jong, Arnout de Bos, Svenja Vennink, L. W. Ernest van Heurn and Ramon R. Gorter
Children 2023, 10(6), 924; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10060924 - 24 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Background: Continence problems occur often in children with anorectal malformations (ARM). The aim of this study was to evaluate parental experiences with toilet facilities at Dutch primary schools and their experience with how schools deal with ARM children. Methods: This survey was developed [...] Read more.
Background: Continence problems occur often in children with anorectal malformations (ARM). The aim of this study was to evaluate parental experiences with toilet facilities at Dutch primary schools and their experience with how schools deal with ARM children. Methods: This survey was developed in collaboration with the national patient advocacy group (PAG). Recruitment for participation was conducted by the PAG (email listing and social media) and one expertise center for ARM. Participants were parents of school-attending ARM children aged 3 to 12 years. Results: Sixty-one participants (31.9%) responded to the survey. The median age of the children was 7.0 years (IQR 5.0–9.0). Schools were often located in a village (63.9%) and encompassed 100–500 children (77.0%). In total, 14 parents (23.0%) experienced difficulties in finding a primary school. Experiences with the school were described as solely positive (37.7%), solely negative (9.8%), positive and negative (34.4%), and neither positive nor negative (16.4%). Regarding school toilet facilities, 65.6% of the toilets were reported clean and 78.7% were easily accessible. Conclusions: About 25% of parents reported difficulties in enrolling their children into primary school, and 45% reported negative experiences. This highlights the need for improved guidance and the optimization of education in schools when dealing with ARM children. Full article
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12 pages, 995 KiB  
Article
Trends and Predictors of Pediatric Negative Appendectomy Rates: A Single-Centre Retrospective Study
by Miro Jukić, Petra Nizeteo, Jakov Matas and Zenon Pogorelić
Children 2023, 10(5), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10050887 - 15 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Background: Appendectomy is still the standard treatment for acute appendicitis in the majority of centers. Despite all available diagnostic tools, the rates of negative appendectomies are still relatively high. This study aimed to determine negative appendectomy rates and to analyze the demographic and [...] Read more.
Background: Appendectomy is still the standard treatment for acute appendicitis in the majority of centers. Despite all available diagnostic tools, the rates of negative appendectomies are still relatively high. This study aimed to determine negative appendectomy rates and to analyze the demographic and clinical data of the patients whose histopathology report was negative. Methods: All patients younger than 18 years who underwent appendectomy for suspected acute appendicitis in the period from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2021 were included in the single-center retrospective study. Electronic records and archives of histopathology reports were reviewed for patients with negative appendectomy. The primary outcome of this study was a negative appendectomy rate. Secondary outcomes comprehended the rate of appendectomies and the association of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), values of laboratory markers, scoring systems, and ultrasound reports with negative histopathology reports. Results: During the study period, a total of 1646 appendectomies for suspected acute appendicitis were performed. In 244 patients, negative appendectomy was reported regarding the patients’ pathohistology. In 39 of 244 patients, other pathologies were found, of which ovarian pathology (torsion and cysts) torsion of greater omentum and Meckel’s diverticulitis were the most frequent. Finally, the ten-year negative appendectomy rate was 12.4% (205/1646). The median age was 12 years (interquartile range, IQR 9, 15). A slight female predominance was noted (52.5%). A significantly higher incidence of negative appendectomies was noted in girls, with a peak incidence between the ages of 10 and 15 years (p < 0.0001). Male children whose appendectomy was negative had significantly higher BMI values compared to female patients (p = 0.0004). The median values of white blood cell count, neutrophil count, and CRP in the patients with negative appendectomy were 10.4 × 109/L, 75.9%, and 11 mg/dL, respectively. The median of Alvarado’s score was 6 (IQR 4; 7.5), while the median of the AIR score was 5 (IQR 4, 7). The rate of children with negative appendectomy who underwent ultrasound was 34.4% (84/244), among which 47 (55.95%) concluded negative reports. The rates of negative appendectomies were not homogenous in terms of distribution regarding the season. The incidence of negative appendectomies was more frequent during the cold period of the year (55.3% vs. 44.7%; p = 0.042). Conclusions: The majority of negative appendectomies were performed in children older than 9 years and most frequently in female children aged 10 to 15 years. In addition, female children have significantly lower BMI values compared to male children with negative appendectomy. An increase in the utilization of auxiliary diagnostic methods such as computed tomography could affect the reduction in the pediatric negative appendectomy rate. Full article
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13 pages, 2233 KiB  
Article
Clinical Outcomes of Daytime Versus Nighttime Laparoscopic Appendectomy in Children
by Zenon Pogorelić, Ivana Janković Marendić, Tin Čohadžić and Miro Jukić
Children 2023, 10(4), 750; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10040750 - 20 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1983
Abstract
Aim of the study: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complication rate of laparoscopic appendectomy in children operated on during the daytime versus nighttime. Methods: A total of 303 children who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis between 1 January 2020 [...] Read more.
Aim of the study: To evaluate the clinical outcomes and complication rate of laparoscopic appendectomy in children operated on during the daytime versus nighttime. Methods: A total of 303 children who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy for acute appendicitis between 1 January 2020 and 31 December 2022 were enrolled in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into two study groups. The first group consisted of the patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy during the day shift from 07:00–21:00 (n = 171), while the patients in the second group underwent laparoscopic appendectomy during the night shift from 21:00–07:00 (n = 132). The groups were compared for baseline clinical and laboratory data, treatment outcomes, and complications. The Mann–Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables, while the Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables. A two-sided Fisher’s exact test was used when the frequency of events in a certain cell was low. All p values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The proportion of complicated appendicitis was almost the same in both patient groups (n = 63, 36.8% vs. n = 49, 37.1%, p = 0.960). Out of the total number of patients presenting during the daytime and nighttime, 11 (6.4%) and 10 (7.6%) developed a postoperative complication, respectively (p = 0.697). Additionally, rates of readmission (n = 5 (2.9%) vs. n = 2 (1.5%); p = 0.703), redo-surgery (n = 3 (1.7%) vs. n = 0; p = 0.260), conversion to open surgery (n = 0 vs. n = 1 (0.8%); p = 0.435) and length of hospital stay (n = 3 (IQR 1, 5) vs. n = 3 (IQR 2, 5); p = 0.368) did not differ significantly between daytime and nighttime appendectomies. The duration of the surgery was significantly shorter in patients presenting during the day than in those presenting at night (26 min (IQR 22, 40) vs. 37 min (31, 46); p < 0.001). Conclusions: Different shift times did not affect the treatment outcomes or complication rates for children receiving laparoscopic appendectomy. Full article
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9 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
Appendicitis and Peritonitis in Children with a Ventriculo-Peritoneal Shunt
by Glenn M. C. Fröschle, Johanna Hagens, Philip Mannweiler, Friederike Sophie Groth, Gertrud Kammler, Konrad Reinshagen and Christian Tomuschat
Children 2023, 10(3), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10030571 - 17 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2644
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to outline the management of patients with appendicitis and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in the largest pediatric surgery department in Germany. Patients with VPS presenting with an acute abdomen between 2012 and 2022 at a tertiary-care pediatric facility [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to outline the management of patients with appendicitis and ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in the largest pediatric surgery department in Germany. Patients with VPS presenting with an acute abdomen between 2012 and 2022 at a tertiary-care pediatric facility were the subject of a retrospective descriptive analysis. Patients were divided into two groups based on their diagnoses: group A (appendicitis) and group B (primary peritonitis). Medical records were analyzed to look at the diagnostics, operative approach, complications, peritoneal and liquor culture, and antibiotic treatment. A total of seventeen patients were examined: seven patients in group A and ten individuals in group B. In the present study patients in group A typically presented younger, sicker, and with more neurological symptoms than those in group B. All patients with appendicitis had their VPS exteriorized, and a new shunt system into the peritoneum was reimplanted 20 days later. Surgery should be aggressively administered to patients who present with an acute abdomen and a VPS. Change of the whole shunt system is suggested. Shunt infection and dysfunction should be ruled out in patients with abdominal symptoms, and surgical care should be started with a low threshold. Full article
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9 pages, 236 KiB  
Article
Iatrogenic Neonatal Esophageal Perforation: A European Multicentre Review on Management and Outcomes
by Eva Sorensen, Connie Yu, Shu-Ling Chuang, Paola Midrio, Leopoldo Martinez, Mathew Nash, Ingo Jester and Amulya K. Saxena
Children 2023, 10(2), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/children10020217 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Background: The aim of this multicenter retrospective study and literature review was to review management and outcomes of neonatal esophageal perforation (NEP). Methods: Protocol data were collected from four European Centers on gestational age, factors surrounding feeding tube insertion, management and outcomes. Results: [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this multicenter retrospective study and literature review was to review management and outcomes of neonatal esophageal perforation (NEP). Methods: Protocol data were collected from four European Centers on gestational age, factors surrounding feeding tube insertion, management and outcomes. Results: The 5-year study period (2014–2018) identified eight neonates with median gestational age of 26 + 4 weeks (23 + 4–39) and median birth weight 636 g (511–3500). All patients had NEP from enterogastric tube insertions, with the perforation occurring at median 1st day of life (range 0–25). Seven/eight patients were ventilated (two/seven-high frequency oscillation). NEP became apparent on first tube placement (n = 1), first change (n = 5), and after multiple changes (n = 2). Site of perforation was known in six (distal n = 3, proximal n = 2 and middle n = 1). Diagnosis was established by respiratory distress (n = 4), respiratory distress and sepsis (n = 2) and post-insertion chest X-ray (n = 2). Management in all patients included antibiotics and parenteral nutrition with two/eight receiving steroids and ranitidine, one/eight steroids only and one/eight ranitidine only. One neonate had a gastrostomy inserted, while in another an enterogastric tube was orally successfully re-inserted. Two neonates developed pleural effusion and/or mediastinal abscess requiring chest tube. Three neonates had significant morbidities (related to prematurity) and there was one death 10 days post-perforation (related to prematurity complications). Conclusions: NEP during NGT insertion is rare even in premature infants after evaluating data from four tertiary centers and reviewing the literature. In this small cohort, conservative management seems to be safe. A larger sample size will be necessary to answer questions on efficacy of antibiotics, antacids and NGT re-insertion time frame in NEP. Full article
10 pages, 2875 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dysphagia and Inhalation Risk in Neurologically Impaired Children Using Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry with Swallowing Analysis
by Anna Maria Caruso, Denisia Bommarito, Vincenza Girgenti, Glenda Amato, Adele Figuccia, Alessandra Casuccio, Annalisa Ferlisi, Rosaria Genuardi, Sabrina La Fata, Rosalia Mattei, Mario Pietro Marcello Milazzo and Maria Rita Di Pace
Children 2022, 9(12), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121987 - 17 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1394
Abstract
Background: Dysphagia in neurologically impaired children is associated with feeding difficulties, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) has been used in the diagnosis of motility disorders affecting the swallowing process. The aim of this study was to analyze swallowing functions in [...] Read more.
Background: Dysphagia in neurologically impaired children is associated with feeding difficulties, malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) has been used in the diagnosis of motility disorders affecting the swallowing process. The aim of this study was to analyze swallowing functions in NI children by using HRM in order to establish swallow parameters identifying inhalation risk. Methods: Twenty-five NI children with cerebral palsy were submitted to esophageal HRM with UES analysis, comparing the results with non-NI children. The following parameters were evaluated: maximum pressure and duration of contraction of the velopharynx (VP) and tongue base (TB), and maximal, minimal, resting pressure and relaxation duration of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Results: pVP max, pTB max, pUES max and resting pressure were lower, while p UES minimal was higher and relaxation duration was shorter in NI children vs. the control group. Predictive values of inhalation risk were evaluated. Conclusions: This study evaluates inhalation risk in NI children using HRM to study UES function. Our results confirm the alterations described in NI children: insufficient contraction and clearing force for bolus transmission through the pharynx and incomplete UES relaxation can predispose to pharyngeal residues and inhalation independently of swallowing because of lower values of UES resting. Full article
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13 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
Thyroid Surgery in Children: A 5-Year Retrospective Study at a Single Paediatric Surgical Center and Systematic Review
by Svetlana Bukarica, Jelena Antić, Ivana Fratrić, Dragan Kravarušić, Miloš Pajić and Radoica Jokić
Children 2022, 9(12), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121818 - 25 Nov 2022
Viewed by 3008
Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate our 5-year experience in paediatric thyroid surgery, as well as the specificities of this kind of surgery in the literature. This retrospective study was based on 19 operations in 17 patients aged from [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate our 5-year experience in paediatric thyroid surgery, as well as the specificities of this kind of surgery in the literature. This retrospective study was based on 19 operations in 17 patients aged from 5 to 17 years who were operated on due to thyroid pathology from 2017 until 2022. We presented data on surgical procedures and complications following surgery. Most of the patients were adolescent girls. The most common clinical presentations included enlarged thyroid gland, followed by thyroid nodules and hyperthyroidism. Eight total thyroidectomies, five left lobectomies, five right lobectomies, and three central neck dissections were performed. The most common histopathological diagnosis was hyperplastic diffuse colloid goitre, followed by papillary carcinoma, cystic nodule, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto thyroiditis and toxic adenoma. Postoperative course was uneventful, with four mild complications (one wound infection, one manifest hypocalcaemia, and two transitory recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis). In our literature review, eighteen full-text articles were included and analysed. This study demonstrated that thyroid surgery in paediatric population is a safe and efficient procedure. Thyroid pathology in children significantly differs from that in the adults, and paediatric surgeons should be included into the team managing such cases. Full article
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11 pages, 1019 KiB  
Article
Diagnostic Accuracy of Acid-Base Status in Infants with Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
by Marko Bašković and Dorotea Sinjeri
Children 2022, 9(12), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121815 - 24 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Background: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a condition in newborns in which the hypertrophic pyloric muscle causes gastric obstructive symptoms of progressive vomiting leading to hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The main aim of the research was to assess whether, based on the acid-base status, [...] Read more.
Background: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a condition in newborns in which the hypertrophic pyloric muscle causes gastric obstructive symptoms of progressive vomiting leading to hypochloremic hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. The main aim of the research was to assess whether, based on the acid-base status, we can distinguish newborns who vomit due to pylorostenosis, compared with newborns who vomit for other unspecific reasons. Methods: The electronic records of patients in the hospital information system treated under the diagnosis Q40.0 (Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis) (n = 69/included in the study = 53) in the period from 1 January 2014 to 1 January 2022 were reviewed retrospectively. For the purposes of the control group, the electronic records of patients treated in the emergency department with a diagnosis of R11.0 (Nausea and vomiting) (n = 53) without an established cause were randomly reviewed. In addition to the main aim, other research outcomes were to determine differences between groups in the following variables: duration of symptoms, family history, birth (preterm, term, post-term), birth weight, weight during examination, difference between birth weight and weight during an examination, type of vomiting, the thickness of the muscle wall and its length, and to calculate whether there is a correlation between the thickness and length of the pylorus muscle and the duration of vomiting in relation to variables from acid-base status. Results: In relation to the variables of interest between the groups, statistically significant differences were observed in the duration of symptoms (Mdn 4 vs. 2 days, p = 0.002), weight at examination (Mean 3880 vs. 4439 g, p = 0.001), difference in weight between birth and examination (Mean 374 vs. 1010 g, p < 0.0001), and type of vomiting (explosive 45 vs. 22, p = 0.023). In the acid-base status between the groups, a statistically significant difference was recorded for pH (Mdn 7.457 vs. 7.422, p < 0.0001), bicarbonate (Mdn 25 vs. 23 mmol/L, p = 0.000), total carbon dioxide (Mdn 25 vs. 24 mmol/L, p = 0.011), base excess (Mdn 0.8 vs. −1.3 mmol/L, p = 0.000), potassium (Mdn 5 vs. 5.3 mmol/L, p = 0.006), ionized calcium (Mdn 1.28 vs. 1.31 mmol/L, p = 0.011), and glucose (Mdn 4.5 vs. 4.9 mmol/L, p = 0.007). Regardless of the group, the correlations between the duration of vomiting (r = 0.316, p = 0.021 vs. r = 0.148, p = 0.290) and the thickness (r = 0.190, p = 0.172) and length (r = 0.142, p = 0.311) of the pylorus muscle in relation to pH did not exist or were weak. Conclusions: In a world where radiological methods are not equally available everywhere, with promising acid-base indicators, prospective multicenter studies and meta-analyses must be pursued in the future in order not to miss the possible much greater diagnostic potential of acid-base status. Full article
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9 pages, 227 KiB  
Article
The Incidence of Associated Anomalies in Children with Congenital Duodenal Obstruction—A Retrospective Cohort Study of 112 Patients
by Adinda G. H. Pijpers, Laurens D. Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Bart Straver, Petra J. G. Zwijnenburg, Chantal J. M. Broers, Ernest L. W. Van Heurn, Ramon R. Gorter and Joep P. M. Derikx
Children 2022, 9(12), 1814; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9121814 - 24 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1747
Abstract
Background: Duodenal obstruction (DO) is a congenital anomaly that is highly associated with other anomalies, such as cardiac anomalies and trisomy 21. However, an overview of additional anomalies and patient-specific risk factors for cardiac anomalies is lacking. Potential association with the vertebral, anorectal, [...] Read more.
Background: Duodenal obstruction (DO) is a congenital anomaly that is highly associated with other anomalies, such as cardiac anomalies and trisomy 21. However, an overview of additional anomalies and patient-specific risk factors for cardiac anomalies is lacking. Potential association with the vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, trachea-esophageal, renal and limb anomalies (VACTERL) spectrum remains unknown. Therefore, we aim to examine the incidence of associated anomalies, a VACTERL-spectrum association and patient-specific risk factors for cardiac anomalies in patients with DO. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed between 1996 and 2021. Outcomes were the presence of any additional anomalies. Risk factors for cardiac anomalies were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Of 112 neonates with DO, 47% (N = 53/112) had one associated anomaly and 38% (N = 20/53) had multiple anomalies. Cardiac anomalies (N = 35/112) and trisomy 21 (N = 35/112) were present in 31%. In four patients, VACTERL-spectrum was discovered, all with cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 21 was found to be a risk factor for cardiac anomalies (OR:6.5; CI-95%2.6–16.1). Conclusion: Associated anomalies were present in half of patients with DO, of which cardiac anomalies and trisomy 21 occurred most often, and the VACTERL-spectrum was present in four patients. Trisomy 21 was a significant risk factor for cardiac anomalies. Therefore, we recommend a preoperative echocardiogram in patients with DO. In case a cardiac anomaly is found without trisomy 21, VACTERL-screening should be performed. Full article
8 pages, 535 KiB  
Article
IL-6 Serum Levels Can Enhance the Diagnostic Power of Standard Blood Tests for Acute Appendicitis
by Marco Di Mitri, Giovanni Parente, Giulia Bonfiglioli, Eduje Thomas, Cristian Bisanti, Chiara Cordola, Marzia Vastano, Sara Cravano, Edoardo Collautti, Annalisa Di Carmine, Simone D’Antonio, Tommaso Gargano, Michele Libri and Mario Lima
Children 2022, 9(10), 1425; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9101425 - 20 Sep 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1421
Abstract
Background: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) remains challenging, especially in pediatrics, because early symptoms are not specific, and the younger the patient the more difficult their interpretation is. There is a large degree of agreement between pediatric surgeons on the importance of [...] Read more.
Background: The diagnosis of acute appendicitis (AA) remains challenging, especially in pediatrics, because early symptoms are not specific, and the younger the patient the more difficult their interpretation is. There is a large degree of agreement between pediatric surgeons on the importance of an early diagnosis to avoid complicated acute appendicitis (CAA) and its consequences. The aim of this study is to assess if Interleukin 6 (IL-6) could enhance the sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp) of the currently available and routinely performed diagnostic tools in case of suspected AA in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted including patients who underwent appendectomy between November 2020 and March 2022. We divided patients into three groups: not inflamed appendix (group NA), not complicated AA (group NCAA), and complicated AA (group CAA). We compared the mean values of white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, fibrinogen, ferritin, aPTT, INR, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, and CRP between the three groups. Then we evaluated Sn, Sp, and odds ratio (OR) of IL-6 and CRP alone and combined. Results: We enrolled 107 patients operated on for AA (22 in Group NA, 63 in Group NCAA, and 21 in group CAA). CRP levels resulted in a significant increase when comparing CAA with NA (p = 0.01) and CAA with NCAA (p = 0.01), whereas no significance was found between NA and NCAA (p = 0.38). A statistically significant increase in average IL-6 levels was found when comparing NCAA with NA (p = 0.04), CAA with NA (p = 0.04), and CAA with NCAA (p = 0.02). Considering CRP alone, its Sn, Sp, and OR in distinguishing NA from AA (both NCAA and CAA together) are 86%, 35%, and 33,17, respectively. Similarly, Sn, Sp, and OR of IL-6 alone are 82%, 54%, and 56, respectively. Combining CRP and IL-6 serum levels together, the Sn increases drastically to 100% with an Sp of 40% and OR of 77. Conclusions: Our study may suggest an important role of IL-6 in the detection of AA in its early stage, especially when coupled with CRP. Full article
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10 pages, 406 KiB  
Article
Same-Day Discharge after Laparoscopic Appendectomy for Simple Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients—Is It Possible?
by Miro Jukić, Alexander Tesch, Jakov Todorić, Tomislav Šušnjar, Klaudio Pjer Milunović, Tomislav Barić and Zenon Pogorelić
Children 2022, 9(8), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081220 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1858
Abstract
(1) Background: One-day surgery has been widely adopted for many elective laparoscopic procedures in pediatric patients. Recently, the same protocol has been investigated for some emergency procedures, such as laparoscopic appendectomy. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of discharge from [...] Read more.
(1) Background: One-day surgery has been widely adopted for many elective laparoscopic procedures in pediatric patients. Recently, the same protocol has been investigated for some emergency procedures, such as laparoscopic appendectomy. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of discharge from hospital within 24 h in pediatric patients who received laparoscopic appendectomy for uncomplicated acute appendicitis. (2) Methods: From 1 March 2021 to 1 May 2022, a total of 180 pediatric patients who were discharged from hospital within 24 h after laparoscopic appendectomy for uncomplicated appendicitis were included in this prospective single-center study. The primary outcome of this study was the safety of discharge from hospital within 24 h after laparoscopic appendectomy for uncomplicated appendicitis, as well as the parental satisfaction with this protocol. Secondary outcomes included the rate of readmission or unplanned return to the operating room, the complication rate and a cost-effectiveness analysis. For each patient, demographic data, preoperative evaluation (physical examination, laboratory data, imaging), duration of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative complications, length of hospital stay and pain levels, as well as parental satisfaction with this protocol, were recorded. (3) Results: The median age was 11 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10, 14). The majority of the patients (63.8%) were males. The median length of hospital stay after surgery was 15 h (IQR 12, 19). The highest level of satisfaction, at discharge, was recorded in most of the respondents (n = 155, 86.1%), while the remaining 25 (13.9%) expressed moderate levels of satisfaction. The median pain levels according to a visual analogue scale for all postoperative days were low (range 0–4). In four patients (2.2%), unplanned readmission before the seventh postoperative day because of postoperative intraabdominal abscess was recorded. All patients with abscess formation were treated conservatively. The majority of the parents (n = 175; 97.2%) expressed the highest level of satisfaction during the outpatient follow-up examination on the seventh postoperative day. (4) Conclusions: Same-day discharge after laparoscopic appendectomy for simple appendicitis in pediatric patients was safe and feasible. Parental satisfaction with this protocol was very high. With the right protocol and parent education, pediatric patients who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy because of non-complicated acute appendicitis may be successfully treated in this way. Full article
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Case Report
Prevention of Tracheo-Innominate Artery Fistula Formation as a Complication of Tracheostomy: Two Case Reports
by Byungsun Yoo, Bongjin Lee, June Dong Park, Seong Keun Kwon and Jae Gun Kwak
Children 2022, 9(11), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111603 - 22 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1443
Abstract
Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is a rare complication of tracheostomy and refers to the formation of a fistula between the trachea and innominate artery. Because TIF is fatal, prevention rather than treatment is very important. Here we report the cases of two high-risk [...] Read more.
Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is a rare complication of tracheostomy and refers to the formation of a fistula between the trachea and innominate artery. Because TIF is fatal, prevention rather than treatment is very important. Here we report the cases of two high-risk patients who underwent tracheostomy, and in whose cases attempts were made to lower the risk of TIF. In the first patient who developed a chest deformity with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a tracheostomy was performed with a high-level (cricothyroid level) approach compared with the standard tracheostomy. In the second patient, the thoracic cage was relatively small due to a giant omphalocele, and the risk of a fistula forming was decreased by wrapping the innominate artery with an opened polytetrafluoroethylene vascular graft after resolving crowding of the intrathoracic cavity by total thymectomy. There was no TIF occurrence at the outpatient follow-up in either case. We expect that our approaches may be effective intervention measures for preventing TIF. Full article
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