Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Isolation, Cultivation and Applications

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Stem Cells".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 2044

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
Interests: dental pulp stem cell-mediated inferior alveolar nerve regeneration; reparative dentin formation; engineering stem cells by CRISPR and siRNA; microenvironmentally modified stem cell; complement C5a receptors in regeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are a relatively new source of mesenchymal stem cells. They reside within the dental pulp of immature human teeth and possess a great ability to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells that can regenerate a dentin–pulp complex. DPSCs also play an important role in regeneration medicine with their unique properties and advantages. For example, they are derived from the neural crest with strong expression of neuronal marker molecules and neurotransmitter receptors which suggests that DPSCs can actively adapt to the neuronal environment. Several studies demonstrated that DPSCs show better neuroregeneration and protective ability than bone marrow-derived mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, DPSCs are relatively easy to obtain through a minimally invasive procedure in adults and children without raising ethical issues. These characteristics make DPSCs an ideal stem cell source for clinical regeneration medicine. However, they have been given relatively less attention compared to other stem cell types, such as neural stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, that leave many of their unique functions undetermined. Understanding the biological mechanisms of DPSCs and their clinical applications is required for successful DPSC engineering strategies. The scientific knowledge obtained from this Special Issue will provide an important basis for future studies and for creating therapeutic tools that target DPSC in regenerative medicine.

Dr. Seung Chung
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • dental pulp stem cell
  • stem cell engineering
  • mesenchymal stem cell
  • detin-pulp complex regeneration
  • dentinogenesis
  • odontoblastic dental pulp stem cell regeneration
  • dental pulp stem cell in neural regeneration

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 12700 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Human Platelet Lysate as an Alternative to Fetal Bovine Serum for Potential Clinical Applications of Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth
by Ji-Young Yoon, Huong Thu Vu, Jun Hee Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Hae-Won Kim, Hae-Hyoung Lee, Jong-Bin Kim and Jung-Hwan Lee
Cells 2024, 13(10), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells13100847 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
In recent years, there has been a surge in demand for and research focus on cell therapy, driven by the tissue-regenerative and disease-treating potentials of stem cells. Among the candidates, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) or human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have garnered [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been a surge in demand for and research focus on cell therapy, driven by the tissue-regenerative and disease-treating potentials of stem cells. Among the candidates, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) or human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) have garnered significant attention due to their easy accessibility (non-invasive), multi-lineage differentiation capability (especially neurogenesis), and low immunogenicity. Utilizing these stem cells for clinical purposes requires careful culture techniques such as excluding animal-derived supplements. Human platelet lysate (hPL) has emerged as a safer alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for cell culture. In our study, we assessed the impact of hPL as a growth factor supplement for culture medium, also conducting a characterization of SHED cultured in hPL-supplemented medium (hPL-SHED). The results showed that hPL has effects in enhancing cell proliferation and migration and increasing cell survivability in oxidative stress conditions induced by H2O2. The morphology of hPL-SHED exhibited reduced size and elongation, with a differentiation capacity comparable to or even exceeding that of SHED cultured in a medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum (FBS-SHED). Moreover, no evidence of chromosome abnormalities or tumor formation was detected. In conclusion, hPL-SHED emerges as a promising candidate for cell therapy, exhibiting considerable potential for clinical investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Isolation, Cultivation and Applications)
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13 pages, 4243 KiB  
Article
BDNF/TrkB Is a Crucial Regulator in the Inflammation-Mediated Odontoblastic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells
by Ji-Hyun Kim, Muhammad Irfan, Md Akil Hossain, Anne George and Seung Chung
Cells 2023, 12(14), 1851; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12141851 - 14 Jul 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
The odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) associated with caries injury happens in an inflammatory context. We recently demonstrated that there is a link between inflammation and dental tissue regeneration, identified via enhanced DPSC-mediated dentinogenesis in vitro. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) [...] Read more.
The odontoblastic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) associated with caries injury happens in an inflammatory context. We recently demonstrated that there is a link between inflammation and dental tissue regeneration, identified via enhanced DPSC-mediated dentinogenesis in vitro. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a nerve growth factor-related gene family molecule which functions through tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB). While the roles of BDNF in neural tissue repair and other regeneration processes are well identified, its role in dentinogenesis has not been explored. Furthermore, the role of BDNF receptor-TrkB in inflammation-induced dentinogenesis remains unknown. The role of BDNF/TrkB was examined during a 17-day odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Human DPSCs were subjected to odontogenic differentiation in dentinogenic media treated with inflammation inducers (LTA or TNFα), BDNF, and a TrkB agonist (LM22A-4) and/or antagonist (CTX-B). Our data show that BDNF and TrkB receptors affect the early and late stages of the odontogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Immunofluorescent data confirmed the expression of BDNF and TrkB in DPSCs. Our ELISA and qPCR data demonstrate that TrkB agonist treatment increased the expression of dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) during early DPSC odontoblastic differentiation. Coherently, the expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX-2) and osteocalcin (OCN) were increased. TNFα, which is responsible for a diverse range of inflammation signaling, increased the levels of expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and DMP1. Furthermore, BDNF significantly potentiated its effect. The application of CTX-B reversed this effect, suggesting TrkB`s critical role in TNFα-mediated dentinogenesis. Our studies provide novel findings on the role of BDNF-TrkB in the inflammation-induced odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs. This finding will address a novel regulatory pathway and a therapeutic approach in dentin tissue engineering using DPSCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Isolation, Cultivation and Applications)
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