10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy

A special issue of Cells (ISSN 2073-4409). This special issue belongs to the section "Autophagy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2021) | Viewed by 50336

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Viral Immunobiology, Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland
Interests: antigen processing; LC3- associated phagocytosis; viral regulation of autophagy; MHC restricted antigen presentation; Atg supported exocytosis
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Guest Editor
EA 3842 CAPTuR, GEIST Institute, University of Limoges, CEDEX, 87025 Limoges, France
Interests: autophagy; mitophagy; signaling pathways; cancer; cancer stem cells
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

2021 marks the 10th anniversary of the publication of Cells. We are delighted and proud to celebrate with a series of Special Issues and events. To date, the journal has published more than 4000 papers, and the journal website attracts more than 50,000 monthly page views. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to our readers, innumerable authors, anonymous peer reviewers, editors, and all the people working in some way for the journal who have made substantial contributions over the years. Without your support, we would never have made it.

To mark this important milestone, a Special Issue entitled “10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy” is being launched. This Special Issue will collect research articles and high-quality review papers in the autophagy research fields. We kindly encourage all research groups working in autophagy areas to make contributions to this Special Issue.

This scientific journal is the collaborative achievement of many scientists from all over the world, and we would like to thank all our authors and reviewers who have contributed to this Special Issue. In recognition of our authors’ continued support, Cells is pleased to announce that the Cells Best Paper Awards for Anniversary Special Issues will be launched and granted to the best papers published in the Anniversary Special Issues. See the details at the following link:

https://www.mdpi.com/journal/cells/awards

text

Prof. Dr. Christian Münz
Dr. Mireille Verdier
Guest Editors

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 6540 KiB  
Article
Zn2+-Dependent Nuclease Is Involved in Nuclear Degradation during the Programmed Cell Death of Secretory Cavity Formation in Citrus grandis ‘Tomentosa’ Fruits
by Minjian Liang, Mei Bai and Hong Wu
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3222; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113222 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3538
Abstract
Zn2+- and Ca2+-dependent nucleases exhibit activity toward dsDNA in the four classes of cation-dependent nucleases in plants. Programmed cell death (PCD) is involved in the degradation of cells during schizolysigenous secretory cavity formation in Citrus fruits. Recently, the Ca [...] Read more.
Zn2+- and Ca2+-dependent nucleases exhibit activity toward dsDNA in the four classes of cation-dependent nucleases in plants. Programmed cell death (PCD) is involved in the degradation of cells during schizolysigenous secretory cavity formation in Citrus fruits. Recently, the Ca2+-dependent DNase CgCAN was proven to play a key role in nuclear DNA degradation during the PCD of secretory cavity formation in Citrus grandis ‘Tomentosa’ fruits. However, whether Zn2+-dependent nuclease plays a role in the PCD of secretory cells remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a Zn2+-dependent nuclease gene, CgENDO1, from Citrus grandis ‘Tomentosa’, the function of which was studied using Zn2+ ions cytochemical localization, DNase activity assays, in situ hybridization, and protein immunolocalization. The full-length cDNA of CgENDO1 contains an open reading frame of 906 bp that encodes a protein 301 amino acids in length with a S1/P1-like functional domain. CgENDO1 degrades linear double-stranded DNA at acidic and neutral pH. CgENDO1 is mainly expressed in the late stage of nuclear degradation of secretory cells. Further spatiotemporal expression patterns of CgENDO1 showed that CgENDO1 is initially located on the endoplasmic reticulum and then moves into intracellular vesicles and nuclei. During the late stage of nuclear degradation, it was concentrated in the area of nuclear degradation involved in nuclear DNA degradation. Our results suggest that the Zn2+-dependent nuclease CgENDO1 plays a direct role in the late degradation stage of the nuclear DNA in the PCD of secretory cavity cells of Citrus grandis ‘Tomentosa’ fruits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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20 pages, 4681 KiB  
Article
L-Arginine Ameliorates Defective Autophagy in GM2 Gangliosidoses by mTOR Modulation
by Beatriz Castejón-Vega, Alejandro Rubio, Antonio J. Pérez-Pulido, José L. Quiles, Jon D. Lane, Beatriz Fernández-Domínguez, María Begoña Cachón-González, Carmen Martín-Ruiz, Alberto Sanz, Timothy M. Cox, Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez and Mario D. Cordero
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3122; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113122 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2937
Abstract
Aims: Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases (GM2 gangliosidosis) are autosomal recessive disorders of lysosomal function that cause progressive neurodegeneration in infants and young children. Impaired hydrolysis catalysed by β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) leads to the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neuronal lysosomes. Despite the storage [...] Read more.
Aims: Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases (GM2 gangliosidosis) are autosomal recessive disorders of lysosomal function that cause progressive neurodegeneration in infants and young children. Impaired hydrolysis catalysed by β-hexosaminidase A (HexA) leads to the accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neuronal lysosomes. Despite the storage phenotype, the role of autophagy and its regulation by mTOR has yet to be explored in the neuropathogenesis. Accordingly, we investigated the effects on autophagy and lysosomal integrity using skin fibroblasts obtained from patients with Tay–Sachs and Sandhoff diseases. Results: Pathological autophagosomes with impaired autophagic flux, an abnormality confirmed by electron microscopy and biochemical studies revealing the accelerated release of mature cathepsins and HexA into the cytosol, indicating increased lysosomal permeability. GM2 fibroblasts showed diminished mTOR signalling with reduced basal mTOR activity. Accordingly, provision of a positive nutrient signal by L-arginine supplementation partially restored mTOR activity and ameliorated the cytopathological abnormalities. Innovation: Our data provide a novel molecular mechanism underlying GM2 gangliosidosis. Impaired autophagy caused by insufficient lysosomal function might represent a new therapeutic target for these diseases. Conclusions: We contend that the expression of autophagy/lysosome/mTOR-associated molecules may prove useful peripheral biomarkers for facile monitoring of treatment of GM2 gangliosidosis and neurodegenerative disorders that affect the lysosomal function and disrupt autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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14 pages, 2913 KiB  
Article
Autophagy Is Polarized toward Cell Front during Migration and Spatially Perturbed by Oncogenic Ras
by Manish Kumar Singh, Giulia Zago, Irina Veith, Jacques Camonis, Mathieu Coppey and Maria Carla Parrini
Cells 2021, 10(10), 2637; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10102637 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
Autophagy is a physiological degradation process that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components of cells. It is important for normal cellular homeostasis and as a response to a variety of stresses, such as nutrient deprivation. Defects in autophagy have been linked to numerous human [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a physiological degradation process that removes unnecessary or dysfunctional components of cells. It is important for normal cellular homeostasis and as a response to a variety of stresses, such as nutrient deprivation. Defects in autophagy have been linked to numerous human diseases, including cancers. Cancer cells require autophagy to migrate and to invade. Here, we study the intracellular topology of this interplay between autophagy and cell migration by an interdisciplinary live imaging approach which combines micro-patterning techniques and an autophagy reporter (RFP-GFP-LC3) to monitor over time, during directed migration, the back–front spatial distribution of LC3-positive compartments (autophagosomes and autolysosomes). Moreover, by exploiting a genetically controlled cell model, we assessed the impact of transformation by the Ras oncogene, one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancers, which is known to increase both cell motility and basal autophagy. Static cells displayed an isotropic distribution of autophagy LC3-positive compartments. Directed migration globally increased autophagy and polarized both autophagosomes and autolysosomes at the front of the nucleus of migrating cells. In Ras-transformed cells, the front polarization of LC3 compartments was much less organized, spatially and temporally, as compared to normal cells. This might be a consequence of altered lysosome positioning. In conclusion, this work reveals that autophagy organelles are polarized toward the cell front during migration and that their spatial-temporal dynamics are altered in motile cancer cells that express an oncogenic Ras protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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22 pages, 58094 KiB  
Article
Autophagy Promotes the Survival of Adipose Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Enhances Their Therapeutic Effects in Cisplatin-Induced Liver Injury via Modulating TGF-β1/Smad and PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathways
by Eman Mohamad El Nashar, Mansour Abdullah Alghamdi, Wardah Abdullah Alasmari, Mohamed M. A. Hussein, Eman Hamza, Reham Ismail Taha, Mona M. Ahmed, Khulood Mohammed Al-Khater and Ahmed Abdelfattah-Hassan
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2475; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092475 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3554
Abstract
Autophagy is a key metabolic process where cells can recycle its proteins and organelles to regenerate its own cellular building blocks. Chemotherapy is indispensable for cancer treatment but associated with various side-effects, including organ damage. Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach for [...] Read more.
Autophagy is a key metabolic process where cells can recycle its proteins and organelles to regenerate its own cellular building blocks. Chemotherapy is indispensable for cancer treatment but associated with various side-effects, including organ damage. Stem cell-based therapy is a promising approach for reducing chemotherapeutic side effects, however, one of its main culprits is the poor survival of transplanted stem cells in damaged tissues. Here, we aimed to test the effects of activating autophagy in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (ADSCs) on the survival of ADSCs, and their therapeutic value in cisplatin-induced liver injury model. Autophagy was activated in ADSCs by rapamycin (50 nM/L) for two hours before transplantation and were compared to non-preconditioned ADSCs. Rapamycin preconditioning resulted in activated autophagy and improved survival of ADSCs achieved by increased autophagosomes, upregulated autophagy-specific LC3-II gene, decreased protein degradation/ubiquitination by downregulated p62 gene, downregulated mTOR gene, and finally, upregulated antiapoptotic BCL-2 gene. In addition, autophagic ADSCs transplantation in the cisplatin liver injury model, liver biochemical parameters (AST, ALT and albumin), lipid peroxidation (MDA), antioxidant profile (SOD and GPX) and histopathological picture were improved, approaching near-normal conditions. These promising autophagic ADSCs effects were achieved by modulation of components in TGF-β1/Smad and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways, besides reducing NF-κB gene expression (marker for inflammation), reducing TGF-β1 levels (marker for fibrosis) and increasing SDF-1 levels (liver regeneration marker) in liver. Therefore, current results highlight the importance of autophagy in augmenting the therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy in alleviating cisplatin-associated liver damage and opens the path for improved cell-based therapies, in general, and with chemotherapeutics, in particular. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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20 pages, 8518 KiB  
Article
Autophagy-Associated IL-15 Production Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Leprosy Type 1 Reaction
by Bruno Jorge de Andrade Silva, Tamiris Lameira Bittencourt, Thyago Leal-Calvo, Mayara Abud Mendes, Rhana Berto da Silva Prata, Mayara Garcia de Mattos Barbosa, Priscila Ribeiro Andrade, Suzana Côrte-Real, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Milton Ozório Moraes, Euzenir Nunes Sarno and Roberta Olmo Pinheiro
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2215; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092215 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2706
Abstract
Leprosy reactional episodes are acute inflammatory events that may occur during the clinical course of the disease. Type 1 reaction (T1R) is associated with an increase in neural damage, and the understanding of the molecular pathways related to T1R onset is pivotal for [...] Read more.
Leprosy reactional episodes are acute inflammatory events that may occur during the clinical course of the disease. Type 1 reaction (T1R) is associated with an increase in neural damage, and the understanding of the molecular pathways related to T1R onset is pivotal for the development of strategies that may effectively control the reaction. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a key cytokine associated with T1R onset and is also associated with autophagy induction. Here, we evaluated the modulation of the autophagy pathway in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated cells in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We observed that IFN-γ treatment promoted autophagy activation and increased the expression of genes related to the formation of phagosomes, autophagy regulation and function, or lysosomal pathways in M. leprae-stimulated cells. IFN-γ increased interleukin (IL)-15 secretion in M. leprae-stimulated THP-1 cells in a process associated with autophagy activation. We also observed higher IL15 gene expression in multibacillary (MB) patients who later developed T1R during clinical follow-up when compared to MB patients who did not develop the episode. By overlapping gene expression patterns, we observed 13 common elements shared between T1R skin lesion cells and THP-1 cells stimulated with both M. leprae and IFN-γ. Among these genes, the autophagy regulator Translocated Promoter Region, Nuclear Basket Protein (TPR) was significantly increased in T1R cells when compared with non-reactional MB cells. Overall, our results indicate that IFN-γ may induce a TPR-mediated autophagy transcriptional program in M. leprae-stimulated cells similar to that observed in skin cells during T1R by a pathway that involves IL-15 production, suggesting the involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of T1R. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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16 pages, 4155 KiB  
Article
Sex-Specific Differences in Autophagic Responses to Experimental Ischemic Stroke
by Anthony N. Patrizz, Jose F. Moruno-Manchon, Lena M. O’Keefe, Sarah J. Doran, Anita R. Patel, Venugopal R. Venna, Andrey S. Tsvetkov, Jun Li and Louise D. McCullough
Cells 2021, 10(7), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10071825 - 20 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2892
Abstract
Ischemic stroke triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes including autophagy. Differential activation of autophagy occurs in neurons derived from males versus females after stressors such as nutrient deprivation. Whether autophagy displays sexual dimorphism after ischemic stroke is unknown. We used a cerebral [...] Read more.
Ischemic stroke triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes including autophagy. Differential activation of autophagy occurs in neurons derived from males versus females after stressors such as nutrient deprivation. Whether autophagy displays sexual dimorphism after ischemic stroke is unknown. We used a cerebral ischemia mouse model (middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO) to evaluate the effects of inhibiting autophagy in ischemic brain pathology. We observed that inhibiting autophagy reduced infarct volume in males and ovariectomized females. However, autophagy inhibition enhanced infarct size in females and in ovariectomized females supplemented with estrogen compared to control mice. We also observed that males had increased levels of Beclin1 and LC3 and decreased levels of pULK1 and p62 at 24 h, while females had decreased levels of Beclin1 and increased levels of ATG7. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy markers were increased under basal conditions and after oxygen and glucose deprivation in male neurons compared with female neurons in vitro. E2 supplementation significantly inhibited autophagy only in male neurons, and was beneficial for cell survival only in female neurons. This study shows that autophagy in the ischemic brain differs between the sexes, and that autophagy regulators have different effects in a sex-dependent manner in neurons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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Review

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24 pages, 1912 KiB  
Review
Ion Channels and Pumps in Autophagy: A Reciprocal Relationship
by Hussein Abuammar, Arindam Bhattacharjee, Zsófia Simon-Vecsei, András Blastyák, Gábor Csordás, Tibor Páli and Gábor Juhász
Cells 2021, 10(12), 3537; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10123537 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 5953
Abstract
Autophagy, the process of cellular self-degradation, is intrinsically tied to the degradative function of the lysosome. Several diseases have been linked to lysosomal degradative defects, including rare lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Ion channels and pumps play a major regulatory role in [...] Read more.
Autophagy, the process of cellular self-degradation, is intrinsically tied to the degradative function of the lysosome. Several diseases have been linked to lysosomal degradative defects, including rare lysosomal storage disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Ion channels and pumps play a major regulatory role in autophagy. Importantly, calcium signaling produced by TRPML1 (transient receptor potential cation channel, mucolipin subfamily) has been shown to regulate autophagic progression through biogenesis of autophagic-lysosomal organelles, activation of mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1) and degradation of autophagic cargo. ER calcium channels such as IP3Rs supply calcium for the lysosome, and lysosomal function is severely disrupted in the absence of lysosomal calcium replenishment by the ER. TRPML1 function is also regulated by LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) and mTORC1, two critical components of the autophagic network. Here we provide an overview of the current knowledge about ion channels and pumps—including lysosomal V-ATPase (vacuolar proton-ATPase), which is required for acidification and hence proper enzymatic activity of lysosomal hydrolases—in the regulation of autophagy, and discuss how functional impairment of some of these leads to diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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15 pages, 914 KiB  
Review
The Secrets of Alternative Autophagy
by Kaja Urbańska and Arkadiusz Orzechowski
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3241; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113241 - 19 Nov 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
For many years, it was thought that ATG5 and ATG7 played a pivotal role in autophagy, and that the knockdown of one of these genes would result in its inhibition. However, cells with ATG5 or ATG7 depletion still generate autophagic vacuoles with mainly [...] Read more.
For many years, it was thought that ATG5 and ATG7 played a pivotal role in autophagy, and that the knockdown of one of these genes would result in its inhibition. However, cells with ATG5 or ATG7 depletion still generate autophagic vacuoles with mainly trans-Golgi-originated isolation membranes and do not die. This indicates that autophagy can occur via ATG5/ATG7-independent alternative autophagy. Its molecular mechanism differs from that of the canonical pathway, including inter alia the phosphorylation of ULK1, and lack of LC3 modifications. As the alternative autophagy pathway has only recently been described, little is known of its precise role; however, a considerable body of evidence suggests that alternative autophagy participates in mitochondrion removal. This review summarizes the latest progress made in research on alternative autophagy and describes its possible molecular mechanism, roles and methods of detection, and possible modulators. There is a need for further research focused on types of autophagy, as this can elucidate the functioning of various cell types and the pathogenesis of human and animal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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18 pages, 1208 KiB  
Review
Autophagy in α-Synucleinopathies—An Overstrained System
by Lisa Fellner, Elisa Gabassi, Johannes Haybaeck and Frank Edenhofer
Cells 2021, 10(11), 3143; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10113143 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3348
Abstract
Alpha-synucleinopathies comprise progressive neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). They all exhibit the same pathological hallmark, which is the formation of α-synuclein positive deposits in neuronal or glial cells. The aggregation of α-synuclein [...] Read more.
Alpha-synucleinopathies comprise progressive neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). They all exhibit the same pathological hallmark, which is the formation of α-synuclein positive deposits in neuronal or glial cells. The aggregation of α-synuclein in the cell body of neurons, giving rise to the so-called Lewy bodies (LBs), is the major characteristic for PD and DLB, whereas the accumulation of α-synuclein in oligodendroglial cells, so-called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is the hallmark for MSA. The mechanisms involved in the intracytoplasmic inclusion formation in neuronal and oligodendroglial cells are not fully understood to date. A possible mechanism could be an impaired autophagic machinery that cannot cope with the high intracellular amount of α-synuclein. In fact, different studies showed that reduced autophagy is involved in α-synuclein aggregation. Furthermore, altered levels of different autophagy markers were reported in PD, DLB, and MSA brains. To date, the trigger point in disease initiation is not entirely clear; that is, whether autophagy dysfunction alone suffices to increase α-synuclein or whether α-synuclein is the pathogenic driver. In the current review, we discuss the involvement of defective autophagy machinery in the formation of α-synuclein aggregates, propagation of α-synuclein, and the resulting neurodegenerative processes in α-synucleinopathies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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18 pages, 1735 KiB  
Review
Autophagy Dysregulation in Diabetic Kidney Disease: From Pathophysiology to Pharmacological Interventions
by Claudio D. Gonzalez, María Paula Carro Negueruela, Catalina Nicora Santamarina, Roxana Resnik and Maria I. Vaccaro
Cells 2021, 10(9), 2497; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10092497 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 3453
Abstract
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent, potentially devastating complication of diabetes mellitus. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology. At a cellular level, diabetic kidney disease is associated with many structural and functional alterations. Autophagy is a cellular mechanism that transports intracytoplasmic [...] Read more.
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a frequent, potentially devastating complication of diabetes mellitus. Several factors are involved in its pathophysiology. At a cellular level, diabetic kidney disease is associated with many structural and functional alterations. Autophagy is a cellular mechanism that transports intracytoplasmic components to lysosomes to preserve cellular function and homeostasis. Autophagy integrity is essential for cell homeostasis, its alteration can drive to cell damage or death. Diabetic kidney disease is associated with profound autophagy dysregulation. Autophagy rate and flux alterations were described in several models of diabetic kidney disease. Some of them are closely linked with disease progression and severity. Some antidiabetic agents have shown significant effects on autophagy. A few of them have also demonstrated to modify disease progression and improved outcomes in affected patients. Other drugs also target autophagy and are being explored for clinical use in patients with diabetic kidney disease. The modulation of autophagy could be relevant for the pharmacological treatment and prevention of this disease in the future. Therefore, this is an evolving area that requires further experimental and clinical research. Here we discuss the relationship between autophagy and Diabetic kidney disease and the potential value of autophagy modulation as a target for pharmacological intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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18 pages, 2368 KiB  
Review
Autophagy and Extracellular Vesicles, Connected to rabGTPase Family, Support Aggressiveness in Cancer Stem Cells
by Aude Brunel, Gaëlle Bégaud, Clément Auger, Stéphanie Durand, Serge Battu, Barbara Bessette and Mireille Verdier
Cells 2021, 10(6), 1330; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10061330 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3624
Abstract
Even though cancers have been widely studied and real advances in therapeutic care have been made in the last few decades, relapses are still frequently observed, often due to therapeutic resistance. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are, in part, responsible for this resistance. They [...] Read more.
Even though cancers have been widely studied and real advances in therapeutic care have been made in the last few decades, relapses are still frequently observed, often due to therapeutic resistance. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are, in part, responsible for this resistance. They are able to survive harsh conditions such as hypoxia or nutrient deprivation. Autophagy and Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) secretion are cellular processes that help CSC survival. Autophagy is a recycling process and EVs secretion is essential for cell-to-cell communication. Their roles in stemness maintenance have been well described. A common pathway involved in these processes is vesicular trafficking, and subsequently, regulation by Rab GTPases. In this review, we analyze the role played by Rab GTPases in stemness status, either directly or through their regulation of autophagy and EVs secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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20 pages, 2008 KiB  
Review
Antiretroviral Drugs Impact Autophagy with Toxic Outcomes
by Laura Cheney, John M. Barbaro and Joan W. Berman
Cells 2021, 10(4), 909; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10040909 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4982
Abstract
Antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are generally well-tolerated, risks for side effects and toxicity remain as PLWH must take life-long medications. Antiretroviral drugs impact autophagy, an intracellular [...] Read more.
Antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are generally well-tolerated, risks for side effects and toxicity remain as PLWH must take life-long medications. Antiretroviral drugs impact autophagy, an intracellular proteolytic process that eliminates debris and foreign material, provides nutrients for metabolism, and performs quality control to maintain cell homeostasis. Toxicity and adverse events associated with antiretrovirals may be due, in part, to their impacts on autophagy. A more complete understanding of the effects on autophagy is essential for developing antiretroviral drugs with decreased off target effects, meaning those unrelated to viral suppression, to minimize toxicity for PLWH. This review summarizes the findings and highlights the gaps in our knowledge of the impacts of antiretroviral drugs on autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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23 pages, 2829 KiB  
Review
Ferroptosis and Its Modulation by Autophagy in Light of the Pathogenesis of Lysosomal Storage Diseases
by Karolina Pierzynowska, Estera Rintz, Lidia Gaffke and Grzegorz Węgrzyn
Cells 2021, 10(2), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10020365 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 5872
Abstract
Ferroptosis is one of the recently described types of cell death which is dependent on many factors, including the accumulation of iron and lipid peroxidation. Its induction requires various signaling pathways. Recent discovery of ferroptosis induction pathways stimulated by autophagy, so called autophagy-dependent [...] Read more.
Ferroptosis is one of the recently described types of cell death which is dependent on many factors, including the accumulation of iron and lipid peroxidation. Its induction requires various signaling pathways. Recent discovery of ferroptosis induction pathways stimulated by autophagy, so called autophagy-dependent ferroptosis, put our attention on the role of ferroptosis in lysosomal storage diseases (LSD). Lysosome dysfunction, observed in these diseases, may influence ferroptosis efficiency, with as yet unknown consequences for the function of cells, tissues, and organisms, due to the effects of ferroptosis on physiological and pathological metabolic processes. Modulation of levels of ferrous ions and enhanced oxidative stress, which are primary markers of ferroptosis, are often described as processes associated with the pathology of LSD. Inhibition of autophagy flux and resultant accumulation of autophagosomes in neuronopathic LSD may induce autophagy-dependent ferroptosis, indicating a considerable contribution of this process in neurodegeneration. In this review article, we describe molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis in light of LSD, underlining the modulation of levels of ferroptosis markers in these diseases. Furthermore, we propose a hypothesis about the possible involvement of autophagy-dependent ferroptosis in these disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Cells—Advances in Autophagy)
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