Architectural Design Based on the Influence of Indoor and Outdoor Environments

A special issue of Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This special issue belongs to the section "Architectural Design, Urban Science, and Real Estate".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2024) | Viewed by 29506

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Architecture, University of Seville, 41004 Seville, Spain
Interests: passive solar design; daylighting in architecture; indoor environmental quality; built environment; low-energy buildings
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Architectural Composition, Universidad de Sevilla, 41004 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: environmental design; daylighting simulation; solar radiation; indoor and outdoor thermal comfort; building energy efficiency
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Architecture, Cal Poly Pomona University, Pomona, CA 91768, USA
2. CallisonRTKL, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Interests: carbon neutral; zero energy buildings; indoor and outdoor thermal comfort; physical testing-mockups; solar thermal storage

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

More than 40% of world energy consumption, and one-third of global carbon emissions, are produced in the construction sector. Furthermore, it is estimated that energy consumption in buildings can increase around 50% by 2050 due to the rapid growth in population and energy demand in emerging countries. Taking into account that the architectural design has a decisive impact on the energy demand of buildings during all their lifetime, this Special Issue is focused on cutting-edge research and technologies addressing climate-responsive design, based on the interaction between the indoor and outdoor environments. The main goal is to reduce the energy demand and carbon emissions in buildings, as well as increase the environmental comfort of the users. All types of integrated perspectives and research, both experimental and theoretical, addressing the problem of designing with climate are welcome: case studies, effective design guidelines, new design approaches, scientific analysis of historical precedents, retrofitting of existing buildings, solar design, and innovative passive systems. The main criteria for the acceptance of original papers will be their novelty, originality, and scientific soundness.

Prof. Dr. Jose-Manuel Almodovar-Melendo
Prof. Dr. Jose Cabeza-Lainez
Prof. Dr. Pablo La Roche
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • climate-responsive design
  • near-zero energy buildings
  • passive solar design
  • building energy performance
  • carbon neutral
  • thermal energy storage
  • physical testing-mockups
  • environmental design guidelines
  • vernacular architecture
  • thermal comfort

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

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37 pages, 77928 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Role of Green Infrastructure in Microclimate and Building Energy Efficiency
by Amin Habibi and Nafise Kahe
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030825 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
This study investigates how permeable and cool pavements, green roofs, and living walls affect microclimatic conditions and buildings’ energy consumption in an arid urban setting: Shiraz. The study aims to evaluate the role of green infrastructure in mitigating urban heat island effects and [...] Read more.
This study investigates how permeable and cool pavements, green roofs, and living walls affect microclimatic conditions and buildings’ energy consumption in an arid urban setting: Shiraz. The study aims to evaluate the role of green infrastructure in mitigating urban heat island effects and enhancing outdoor conditions. By utilizing environmental modeling tools, specifically the ENVI-met 5.1.1 and Design Builder 7.0.2 software, a comprehensive analysis was conducted across various scenarios during both the summer and winter seasons. The results show that permeable pavements with 80% grass coverage reduced the mean average air temperature by 1.18 °C in summer mornings compared to the reference case. In both the summer and winter scenarios, the living wall intervention consistently emerged as the most effective strategy, showcasing substantial reductions in cooling consumption, CO2 emissions, and electricity consumption. With a 25% reduction in cooling consumption, a 14.7% decrease in CO2 emissions, and an impressive 53.4% decline in electricity consumption, the living wall excelled in its environmental impact, and it stands out for its substantial electricity savings. While the green roof and permeable pavement scenarios demonstrated more modest gains, their integration could offer a synergistic solution, warranting further exploration for optimized energy efficiency and environmental sustainability. These findings indicate the intrinsic connection between sustainable landscaping strategies and their influence on urban microclimate and building energy efficiency. Full article
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25 pages, 12109 KiB  
Article
Prioritizing Subway Station Entrance Attributes to Optimize Passenger Satisfaction in Cold Climate Zones: Integrating Gradient Boosting Decision Trees with Asymmetric Impact-Performance Analysis
by Xian Ji, Yu Du and Qi Li
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010101 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 935
Abstract
Subway station entrances serve as crucial links between urban environments and underground transit systems and are particularly vital in cities with cold climates. Specialized design strategies are essential to address user needs and promote safety and comfort, thereby encouraging sustainable travel in harsh [...] Read more.
Subway station entrances serve as crucial links between urban environments and underground transit systems and are particularly vital in cities with cold climates. Specialized design strategies are essential to address user needs and promote safety and comfort, thereby encouraging sustainable travel in harsh winter conditions. This research utilizes data from Harbin and Shenyang, two winter cities in China, to explore the nonlinear influences of subway entrance attributes on passenger satisfaction through the combined use of gradient-boosting decision trees and asymmetric impact-performance analysis. The findings indicate that most key attributes of subway entrances impact passenger satisfaction asymmetrically, highlighting the significance of their hierarchical importance in generating satisfaction. These attributes are categorized into frustrators, dissatisfiers, hybrids, satisfiers, and delighters, based on their asymmetry levels. Considering the current performance of these attributes, the study identifies priority for improvement at Harbin and Shenyang’s subway entrances. This aids urban designers and city managers in making informed decisions for urban development and enhancing the overall commuter experience in winter cities. Full article
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20 pages, 18233 KiB  
Article
The Environmental Control of Historic Arab Baths: A Thermodynamic Simulation of the Hernando de Zafra Baths in Granada
by Santiago Tormo Esteve, Eduardo Loma-Ossorio Blanch, Fernando Vegas López-Manzanares and Camilla Mileto
Buildings 2024, 14(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14010039 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1046
Abstract
The Arab baths of Hernando de Zafra, popularly known as Casa de las Tumbas, are found at the intersection of calle Elvira and calle San Andrés in the historic centre of Granada (Spain). This article presents a thermodynamic study of the environmental operation [...] Read more.
The Arab baths of Hernando de Zafra, popularly known as Casa de las Tumbas, are found at the intersection of calle Elvira and calle San Andrés in the historic centre of Granada (Spain). This article presents a thermodynamic study of the environmental operation of this complex of Arab baths, which has a furnace and hot, warm, and cold rooms, as well as auxiliary adjoining spaces and annexes. Computer models are used for the finite element analysis of the fluid dynamics for the process of lighting the furnace and subsequently diffusing the temperature, and smoke is expelled through the chimneys. The FDS software used—verified and validated by the NIST—processes the conditions for lighting the furnace and the thermal transmission of the generated heat to the different rooms in the building. This is the first case of this software being used for an analysis of the ancient Arab baths. The results show the global thermal behaviour, and the conclusions establish the temperatures reached inside the rooms and the thermal energy contributions needed to reach these temperatures. Full article
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22 pages, 9266 KiB  
Article
Thermal Performance Assessment of Burkina Faso’s Housing Typologies
by Maria Aguilar-Sanchez, Jose-Manuel Almodovar-Melendo and Joseph Cabeza-Lainez
Buildings 2023, 13(11), 2719; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13112719 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 854
Abstract
Burkina Faso is a sub-Saharan African country suffering from a high poverty rate. It has quadruplicated its population over the last twenty years, that is, from 4.5 to 18 million inhabitants. Such demographic changes, together with an intense migration process from rural areas [...] Read more.
Burkina Faso is a sub-Saharan African country suffering from a high poverty rate. It has quadruplicated its population over the last twenty years, that is, from 4.5 to 18 million inhabitants. Such demographic changes, together with an intense migration process from rural areas to large cities, among other issues, are contributing to a rapid process of socio-cultural transformation. In this context, changes in both traditional and contemporary housing are analyzed for this article. To this aim, a thorough thermo-hygrometric evaluation is carried out by processing significant data from on-site measurements to shed new light on the adaptation of the said dwellings to the environmental and local cultural values. Preliminary results show that the introduction of land ownership linked to climate change and the increasing scarcity of natural resources are forcing native ethnic groups to modify their traditional ways of life, even threatening their subsistence. Consequently, we can prove that the new building typologies are not suitable in the least for the climatic conditions nor the rich cultural heritage of Burkina Faso. This fact negatively affects the possibility of revitalizing vernacular and environmentally oriented solutions for the contemporary world and the necessary advance towards a more sustainable architecture. With this research, we intent to start a reversal of such a deterioration process. Full article
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39 pages, 21472 KiB  
Article
Adapting Hospital Interior Architecture Process to Technological Advancement in the Management of Pandemic Cases in Jordan
by Saeed Hussein Alhmoud and Çiğdem Çağnan
Buildings 2023, 13(10), 2602; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13102602 - 15 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2543
Abstract
The COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is currently one of the largest challenges facing the world. The pandemic has had an impact on how hospitals are built, how technology is developed, and how information systems are used. Researchers and practitioners in the field of information [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is currently one of the largest challenges facing the world. The pandemic has had an impact on how hospitals are built, how technology is developed, and how information systems are used. Researchers and practitioners in the field of information systems and technology can aid in the analysis of the COVID-19 pandemic by choosing the most optimal building design to impede and stop virus transmission. This study aims to revise the current COVID-19 Hospital Design process in the Management of Pandemic Cases and suggest a process for the hospital management of pandemic cases that will alleviate current and future pandemics. This study used a mixed approach through personal observations, questionnaire surveys, descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression models. The findings were analyzed and revealed the dimensions that need to be considered and that will need to be up to the standard of leading health organizations. People’s perceptions about the state of some selected healthcare centers in Jordan were taken and analyzed. Proposals of new hospital building designs and processes of health facilities were undertaken, which can further strengthen the clinical state in Jordan and handle future cases of a pandemic outbreak, with much emphasis on the current COVID-19 outbreak. Lastly, it is highly recommended that this paper be used as a guideline required to fight against any pandemics or endemics both now and in the future, as it lists comprehensive process guidelines to combat any deadly virus, which are shown in detailed photos and process diagrams. Full article
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23 pages, 2627 KiB  
Article
The Role of the Active Design Approach in Improving the Environmental Psychology of a Healthy Built Environment: The Case of a University Campus
by Sweyda Abdullah Azeez, Faris Ali Mustafa and Rizgar Maghded Ahmed
Buildings 2023, 13(8), 1999; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13081999 - 5 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2437
Abstract
Environmental psychology plays a vital role in the overall development of human health. Student activism and health concerns have arisen about the human health costs associated with a healthy built environment. This research focuses on recent design “trends”, active designs, and their relationship [...] Read more.
Environmental psychology plays a vital role in the overall development of human health. Student activism and health concerns have arisen about the human health costs associated with a healthy built environment. This research focuses on recent design “trends”, active designs, and their relationship to environmental psychology and a healthy campus. This study examines the role of the active design approach in improving the environmental psychology of universities to achieve a healthy campus for students by hypothesising physical activity comprises three categories: physically active (body), mentally active (emotions), and socially active (group). The total number of student participants was 428 from ten university campuses. The methodology included a questionnaire survey with statistical analyses, ANOVA tests, and factor analyses. The results of this study reveal that students are more active outside campus than inside campus. Students are more interested in social activity than in mental and physical activities. In addition, the obstacles to students’ physical inactivity are a lack of time, lack of opportunities on campus, and the psychological feeling of anxiety, depression, and tension due to social activities and university work performances. In conclusion, a model is designed to demonstrate the relationship between environmental psychology and active design variables. Full article
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19 pages, 10518 KiB  
Article
Urban Building Energy Modelling for the Renovation Wave: A Bespoke Approach Based on EPC Databases
by Jorge Rodríguez-Álvarez
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071636 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 961
Abstract
In 2020, domestic buildings represented 27% of the energy consumption in the European Union. The EC Renovation Wave concluded that the annual renovation rate should be doubled, from 1% to 2%, over the next decade in order to meet the 2030 energy efficiency [...] Read more.
In 2020, domestic buildings represented 27% of the energy consumption in the European Union. The EC Renovation Wave concluded that the annual renovation rate should be doubled, from 1% to 2%, over the next decade in order to meet the 2030 energy efficiency targets. Funding programs are being implemented at national and European levels to accelerate this process. These aim to prioritize large-scale interventions and the most efficient energy conservation measures by including strict performance targets as eligibility conditions. However, these programs are coordinated by local authorities, and they struggle to generate reliable energy estimates for large areas, not least predict potential savings at both aggregated and individual levels. This paper presents a bespoke energy retrofit analysis methodology based on urban building energy modelling, which is defined and calibrated with the Energy Performance Certificate Database. We apply this method to the case study Barrio das Flores. The model adopts a hybrid approach, defining and simulating representative typologies to extrapolate the results to the whole district according to each dwelling’s specific parameters. This methodology will be used to predict the potential energy savings in the study area and support the grant application for the funding renovation program. Full article
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19 pages, 11618 KiB  
Article
Investigating Influence of Visual Elements of Arcade Buildings and Streetscapes on Place Identity Using Eye-Tracking and Semantic Differential Methods
by Hao Fu, Pohsun Wang, Junling Zhou, Shuyuan Zhang and Yan Li
Buildings 2023, 13(7), 1580; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13071580 - 21 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1545
Abstract
This study explored the overall visual elements of arcade buildings and streetscapes from the perspective of tourists and then evaluated their influence on the identity and emotion of places. The scope of the research was to take the arcade building in the port [...] Read more.
This study explored the overall visual elements of arcade buildings and streetscapes from the perspective of tourists and then evaluated their influence on the identity and emotion of places. The scope of the research was to take the arcade building in the port area of Shantou Small Park in Guangdong, China, and apply the eye-tracking experiment method and semantic difference method. This entailed collecting the eye-tracking data of 16 people, implementing 334 questionnaires for evaluation, verifying the correlation between the visual elements and place identity emotions, and then screening out the visual elements that affect place identity through correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. The results show that plaque text morphological richness (p = 0.045 < 0.05, and the regression coefficient B = 0.146), the color brightness of plaque text (p = 0.031 < 0.01, and the regression coefficient B = 0.171), window morphological richness (p = 0.038 < 0.05, and the regression coefficient B = 0.106), window color brilliance (p = 0.047 < 0.01, and regression coefficient B = 0.094), and plant color brilliance (p = 0.029 < 0.05, and the regression coefficient B = 0.154) are five visual element evaluation factors that have a significant correlation with the identity and emotion of places. Although the fineness of architectural decoration is negatively correlated with place identity, it is not obviously significant. The research results provide reference for the visual control design of arcade buildings. Full article
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22 pages, 4301 KiB  
Article
Green Solutions for Urban Sustainability: Photobioreactors for Algae Cultivation on Façades and Artificial Trees
by María Rosa Villalba, Rosa Cervera and Javier Sánchez
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1541; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061541 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4135
Abstract
The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere carries with it severe consequences, and cities are responsible for 70% of CO2 emissions. With this initiative, we address how innovative green architecture can contribute to removing CO2 from the urban area by [...] Read more.
The accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere carries with it severe consequences, and cities are responsible for 70% of CO2 emissions. With this initiative, we address how innovative green architecture can contribute to removing CO2 from the urban area by implementing elements that incorporate microalgae cultivation into architecture. The presented project incorporates two photobioreactor installations filled with water, where microalgae circulate through methacrylate tubes. Used as two architectural elements: a façade that can fix 720 kg of CO2 per year from the atmosphere and produce 400 kg of biomass that can be used as fertilizer in irrigation water; and three artificial trees that can fix 50 kg of CO2 and produce 28 kg of biomass. To test its efficiency, a Life Cycle Inventory was conducted and compared to the amount of CO2 fixed during its lifetime. It was concluded that the system would need 11.11 years to fix the CO2 produced and would have a negative CO2 impact of 27 tons of CO2 during the useful life of its materials. This project is a starting point towards developing a disruptive and experimental alternative with great potential, being the first in Spain and one of the first in the world. Full article
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24 pages, 9419 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Analysis of Visual, Thermal, and Energy Performance in Coordination with the Outdoor Thermal Environment of Productive Façades of Residential Communities in Guangzhou, China
by Yuyan Wang, Xi Zhang, Yifan Zhang, Hao Zhang, Bo Xiong and Xuepeng Shi
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1540; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061540 - 16 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Population growth and urban expansion have led to increased demand for buildings. Optimizing the building façade design, using integrated photovoltaic (PV) shading and vertical farming (VF) can reduce building energy consumption while ensuring a partial food supply. However, the importance and prevalence of [...] Read more.
Population growth and urban expansion have led to increased demand for buildings. Optimizing the building façade design, using integrated photovoltaic (PV) shading and vertical farming (VF) can reduce building energy consumption while ensuring a partial food supply. However, the importance and prevalence of productive façades have not received significant attention. Furthermore, few studies have focused on the impact of productive façades on both indoor and outdoor environmental qualities. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the potential of integrating productive façades with residential façades in high-density cities. A typical community in Guangzhou, China was investigated. Thermal comfort, light comfort, electricity production, and crop yield were considered, and the optimal façade configuration was chosen from the established 146-model library. The integrated module can effectively improve the indoor lighting and thermal comfort of residential buildings. The module also mitigates the outdoor thermal environment to a certain extent, meeting 6.3–10.3% and 7.6–9.6% of the annual electricity and vegetable demands, respectively, in residential communities. This study can guide other densely populated cities with subtropical climates to advance the research and construction of productive façades, improving occupant comfort, reducing energy consumption, and mitigating food security and urban climate change issues. Full article
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27 pages, 9455 KiB  
Article
Well-Being as an Effective Aspect in the Perception of Vital In-between Spaces within Art and Architecture Faculties
by Afaq Al-Ramahi, Aminreza Iranmanesh and Simge Bardak Denerel
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061467 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1940
Abstract
In recent years, well-being has become an increasingly important consideration integrated with functional aspects in the design of educational spaces due to its significant impact on the built environment. Although the features of educational spaces have been explored in a myriad of studies, [...] Read more.
In recent years, well-being has become an increasingly important consideration integrated with functional aspects in the design of educational spaces due to its significant impact on the built environment. Although the features of educational spaces have been explored in a myriad of studies, the potential of in-between spaces has not been well explored. This paper reveals the significance of in-between spaces in educational buildings beyond their functional use as the fundamental circulation within a building, indicating that they also play a dynamic role through their design as elastic gathering spaces that encourage informal interactions and link users psychologically and visually, which affects their well-being. However, the potential of these spaces is often overlooked compared to the main educational spaces. Additionally, during the design process, there seems to be a tendency to reduce these spaces to a bare minimum, in favor of exploiting larger spaces, which shows that they are regarded as merely connecting points or transitional spaces. The research problem addressed here is the lack of a clear, adequate understanding of the effect of designing in-between spaces on the productivity and well-being of users, as there are no criteria regarding in-between space designs to enhance well-being. The current paper aims to evaluate the reality of the in-between space design within the art and architecture faculties of Jordanian universities according to the perception of faculty members and students based on well-being requirements. Accordingly, a survey was designed to address the 11 key criteria identified in the literature, including (1) physical features and visual appearance; (2) size and design of in-between spaces; (3) circulation and movement space zoning; (4) ergonomics and furnishing; (5) lighting; (6) colors and finishing; (7) acoustics; (8) heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; (9) visual communication and instructional tools; (10) social and cultural spaces; and (11) accessories. The paper utilizes a mixed approach through survey and observation, where the findings are analyzed from three case studies to reveal the dimensions that need to be taken into account and developed to meet the needs of users. The results of the study demonstrate that the specific dimensions of circulation and movement, ergonomics and furnishings, colors and finishing, and accessories must be taken into account to create an interactive environment that advances the educational process and therefore enhances productivity. Full article
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24 pages, 1611 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Spatial Dimensions of Social Sustainability in the Workplace through the Lens of Interior Architects in Jordan
by Shrouq Altamimi, Aminreza Iranmanesh and Simge Bardak Denerel
Buildings 2023, 13(6), 1448; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13061448 - 1 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
In both industry and academia, sustainability has become a priority in the interior design and architecture industry, having a significant impact on society. However, most recent studies on building sustainability focus mainly on environmental and economic issues, with social sustainability often being complicated [...] Read more.
In both industry and academia, sustainability has become a priority in the interior design and architecture industry, having a significant impact on society. However, most recent studies on building sustainability focus mainly on environmental and economic issues, with social sustainability often being complicated and overlooked in relevant research. This paper argues that there is a need for workplace design guidance that prioritizes parameters at the intersection of twenty-first-century workforce–corporate interests, embodying the notion of social sustainability within the built environment. Through this perspective, the physical environment is considered the container of its social content, and its features and characteristics have a direct impact on the quality of life and work for office workers. Although international currents in the age of globalization have stimulated tangible progress in the context of sustainability, the interior design of most design and architecture offices in Jordan suffers from an underrepresentation of the distinctive features of socially sustainable, user-welcoming interior spaces and environments. The current study explores the experiences of interior design professionals in Jordan through four windows of “Physiological Health and Comfort”, “Efficiency and Ergonomics”, “Privacy and Social Interaction”, and “Spatial Organization (Design)” from a quantitative perspective. A survey was developed to investigate these criteria and was administered among 145 full-time design professionals working in offices in Amman, Jordan. The study aimed to investigate the experiences of these practitioners in relation to their office work environment, with a focus on exploring Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ), Quality of Work Life (QWL), and Quality of Life (QoL) from the perspective of social sustainability. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and regression models were employed to analyze the survey data and evaluate the findings. Overall, the study highlights the need for theoretical and practical incentives to promote the adoption of socially sustainable development in workplace design, particularly in the context of interior design in Jordan. By focusing on the experiences of interior design professionals with their workplace environment, this study provides valuable insights for the development of workplace design guidelines that prioritize social sustainability parameters within the built environment. Full article
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15 pages, 1117 KiB  
Article
Mitigating Indoor Air Pollution in University Dormitory: The Need for Better Ventilation and Resident Awareness
by Chuloh Jung and Gamal El Samanoudy
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051144 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2283
Abstract
Due to the expansion of the education industry in Dubai, universities have built many dormitories. Even though Dubai has a robust indoor air quality (IAQ) stipulation for public and educational buildings, dormitories must be included. IAQ in newly constructed university dormitories can be [...] Read more.
Due to the expansion of the education industry in Dubai, universities have built many dormitories. Even though Dubai has a robust indoor air quality (IAQ) stipulation for public and educational buildings, dormitories must be included. IAQ in newly constructed university dormitories can be significantly influenced by emissions from furniture made from materials such as plywood, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), or particle board (PB) that contains formaldehyde (HCHO). This study aimed to investigate and improve the IAQ in a newly constructed university dormitory. As a methodology, the study measured the concentrations of total volatile organic compound (TVOC) and HCHO in three identical rooms on different floors of a newly constructed dormitory. The experiment results showed that TVOC and HCHO were generally high, ranging from 0.23 to 18.4 ppm, up to two months after in the new dormitory, but they tended to decrease over time. The two primary factors contributing to the decrease in these pollutants were increased ventilation and reduced occupancy. Comparing the three rooms provided valuable insights into the factors influencing indoor air quality, such as the amount of infiltration through the window gaps, cooling temperatures, and humidity. The study suggests that the air quality in indoor environments can be improved by increasing ventilation, reducing occupancy, and managing the use of household items that emit pollutants. The findings can inform strategies to enhance building IAQ, promoting occupant health and well-being. From these findings, TVOC concentrations in room 1A decreased from 6.57 ppm at the first measurement to 0.13 ppm at the third measurement, while room 3B showed a decrease from 18.4 ppm to 1.16 ppm, and room 5C showed a decrease from 12.5 ppm to 0.93 ppm. HCHO concentrations also decreased, with room 1A decreasing from 2.56 ppm to 0.22 ppm, room 3B decreasing from 4.50 ppm to 2.82 ppm, and room 5C decreasing from 6.88 ppm to 2.15 ppm over the same period. Full article
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18 pages, 5020 KiB  
Article
Shade and Thermal Comfort in Courtyards: Experimental versus Simulation Results
by Victoria Patricia López-Cabeza, Eduardo Diz-Mellado, Carlos Alberto Rivera-Gómez and Carmen Galán-Marín
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1961; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111961 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2626
Abstract
Outdoor comfort is gaining attention in the design of our cities to face the current context of rising temperatures. Although simulation is required to inform the early design stage of projects considering outdoor space and strategies to improve their thermal performance, different tool [...] Read more.
Outdoor comfort is gaining attention in the design of our cities to face the current context of rising temperatures. Although simulation is required to inform the early design stage of projects considering outdoor space and strategies to improve their thermal performance, different tool options must be compared through monitoring to determine the accuracy of their modeling. This study analyses the thermal comfort benefits of the installation of a shading device in a courtyard in the Mediterranean climate. In the study, two simulation workflows were analyzed, one using ENVI-met software and the other using the Ladybug Tools, to evaluate their performance. Air temperature monitoring data were used to validate and calibrate the simulations. Then, both were used to compute the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) to evaluate comfort. The results show that the simulation reproduced an air temperature reduction when the shading was installed, but this was not as high as the monitoring results (up to 13.7 °C). In the UTCI, in contrast, the two simulation workflows provided contradictory results. These differences were explained by analyzing the different parameters affecting comfort and the mean radiant temperature, and the air temperature was found to be the parameter most affecting the UTCI in this context. Thus, future research should focus on improving the accuracy of the simulations of these two parameters. Full article
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18 pages, 2615 KiB  
Review
A Meta-Analysis of Evidence Synthesis for a Healthy Campus Built Environment by Adopting Active Design Approaches to Promote Physical Activity
by Sweyda Abdullah Azeez, Faris Ali Mustafa and Rizgar Maghded Ahmed
Buildings 2023, 13(5), 1224; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13051224 - 6 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
The spread of chronic diseases, particularly obesity, has become a significant social issue on a global level concerning human inactivity and unhealthy behavior. The new approach to active design introduced by AIA and Sport England to increase human activity through physical activity in [...] Read more.
The spread of chronic diseases, particularly obesity, has become a significant social issue on a global level concerning human inactivity and unhealthy behavior. The new approach to active design introduced by AIA and Sport England to increase human activity through physical activity in the built environment includes certifications such as Fitwell and LEED. An active design is any design feature that encourages physical activity, thus encouraging the user to be physically, mentally, and socially active in the built environment. This study aims to assemble evidence on the active design approach through physical activity in the campus built environment by using a meta-analysis approach and statistical analyses. There were 1993 papers identified during the search; following the screening, eligibility, and inclusion stages, 10 studies that addressed physical activity in colleges and universities were chosen. Findings indicate that physical activity has a positive impact on human health in the built environment. I² is (96.38%), which indicates considerable heterogeneity with p < 0.0001 and an absence of publication bias. Accordingly, a model was designed to integrate an active design approach and healthy behavior theories for future research. Overall, the evidence shows the importance of active design and physical activity for a healthy built environment to achieve healthy social behavior. Full article
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