Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Behavioral Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 June 2024 | Viewed by 15237

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Sleep and Circadian Research Group, Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia
2. Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
Interests: circadian rhythms; sleep; cognitive function; light therapy; melatonin; dementia; aging; mental health disorders

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sleep is crucial for cognition. Lack of sleep has detrimental effects on different aspects of cognitive function, such as attention, reasoning, learning and memory. In addition, a decrease in the amplitude and robustness of the circadian clock may contribute to disorganized sleep–wake patterns and thus promote impaired cognition. Target populations include adolescents, shift workers, patients with dementia, patients suffering from a range of mental disorders and the elderly. Therefore, the identification of weak circadian rhythms and poor sleep as contributing factors for cognitive impairment is crucial to improve the quality of life and overall well-being of these populations. Equally important is the development of interventions and therapies, such as physical activity, diet or light therapy, which promote sleep quality and thereby improve cognitive function.

In this Special Issue, we invite original research articles, reviews and commentaries on all aspects related to sleep or circadian disturbances and cognition. Expert articles describing the potential of interventions or therapies to improve sleep or circadian rhythms with a focus on cognition are most welcome.

Dr. Maria Comas Soberats
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sleep
  • circadian rhythms
  • insomnia
  • cognitive function
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • aging
  • dementia
  • shift-workers
  • adolescents
  • mental health disorders
  • physical activity
  • diet
  • light therapy
  • melatonin
  • cognitive behavioral therapy

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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11 pages, 2456 KiB  
Article
Timing of Deep and REM Sleep Based on Fitbit Sleep Staging in Young Healthy Adults under Real-Life Conditions
by Charlotte von Gall, Leon Holub, Amira A. H. Ali and Simon Eickhoff
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(3), 260; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14030260 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Sleep timing is controlled by intrinsic homeostatic and circadian components. The circadian component controls the chronotype, which is defined by the propensity to sleep at a particular clock time. However, sleep timing can be significantly affected by external factors such as the morning [...] Read more.
Sleep timing is controlled by intrinsic homeostatic and circadian components. The circadian component controls the chronotype, which is defined by the propensity to sleep at a particular clock time. However, sleep timing can be significantly affected by external factors such as the morning alarm clock. In this study, we analysed the timing of deep and REM sleep as well as the composition of REM sleep using Fitbit sleep staging in young healthy adults (n = 59) under real-life conditions. Sleep stage percentiles were correlated with the timing of total sleep in time after sleep onset for the homeostatic component and in clock time for the circadian component. Regarding the circadian component, the phase of total sleep is most strongly associated with the phases of early deep sleep and REM sleep. Furthermore, a stronger phase relationship between deep and REM sleep with total sleep is associated with greater consolidation of REM sleep. Chronotype-dependent sleep loss correlates negatively with the strength of the phase relationship between deep sleep and total sleep. In conclusion, the interaction of the circadian component of sleep timing with the timing of sleep stages is associated with REM sleep quality. In particular, the interaction of the circadian component of sleep timing with deep sleep seems to be more vulnerable to external factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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17 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
Effects of Targeted Memory Reactivation on Cortical Networks
by Lorena Santamaria, Anne C. M. Koopman, Tristan Bekinschtein and Penelope Lewis
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14020114 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1024
Abstract
Sleep is a complex physiological process with an important role in memory consolidation characterised by a series of spatiotemporal changes in brain activity and connectivity. Here, we investigate how task-related responses differ between pre-sleep wake, sleep, and post-sleep wake. To this end, we [...] Read more.
Sleep is a complex physiological process with an important role in memory consolidation characterised by a series of spatiotemporal changes in brain activity and connectivity. Here, we investigate how task-related responses differ between pre-sleep wake, sleep, and post-sleep wake. To this end, we trained participants on a serial reaction time task using both right and left hands using Targeted Memory Reactivation (TMR), in which auditory cues are associated with learned material and then re-presented in subsequent wake or sleep periods in order to elicit memory reactivation. The neural responses just after each cue showed increased theta band connectivity between frontal and other cortical regions, as well as between hemispheres, in slow wave sleep compared to pre- or post-sleep wake. This pattern was consistent across the cues associated with both right- and left-handed movements. We also searched for hand-specific connectivity and found that this could be identified in within-hemisphere connectivity after TMR cues during sleep and post-sleep sessions. The fact that we could identify which hand had been cued during sleep suggests that these connectivity measures could potentially be used to determine how successfully memory is reactivated by our manipulation. Collectively, these findings indicate that TMR modulates the brain cortical networks showing clear differences between wake and sleep connectivity patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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14 pages, 1986 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Anxiety, Subjective and Objective Sleep, Chronotype and Circadian Rhythms with Depressive Symptoms in Insomnia Disorder
by Maria Comas, Alejandra Solis Flores, Nicole Lovato, Christopher B. Miller, Delwyn J. Bartlett, Ronald R. Grunstein, Julia Chapman and Christopher J. Gordon
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(4), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13040613 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Insomnia is a highly prevalent sleep disorder with strong bidirectional associations with depressive symptoms. The circadian preference for eveningness has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms in insomnia and other mental health conditions. However, there is a lack of studies in [...] Read more.
Insomnia is a highly prevalent sleep disorder with strong bidirectional associations with depressive symptoms. The circadian preference for eveningness has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms in insomnia and other mental health conditions. However, there is a lack of studies in insomnia investigating whether objective measures, such as dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) or polysomnographic (PSG) sleep, are associated with depressive symptoms. Therefore, we investigated the associations between subjective measures (questionnaires assessing anxiety, sleep quality and circadian preference, and sleep diary) and depressive symptoms and whether the addition of objective measures (DLMO, PSG parameters) would strengthen the associations with depressive symptoms. In 115 insomnia disorder patients we found that anxiety was strongly associated with depressive symptoms in a model including circadian preference, dysfunctional beliefs of sleep, and self-reported previous depressive symptoms (R2 = 0.496, p < 0.001). The addition of sleep diary measures did not strengthen the model. We also found that the addition of objective measures (DLMO, PSG parameters) did not improve the subjective associations with depressive symptoms. Our data suggest that objective circadian markers are less important in the prediction of depressive symptoms in insomnia compared to subjective measures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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15 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
Sleep Patterns Fluctuate Following Training and Games across the Season in a Semi-Professional, Female Basketball Team
by Cody J. Power, Jordan L. Fox, Masaru Teramoto and Aaron T. Scanlan
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(2), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13020238 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Quantifying athlete sleep patterns may inform development of optimal training schedules and sleep strategies, considering the competitive challenges faced across the season. Therefore, this study comprehensively quantified the sleep patterns of a female basketball team and examined variations in sleep between nights. Seven [...] Read more.
Quantifying athlete sleep patterns may inform development of optimal training schedules and sleep strategies, considering the competitive challenges faced across the season. Therefore, this study comprehensively quantified the sleep patterns of a female basketball team and examined variations in sleep between nights. Seven semi-professional, female basketball players had their sleep monitored using wrist-worn activity monitors and perceptual ratings during a 13-week in-season. Sleep variables were compared between different nights (control nights, training nights, training nights before games, nights before games, non-congested game nights, and congested game nights), using generalized linear mixed models, as well as Cohen’s d and odds ratios as effect sizes. Players experienced less sleep on training nights before games compared to control nights, training nights, nights before games, and congested game nights (p < 0.05, d = 0.43–0.69). Players also exhibited later sleep onset times on non-congested game nights compared to control nights (p = 0.01, d = 0.68), and earlier sleep offset times following training nights before games compared to all other nights (p < 0.01, d = 0.74–0.79). Moreover, the odds of players attaining better perceived sleep quality was 88% lower on congested game nights than on nights before games (p < 0.001). While players in this study attained an adequate sleep duration (7.3 ± 0.3 h) and efficiency (85 ± 2%) on average across the in-season, they were susceptible to poor sleep on training nights before games and following games. Although limited to a team-based case series design, these findings suggest basketball coaches may need to reconsider scheduling team-based, on-court training sessions on nights prior to games and consider implementing suitable psychological and recovery strategies around games to optimize player sleep. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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9 pages, 2693 KiB  
Article
Googling Insomnia, Light, Metabolism, and Circadian: A Population Interest Simple Report
by Emanuele Di Simone, Nicolò Panattoni, Alfredo De Giorgi, Pedro Manuel Rodríguez-Muñoz, Marta Bondanelli, Francisco José Rodríguez-Cortés, Pablo Jesús López-Soto, Noemi Giannetta, Sara Dionisi, Marco Di Muzio and Fabio Fabbian
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(12), 1683; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12121683 - 8 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1193
Abstract
Exposure to light at night, insomnia, and disrupted circadian patterns could be considered risk factors for developing noncommunicable diseases. Understanding the awareness of the general population about the abovementioned factors could be essential to predict noncommunicable diseases. This report aimed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Exposure to light at night, insomnia, and disrupted circadian patterns could be considered risk factors for developing noncommunicable diseases. Understanding the awareness of the general population about the abovementioned factors could be essential to predict noncommunicable diseases. This report aimed to investigate the general community’s interest in circadian, insomnia, metabolism, and light using Google Trends, and to evaluate results from different geographic areas. Relative search volumes (RSVs) for the factors mentioned, filtered by the “Health” category, were collected between 2007 and 2021. Moreover, RSVs were analysed in five different European languages. Worldwide mean RSVs for “Circadian”, “Insomnia”, “Light”, and “Metabolism” during the study period were 2%, 13.4%, 62.2%, and 10%, respectively. In different developed countries, searching for light, insomnia, and metabolism were different, suggesting a variable level of awareness. Limited knowledge about the circadian pattern of human activities was detected. The highest correlation coefficient was calculated. Our results suggest the potential role of extensive data analysis in understanding the public interest and awareness about these risk factors. Moreover, it should be interpreted as the onset of stimulus for researchers to use comprehensible language for reaching comprehensive media coverage to prevent sleep and circadian system disturbances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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Review

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20 pages, 1015 KiB  
Review
How Sleep Affects Recovery and Performance in Basketball: A Systematic Review
by Javier Ochoa-Lácar, Meeta Singh, Stephen P. Bird, Jonathan Charest, Thomas Huyghe and Julio Calleja-González
Brain Sci. 2022, 12(11), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci12111570 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 5295
Abstract
Background: Sleep is considered an essential component related to physiological and psychological recovery in athletes and particularly in basketball, given the impact of condensed travel and game schedules on player health and performance. Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to examine [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep is considered an essential component related to physiological and psychological recovery in athletes and particularly in basketball, given the impact of condensed travel and game schedules on player health and performance. Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to examine studies published to date on sleep and basketball performance. Methodology: All scientific articles that reported a relationship between sleep and its possible impact on performance in basketball are included. The research processes followed the PRISMA criteria, and the relevant articles were extracted (PubMed, WOS, Scopus) as of December 31, 2021. Results: Twenty-eight articles were selected for inclusion and data extraction, with 27 demonstrating that sleep is a vital component in the recovery of basketball players and their corresponding on-court performance. Three central themes that we identified: (1) the quality and extension of sleep (the better quality and more extension of sleep, better performance and lower probability of injury); (2) influence of the players circadian rhythm (travel and game scheduling do not currently facilitate or take this into account); and (3) higher training loads and/or increased stress may jeopardize a subsequent good night’s sleep, which should be taken into account when scheduling practices and workouts. Conclusion: The current systematic review regarding sleep and basketball performance and highlights that there is a strong relationship between both variables. Collectively, the evidence supports the critical influence of sleep on player recovery and basketball performance and risk for injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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Other

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14 pages, 1003 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Associations between the Homeostatic and Circadian Sleep Processes and the Neurobehavioral Functioning (NBF) of Individuals with ADHD—A Systematic Review
by Reut Gruber, Gabrielle Gauthier-Gagné, Charlotte Little and Ziqi Fu
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(8), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13081134 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
The objective of the present review was to systematically examine associations between perturbations of the homeostatic or circadian sleep processes and the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of individuals with ADHD. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between December 2013 and March 2023. Studies [...] Read more.
The objective of the present review was to systematically examine associations between perturbations of the homeostatic or circadian sleep processes and the neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) of individuals with ADHD. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between December 2013 and March 2023. Studies were included if they used objective measures of NBF, used objective or subjective measures of sleep, and focused on individuals with ADHD. Ten studies met these inclusion criteria. Of these, eight studies found perturbations in the interplay between NBF and Process S or Process C, and three studies did not. The quality of the studies was degraded because they failed to address key factors that affect the sleep processes and by the presence of methodological weaknesses. Our review suggests that homeostatic and circadian sleep processes are associated with NBF in individuals with ADHD. However, to confirm the validity of this conclusion, future studies should examine or control for confounders and utilize experimental designs that allow causality to be inferred. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Cognitive Function)
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