Advances in ADHD—Second Edition

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Developmental Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2024 | Viewed by 7862

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
Interests: ADHD; psychopharmacology; epidemiology; psychosocial treatment
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of around 5%, and when applying empirically supported methods of diagnosis, the disorder persists into young adulthood for many people. The male-to-female ratio is around 3:1 in children and adolescents, but it is believed that females are under-diagnosed.

The etiology of ADHD involves the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. There is no one direct cause for ADHD, either genetic or non-genetic. Rather, it is the complex interactions of multiple genes and multiple environmental risk factors. ADHD is a chronic disorder with identified genetic underpinnings, neurochemical and structural brain abnormalities, and common symptom presentations.

ADHD-related dysfunction includes occupational, academic, family, social, emotional and interpersonal functional impairments.

There is a need for a clear and concise approach to a complex disorder such as ADHD. Understanding the diagnosis and management of ADHD is incomplete without understanding comorbidities and how to manage them.

This Special Issue will provide insight into the important advances in the diagnosis and management of ADHD and its comorbid disorders. The Special Issue will also highlight recent advances in the neurobiology of ADHD.

Prof. Dr. Joseph Sadek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  • diagnosis
  • management
  • neurobiology
  • etiology
  • neuropsychology
  • cognition
  • comorbidities
  • treatment response

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 303 KiB  
Article
An Open-Label Study of a Wearable Device Targeting ADHD, Executive Function, and Academic Performance
by Lindsay E. Ayearst, Richard Brancaccio and Margaret Danielle Weiss
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(12), 1728; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13121728 - 18 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Objective: This was an open-label pilot study to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a wearable digital intervention developed to improve on-task behavior. This was an exploratory study to test for specificity of response on parent- and teacher-reported symptom outcomes in attention [...] Read more.
Objective: This was an open-label pilot study to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a wearable digital intervention developed to improve on-task behavior. This was an exploratory study to test for specificity of response on parent- and teacher-reported symptom outcomes in attention and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, as well as domains of functional impairment, including school behavior and learning and executive function. Method:Participants included 38 children aged 8–12 years with a parent-reported past diagnosis of ADHD. Following baseline ratings from parents (N = 38) and teachers (N = 26), participants wore the device to school for four weeks. Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms, executive function, and functional impairment were repeated at the end of the four-week intervention period. Results:Statistically significant improvement was seen in the total scores for all parent and nearly all teacher outcomes, with moderate effect size improvements in attention, organization and planning, self-monitoring, school functioning, and teacher-reported academic performance. Conclusions: Preliminary evidence from this open-label pilot study suggests that having a child interact with a wearable device to self-monitor attention is feasible. This exploratory, open-label pilot study found real-world improvement in functional domains, including academic performance. Future research will require a blinded, randomized, controlled trial using an appropriate sham comparator to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in ADHD—Second Edition)

Review

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11 pages, 637 KiB  
Review
A Narrative Review Exploring Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Patients with Early Psychosis
by Temi Toba-Oluboka and Kara Dempster
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14030190 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 839
Abstract
While both Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia are considered to have neurodevelopmental origins with associated impairments in executive functioning, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines pertaining specifically to this comorbidity. We sought to summarize the existing literature on ADHD in [...] Read more.
While both Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia are considered to have neurodevelopmental origins with associated impairments in executive functioning, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines pertaining specifically to this comorbidity. We sought to summarize the existing literature on ADHD in early psychosis patients, focusing on issues that would be most relevant to clinical practice. For this narrative review, we completed a search on PubMed and PsycINFO with 22 papers meeting criteria for review. Overall, it appears that a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood increases the risk of the subsequent development of a primary psychotic disorder. This risk may be modified by higher rates of substance use and could be related to shared premorbid risk factors for both conditions, such as obstetrical complications. Stimulant use has been associated with the onset of psychotic symptoms in some individuals, but it is unclear whether certain subgroups are more susceptible. Despite the fact that these two conditions co-occur relatively frequently, there is currently a lack of objective diagnostic tests for ADHD specific to populations with primary psychotic disorders, and a paucity of evidence on whether stimulants are effective for ADHD symptoms in this sub-group. Future research is warranted to investigate whether stimulant treatment confers any additional risks for symptom exacerbation in individuals with primary psychotic disorders taking antipsychotic maintenance treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in ADHD—Second Edition)
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Other

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9 pages, 264 KiB  
Opinion
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Misdiagnosis: Why Medical Evaluation Should Be a Part of ADHD Assessment
by Joseph Sadek
Brain Sci. 2023, 13(11), 1522; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci13111522 - 28 Oct 2023
Viewed by 4221
Abstract
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that interferes with multiple aspects of daily functioning and is associated with impairments in several domains. It may affect academic, educational, vocational, social, emotional, interpersonal, and health domains, and worsen risks to health [...] Read more.
Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that interferes with multiple aspects of daily functioning and is associated with impairments in several domains. It may affect academic, educational, vocational, social, emotional, interpersonal, and health domains, and worsen risks to health outcomes. Objective: To identify and discuss medical conditions that commonly present with symptoms resembling ADHD. Method: This review is selective and not systematic. It is conducted through a focused literature search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and EMBASE. Search term included “ADHD misdiagnosis”, “medical conditions with ADHD like symptoms”, “ADHD AND medical problems”. Exclusion: giftedness, high IQ, and any article that does not list medical conditions. The limits applied were the following: the work must have been published in the past 20 years, be on humans, and be in the English language. Results: There are several medical conditions that can be misdiagnosed as ADHD and may show a similar presentation to ADHD, particularly with inattentive symptoms. Examples include, but are not limited to, absence seizure disorder, diabetes, thyroid dysfunction, sleep deprivation, post-concussion states, inflammatory bowel disease, iron deficiency states and anemia, and disordered breathing. Conclusions: Our review suggests that a thorough medical evaluation should be conducted prior to the diagnosis of ADHD. Allied health professionals and psychologists who diagnose ADHD should seek medical clearance from a physician prior to making the ADHD diagnosis in order to reduce misdiagnosis rates and improve patient outcomes. ADHD diagnosis should follow guidelines and be carried out under a systematic standardized approach. A full medical evaluation should be conducted to assess for medical conditions that may look like ADHD or be associated with ADHD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in ADHD—Second Edition)
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