Special Issue "New Insights into Etiology and Risk Factors of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Pediatric Population"

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Neurorehabilitation".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021) | Viewed by 4094

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pediatric Neurology, School of Medicine in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
Interests: cerebrovascular disorders; arterial ischemic stroke; risk factors; headache; thrombophilia; arteriopathy; cerebral palsy; epilepsy; congenital brain malformations; rare diseases; children
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Department of Basic Biomedical Science, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41–200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: genetic, biochemical and clinical risk factors for cerebrovascular diseases in children; arterial ischemic stroke; post-stroke consequences; epilepsy; headache; cerebral palsy; modern drug forms (liposomes, nanoparticles)
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The process of development and maturation, as well as the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems, in children is both fascinating and complex.

From the point of view of the practitioner (pediatrician or child’s neurologist), practical diagnostic tools and solutions are needed. From the point of view of the scientist, who studies the nervous systems of the pediatric population, thorough knowledge of the processes observed in these patients is needed.

Over the past several years, we have been mainly involved in research on pediatric arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), its risk factors, and consequences. AIS in children is considered to be a rare problem, especially if we compare its frequency to its prevalence in adults. However, cerebrovascular disorders are among the 10 most common reasons for death in children. In turn, AIS consequences, including motor disability, intellectual delay, speech problems, and post-stroke epilepsy can be permanent, influencing not only the quality of life of the patient but also the life of the whole family. It is crucial to determine the causes/risk factors of the disease in every pediatric AIS patient, as in having this knowledge, we could potentially offer children better care and also avoid brain ischemia recurrence. Data on risk factors for childhood AIS are increasing. At present, focal cerebral arteriopathy of childhood (FCA) is considered as the most important and common arteriopathy within the group of arteriopathies responsible for stroke in the pediatric population. We have published some research on this topic so far, but undoubtedly AIS etiology is still not fully understood and needs further research. Even up to one-third of pediatric AIS cases do not have an identified risk factor for brain ischemia. Therefore, we would like to welcome articles, mostly original manuscripts, to address cerebrovascular pediatric problems, with special consideration to childhood AIS. It is also worth highlighting that pediatric researchers are interested in a wide age range, from the neonatal period to adulthood, i.e., mostly, the first 18 years of life. The neonatal period, from birth to the 28th day of life, is very specific and interesting for the immaturity of the nervous system, specific risk factors, and predispositions for problems that do not occur thereafter. For example, research on stroke, both ischemic and hemorrhagic, in this age group is very interesting but also challenging. Nowadays, we know more and more about the genetic background of pediatric nervous system diseases for the vigorous development of genetic diagnostic procedures, such as whole-genome sequencing. When nervous system diseases reveal themselves in childhood, most neonatologists, pediatricians, and pediatric neurologists will diagnose congenital peripheral and central nervous system disorders and seek their reasons, risk factors, and best solutions for their patients.

We would like our Special Issue to cover the most recent data on the role risk factors of vascular disorders have in the development of AIS and its lasting consequences in the pediatric population.

Dr. Ilona Kopyta
Dr. Beata Sarecka-Hujar
Guest Editors

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  • cerebrovascular disorders
  • arterial ischemic stroke
  • risk factors
  • genetic polymorphisms
  • thrombophilia
  • arteriopathy

Published Papers (2 papers)

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13 pages, 1662 KiB  
Levels of Lipid Parameters in Children with Arterial Ischemic Stroke and Headache: Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis
Brain Sci. 2021, 11(4), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11040417 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1376
Background: Abnormalities in levels of lipid parameters are one of the main causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in adults. There are limited data on the role of disturbances of lipid metabolism in the etiopathogenesis of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and [...] Read more.
Background: Abnormalities in levels of lipid parameters are one of the main causes of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in adults. There are limited data on the role of disturbances of lipid metabolism in the etiopathogenesis of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in children and the results provided are ambiguous. The aim of the study was to compare the levels of lipid parameters (total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL]) between children with AIS, children with headache and healthy children. In addition, we performed meta-analysis of available data on lipid parameters in young patients with AIS. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 218 children hospitalized between 2002 and 2018 in the Upper-Silesian Child’s Health Center (n = 82 children with AIS, n = 45 children with headache, n = 91 healthy children) with available data on lipid levels, i.e., TC, TG, and HDL. The levels of LDL, non-HDL cholesterol, and a very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were calculated. The ratios of TC/HDL, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL were also assessed. Data between cases and controls were analyzed using STATISTICA 13.0 whereas meta-analysis was performed with RevMan version 5.4 software. Results: Children with headache were significantly older than children with AIS (p = 0.001). Ten percent of children with AIS had posterior stroke. The mean TC level was significantly higher in the AIS children than in controls or in children with headache. Mean TG and VLDL levels were significantly different between all groups (p < 0.001 each). The hypertriglyceridemia was more prevalent in AIS children than in children with headache (39% vs. 13%, OR = 4.16 95% CI 1.58–10.94, p = 0.004). Similarly, the frequency of dyslipidemia was higher in children with AIS compared to children with headache (38% vs. 22%, OR = 2.13 95% CI 0.93–4.89, p = 0.078). The meta-analysis was conducted based on data from 4 studies (3 studies published previously plus the results we obtained in the present case-control analysis) with total number of 236 young patients with AIS and 272 healthy controls. Significant Standard Mean Difference (SMD) was found in triglycerides level between young patients with AIS and controls (0.78 95%CI 0.30–1.26 p = 0.002). Conclusions: Lipid abnormalities, especially levels of triglycerides, seem to be of particular importance in children with AIS, as confirmed in meta-analysis. The results of the present study may be a significant contribution to the further research on the role of lipid metabolism disorders in the development of childhood stroke. Full article
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13 pages, 557 KiB  
Does the Occurrence of Particular Symptoms and Outcomes of Arterial Ischemic Stroke Depend on Sex in Pediatric Patients?—A Pilot Study
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(11), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110881 - 20 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2097
Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in childhood is reported to occur more frequently in boys, which may lead to the assumption that the prevalence of post-stroke deficits is sex related. The present study aimed to evaluate sex-related differences in functional outcomes (hemiparesis, seizures, aphasia, [...] Read more.
Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) in childhood is reported to occur more frequently in boys, which may lead to the assumption that the prevalence of post-stroke deficits is sex related. The present study aimed to evaluate sex-related differences in functional outcomes (hemiparesis, seizures, aphasia, and motor disturbances other than hemiparesis) in pediatric patients with AIS. A total of 89 children (52 boys and 37 girls; mean age at stroke onset: 8.4 ± 5.6 years) were evaluated retrospectively based on data from medical records. The patients were divided into subgroups according to age (i.e., infants and toddlers, children, and adolescents), stroke subtype (i.e., lacunar anterior circulation infarct (LACI), total anterior circulation infarct (TACI), partial anterior circulation infarct (PACI), posterior circulation infarct (POCI)) and stroke location (i.e., anterior stroke, posterior stroke). Significant differences in the prevalence of stroke subtypes between girls and boys were observed (p = 0.034). POCI stroke were found to be more frequent in boys than in girls (OR = 8.57 95%CI 1.05–70.23, p = 0.023). Males predominated in the total group and in all analyzed age subgroups. The proportions of boys within the subgroups according to stroke subtype were extremely high for the POCI and TACI stroke subgroups. On the other hand, girls predominated in the LACI stroke subgroup. Frequency of central type facial nerve palsy and other symptoms of AIS were found to significantly differ between male subgroups according to stroke subtype (p = 0.050 and p < 0.001, respectively), as well as between children with anterior stroke and those with posterior stroke (p = 0.059 and p < 0.001, respectively). Post-stroke seizures appeared significantly more commonly in girls with TACI and POCI stroke than in girls with LACI and PACI stroke (p = 0.022). In turn, the prevalence of post-stroke hemiparesis differed between stroke subtypes in boys (p = 0.026). In conclusion, sex may have an impact in predisposing to a certain type of AIS in the patient. Post-stroke seizure may be related to stroke subtype in girls and hemiparesis in boys. However, further studies are needed to confirm the results. Full article
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