New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children

A special issue of Children (ISSN 2227-9067). This special issue belongs to the section "Child Neurology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 August 2022) | Viewed by 8030

Special Issue Editors

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Medykow Str.16, 40-752 Katowice, Poland
Interests: pediatric stroke; neurodevelopmental disturbances; epilepsy; headache; neuromuscular disorders; genetic disorders
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Basic Biomedical Science, School of Pharmacy with the Division of Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, 41–200 Sosnowiec, Poland
Interests: modern drug forms; liposomes; nanoparticles; microspheres; neurological diseases; metabolic disorders; skin; drug delivery; hydrogels; rheology; pharmaceutical technology; optimization and manufacturing of pharmaceutical products; quality of pharmaceutical forms
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Neurodevelopmental disorders are common problems encountered in the pediatric population.

The term “neurodevelopmental disorder” is broad and covers both genetically determined problems as well as those coming from environmental, infectious and traumatic causes. The occurrence of some of these disorders results from a multifactorial background. Some neurodevelopmental diseases have a specific clinical course and specific symptoms, while others have a very rich symptomatology, and the symptoms come from various organs and systems. Moreover, the appearance of concomitant symptoms changes the presentation of the underlying condition. Currently, the possibility of using modern research techniques (i.e., neuroimaging), and –especially the progress in the field of genetic diagnostics, makes it possible to recognize certain diseases and their causes with greater success and efficiency.

The idea of creating a Special Issue of Children on neurodevelopmental disorders in the pediatric population is to collect articles devoted to a modern approach to this group of diseases. The SI title allows for the inclusion of articles within this Issue describing the many and varied problems of developmental-age neurology, in accordance with the keywords given below.

In this Special Issue we would like to welcome articles, including original research articles, reviews, meta-analyses or case studies, which address the scope of neurodevelopmental problems in children.

Dr. Ilona Kopyta
Dr. Beata Sarecka-Hujar
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Children is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • genetic syndromes
  • pediatrics
  • developmental disorders
  • congenital brain anomalies
  • epilepsy
  • headache
  • neuromuscular disorders
  • cerebrovascular diseases

Published Papers (5 papers)

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9 pages, 621 KiB  
Article
Do Antiepileptic Drugs Change the Levels of Arginine Derivatives in Epileptic Children Treated with Polytherapy? The Results of a Case–Control Study
Children 2022, 9(11), 1709; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111709 - 08 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Previously, a relation between therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the levels of biochemical parameters was observed in adult patients suffering from epilepsy. Among these biochemical factors, arginine derivatives are often analyzed, i.e., asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and homoarginine (hArg) as [...] Read more.
Previously, a relation between therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the levels of biochemical parameters was observed in adult patients suffering from epilepsy. Among these biochemical factors, arginine derivatives are often analyzed, i.e., asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and homoarginine (hArg) as they may be linked with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since the levels of arginine derivatives may increase during therapy, and the treatment of epilepsy often lasts many years, patients may experience CVD faster. The aim of the present study was to analyze the levels of arginine derivatives in children with epilepsy who were treated with multiple AEDs to answer the question whether pediatric patients may be at increased risk of CVD in the future. We prospectively analyzed 21 children suffering from epilepsy who took ≥2 AEDs for at least 6 months and 22 children without epilepsy (reference group). The levels of the arginine derivatives, e.g., ADMA, SDMA, and hArg, were determined in the blood serum using the HPLC method. No differences in both the mean levels of ADMA and SDMA, as well as in the mean values of the arginine derivative ratios, were observed between the groups. The tendency toward a lower level of hArg was found in epileptic patients more than in the reference group (p = 0.091). Epileptic children receiving three or more AEDs had significantly lower concentrations of hArg and values of the hArg/ADMA ratio than the reference group (p = 0.023 and p = 0.006, respectively). In turn, the mean hArg/ADMA ratio was lower in children receiving three or more AEDs compared to children receiving two AEDs (p = 0.002). There was also a positive correlation between the hArg and ADMA concentrations in children with epilepsy taking two AEDs; the higher the level of hArg, the greater the level of ADMA on average (r = 0.650, p = 0.022). Taking three or more AEDs by epileptic children resulted in lower levels of both hArg and the value of the hArg/ADMA ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children)
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13 pages, 3766 KiB  
Article
Development of an International Database for a Rare Genetic Disorder: The MECP2 Duplication Database (MDBase)
Children 2022, 9(8), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9081111 - 25 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
The natural history of MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS), a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder with an estimated birth prevalence of 1/150,000 live births, is poorly understood due to a lack of clinical data collected for research. Such information is critical to the understanding of [...] Read more.
The natural history of MECP2 duplication syndrome (MDS), a rare X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder with an estimated birth prevalence of 1/150,000 live births, is poorly understood due to a lack of clinical data collected for research. Such information is critical to the understanding of disease progression, therapeutic endpoints and outcome measures for clinical trials, as well as the development of therapies and orphan products. This clinical information can be systematically collected from caregivers through data collation efforts—yet, no such database has existed for MDS before now. Here, in this methodological study, we document the development, launch and management of the international MECP2 Duplication Database (MDBase). The MDBase consists of an extensive family questionnaire that collects information on general medical history, system-specific health problems, medication and hospitalisation records, developmental milestones and function, and quality of life (for individuals with MDS, and their caregivers). Launched in 2020, in its first two years of operation the MDBase has collected clinical data from 154 individuals from 26 countries—the largest sample size to date. The success of this methodology for the establishment and operation of the MDBase may provide insight and aid in the development of databases for other rare neurodevelopmental disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children)
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11 pages, 1090 KiB  
Case Report
COVID-19 Co-Infection May Promote Development of Sinusitis Complication in Children
Children 2022, 9(11), 1636; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9111636 - 27 Oct 2022
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Abstract
Background: The olfactory dysfunction that occurs during a COVID-19 infection has sparked much debate about its similarity to sinusitis. Up to 65% of COVID-19 pediatric patients may be asymptomatic; however, when symptoms are observed, fever and cough are the most common. Nasal congestion [...] Read more.
Background: The olfactory dysfunction that occurs during a COVID-19 infection has sparked much debate about its similarity to sinusitis. Up to 65% of COVID-19 pediatric patients may be asymptomatic; however, when symptoms are observed, fever and cough are the most common. Nasal congestion and discharge as well as headaches can also be seen, which makes both entities, i.e., COVID-19 and sinusitis, similar to each other. Methods: In this review, we present the clinical case of a teenager with a history of acute sinusitis and COVID-19 co-infection followed by purulent meningoencephalitis. We aim to summarize available findings on the association between COVID-19, sinusitis, and possible common complications of both diseases. Results: Differentiating between COVID-19 and sinusitis can be confusing because presented symptoms may overlap or mimic each other. Increased risk of complications, especially in patients with bacterial sinusitis co-infected with SARS-CoV-2, should prompt physicians to monitor young patients and inform parents about disturbing symptoms and possible complications. Conclusions: Acute sinusitis and COVID-19 co-infection may lead to numerous complications and should be included among the factors predisposing to worse prognosis. It is especially related to patients with high risk factors and even more important in children as they often pass the infection asymptomatically and its complications can lead to loss of health or life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children)
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13 pages, 2091 KiB  
Case Report
Fully Immersive Virtual Reality Game-Based Training for an Adolescent with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Case Report
Children 2022, 9(10), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9101512 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Background: Recently, virtual reality-based training (VR-based training) is receiving attention as greater emphasis is placed on the importance of interest and motivation in participation. However, studies investigating the effects of fully immersive VR-based training are insufficient. Case presentation: We report a case of [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, virtual reality-based training (VR-based training) is receiving attention as greater emphasis is placed on the importance of interest and motivation in participation. However, studies investigating the effects of fully immersive VR-based training are insufficient. Case presentation: We report a case of using a fully immersive VR game-based training in a patient with cerebral palsy. A 15-year-old girl was diagnosed with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy Gross Motor Function Classification System level II. A six-week intervention (18 sessions) phase was performed with one fully immersive VR game using PlayStation®VR in three sessions per week. After 18 sessions of training, the scores on the gross motor function measure-88 (Gross Motor Function Measure-88-GMFM-88), pediatric balance scale (PBS), timed up and go test (TUG), functional gait assessment (FGA), and 10 m walking test (10MWT) were improved: GMFM-88, 91.56 points (9.31 points increase); PBS, 45 points (6 points increase); TUG, 8.23 s (6.9 s decrease); FGA, 11 points (3 points increase); the 10 MWT, 5.27 s (6.59 s decrease). Conclusions: This study found that a fully immersive VR game-based training using PlayStation®VR may be an effective intervention for GMFCS level II adolescent, leading to some improvement of motor function, balance and gait skills in adolescents with cerebral palsy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children)
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6 pages, 213 KiB  
Case Report
Improvement in Gait and Participation in a Child with Angelman Syndrome after Translingual Neurostimulation Associated with Goal-Oriented Therapy: A Case Report
Children 2022, 9(5), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/children9050719 - 13 May 2022
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Abstract
Angelman syndrome is a genetic neurobehavioral syndrome characterized by motor and cognitive developmental delay, with a severe reduction in activity and participation. Treatments are limited and the effects of rehabilitation have not been studied. We report on the progress made by a 7-year-old [...] Read more.
Angelman syndrome is a genetic neurobehavioral syndrome characterized by motor and cognitive developmental delay, with a severe reduction in activity and participation. Treatments are limited and the effects of rehabilitation have not been studied. We report on the progress made by a 7-year-old boy with Angelman syndrome following an innovative synergic intervention involving translingual neurostimulation (TLNS) and goal-oriented rehabilitation to improve gait. The parents were interviewed regarding the child’s abilities and participation level and three-dimensional gait analysis was performed before and after the 4-week intervention (five days per week, 4 h per day) and 6 months later. Spatiotemporal and kinematic gait variables improved considerably at 4 weeks, with a reduction in lower limb agonist-antagonist co-contractions, and a large increase in walking distance (from 500 m to 2 km). The child’s engagement and ability to perform activities of daily living improved, as well as several functions not targeted by the intervention. Six months after cessation of the intervention, improvements were partially sustained. The rapid and considerable improvement in motor ability was likely due to potentiation of the rehabilitation by the TLNS. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying this effect and to determine if it is generalizable to other children with similar disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight in Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Children)
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