Brain Structural and Functional Correlates of Addiction

A special issue of Brain Sciences (ISSN 2076-3425). This special issue belongs to the section "Behavioral Neuroscience".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 881

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Downstate Health Sciences University, Brooklyn, NY 11203, USA
Interests: brain electrophysiology (EEG, ERP, ERO); alcohol use disorder (AUD); addiction; neuropsychology; cognitive functions; brain connectivity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Addiction refers to a state characterized by a chronic and compulsive involvement in either using a substance or engaging in a behavior despite adverse consequences. Addiction involves complex interactions among various factors including neural, genetic, psychological, social, and environmental factors. While numerous studies have attempted to elucidate structural and functional correlates of addiction, a comprehensive model explaining the neurobiological and neurocognitive mechanisms underlying addiction is still lacking. This Special Issue will serve as a platform to host a range of articles related to the neural basis of addiction. The goal of this Special Issue is to publish articles from researchers who are engaged in research aimed at understanding the structural and functional correlates of addiction. The Special Issue will prioritize publishing a collection of novel and cutting-edge research articles relevant to this goal. Both human and animal studies that aim to understand brain structural and functional correlations of substance or behavioral addiction are solicited. Studies that use EEG, structural and functional MRI, and other imaging methods are preferred. Neuropsychological, cognitive, and behavioral studies that explore functional aspects of addiction are also welcome for submission. Brain stimulation and neuromodulation studies on addiction, including multimodal studies involving different experimental methods, will also be considered, as will review articles that integrate relevant findings from the literature.

Dr. Chella Kamarajan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • addiction
  • substance use disorders (SUDs)
  • behavioral addiction
  • EEG
  • brain oscillations
  • MRI
  • brain imaging
  • brain stimulation
  • cognitive function
  • brain networks

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

15 pages, 2711 KiB  
Article
Abstinence and Fear Experienced during This Period Produce Distinct Cortical and Hippocampal Adaptations in Alcohol-Dependent Rats
by Noah L. Steiner, Dvijen C. Purohit, Casey M. Tiefenthaler and Chitra D. Mandyam
Brain Sci. 2024, 14(5), 431; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci14050431 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 610
Abstract
Previous studies demonstrate that ethanol dependence induced by repeating cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) followed by protracted abstinence produces significant gray matter damage via myelin dysfunction in the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and alterations in neuronal excitability in the [...] Read more.
Previous studies demonstrate that ethanol dependence induced by repeating cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE) followed by protracted abstinence produces significant gray matter damage via myelin dysfunction in the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and alterations in neuronal excitability in the mPFC and the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Specifically, abstinence-induced neuroadaptations have been associated with persistent elevated relapse to drinking. The current study evaluated the effects of forced abstinence for 1 day (d), 7 d, 21 d, and 42 d following seven weeks of CIE on synaptic plasticity proteins in the mPFC and DG. Immunoblotting revealed reduced expression of CaMKII in the mPFC and enhanced expression of GABAA and CaMKII in the DG at the 21 d time point, and the expression of the ratio of GluN2A/2B subunits did not change at any of the time points studied. Furthermore, cognitive performance via Pavlovian trace fear conditioning (TFC) was evaluated in 3 d abstinent rats, as this time point is associated with negative affect. In addition, the expression of the ratio of GluN2A/2B subunits and a 3D structural analysis of neurons in the mPFC and DG were evaluated in 3 d abstinent rats. Behavioral analysis revealed faster acquisition of fear responses and reduced retrieval of fear memories in CIE rats compared to controls. TFC produced hyperplasticity of pyramidal neurons in the mPFC under control conditions and this effect was not evident or blunted in abstinent rats. Neurons in the DG were unaltered. TFC enhanced the GluN2A/2B ratio in the mPFC and reduced the ratio in the DG and was not altered by abstinence. These findings indicate that forced abstinence from CIE produces distinct and divergent alterations in plasticity proteins in the mPFC and DG. Fear learning-induced changes in structural plasticity and proteins contributing to it were more profound in the mPFC during forced abstinence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain Structural and Functional Correlates of Addiction)
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