Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2023) | Viewed by 22175

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Bioengineering, 1102 Everitt Lab, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Interests: nanomaterials; nanobiosensors; biodetection; drug delivery
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Guest Editor
College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
Interests: application of bio-detection technology in the field of food safety; nucleic acid biosensors; nanotechnology biosensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Pathogen detection is important in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and food science. Traditional pathogenic bacteria detection approaches involve multiple steps involving bacterial enrichment, which takes a long time and require professional knowledge. In order to overcome these shortcomings, biosensors have been widely exploited for the detection of pathogenic bacteria. 

At present, depending on targets, biosensors for pathogen detection can be divided into three categories, namely, nucleic acid sensors, protein sensors, and other metabolic small-molecule sensors. Meanwhile, based on the detection principle, they can be divided into electrochemical sensors, optical sensors, and so on.  

In recent years, relevant technologies in these fields have made great progress. This Special Issue hopes to collect the latest developments in biosensor technologies for pathogen detection and to discuss the potential opportunities and challenges for their application.

Prof. Dr. Joseph Irudayaraj
Prof. Dr. Jian Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • pathogen detection
  • biosensors
  • electrochemical analysis
  • optical sensing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 1624 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods for Reliable Quantification of Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
by Alexandra Bogožalec Košir, Dane Lužnik, Viktorija Tomič and Mojca Milavec
Biosensors 2023, 13(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13040463 - 06 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2197
Abstract
Detection and quantification of DNA biomarkers relies heavily on the yield and quality of DNA obtained by extraction from different matrices. Although a large number of studies have compared the yields of different extraction methods, the repeatability and intermediate precision of these methods [...] Read more.
Detection and quantification of DNA biomarkers relies heavily on the yield and quality of DNA obtained by extraction from different matrices. Although a large number of studies have compared the yields of different extraction methods, the repeatability and intermediate precision of these methods have been largely overlooked. In the present study, five extraction methods were evaluated, using digital PCR, to determine their efficiency in extracting DNA from three different Gram-negative bacteria in sputum samples. The performance of two automated methods (GXT NA and QuickPick genomic DNA extraction kit, using Arrow and KingFisher Duo automated systems, respectively), two manual kit-based methods (QIAamp DNA mini kit; DNeasy UltraClean microbial kit), and one manual non-kit method (CTAB), was assessed. While GXT NA extraction kit and the CTAB method have the highest DNA yield, they did not meet the strict criteria for repeatability, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty for all three studied bacteria. However, due to limited clinical samples, a compromise is necessary, and the GXT NA extraction kit was found to be the method of choice. The study also showed that dPCR allowed for accurate determination of extraction method repeatability, which can help standardize molecular diagnostic approaches. Additionally, the determination of absolute copy numbers facilitated the calculation of measurement uncertainty, which was found to be influenced by the DNA extraction method used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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11 pages, 2678 KiB  
Article
A Designed Vessel Using Dissolvable Polyvinyl Alcohol Membrane as Automatic Valve to Couple LAMP with CRISPR/Cas12a System for Visual Detection
by Tianyi Yang, Yanju Chen, Jinsong He, Jian Wu, Meixia Wang and Xiaoping Zhong
Biosensors 2023, 13(1), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13010111 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
A rapid and intuitive method for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) was established by a designed reaction vessel which coupled CRISPR/Cas12a with loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP). There were two spaces in the vessel-holding LAMP reaction solution and CRISPR reaction solution, respectively, which [...] Read more.
A rapid and intuitive method for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) was established by a designed reaction vessel which coupled CRISPR/Cas12a with loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP). There were two spaces in the vessel-holding LAMP reaction solution and CRISPR reaction solution, respectively, which were separated with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membrane. The PVA membrane could be dissolved with a water solution. The thermolabile hemolysin (TLH) gene of VP was employed as the detection target. After the target sequence of the TLH gene was amplified with LAMP, the PVA membrane would be dissolved and the CRISPR reaction solution mixed with the LAMP reaction solution. In this way, amplicons could be detected with CRISPR/Cas12a in the reaction vessel. The fluorescent signals produced by the positive samples were clearly identified by the naked eye under a UV light, while the negative samples were dark. The whole detection procedure could be finished within 35 min with a detection limit of 100 copies/µL. The designed reaction vessel is easy to produce and can effectively prevent contamination due to the opening of the reaction vessel after the LAMP reaction. Thus, it will have the potential to provide a new solution for rapid detection in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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18 pages, 4563 KiB  
Article
Multi-Layer Biosensor for Pre-Symptomatic Detection of Puccinia strifformis, the Causal Agent of Yellow Rust
by Mohamed H. Hassan, Abdalla M. Omar, Evangelos Daskalakis, Abubaker A. Mohamed, Lesley A. Boyd, Christopher Blanford, Bruce Grieve and Paulo JDS. Bartolo
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100829 - 06 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1913
Abstract
The yellow rust of wheat (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a devastating fungal infection that is responsible for significant wheat yield losses. The main challenge with the detection of this disease is that it can only be visually detected [...] Read more.
The yellow rust of wheat (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) is a devastating fungal infection that is responsible for significant wheat yield losses. The main challenge with the detection of this disease is that it can only be visually detected on the leaf surface between 7 and 10 days after infection, and by this point, counter measures such as the use of fungicides are generally less effective. The hypothesis of this study is to develop and use a compact electrochemical-based biosensor for the early detection of P. striiformis, thus enabling fast countermeasures to be taken. The biosensor that was developed consists of three layers. The first layer mimics the wheat leaf surface morphology. The second layer consists of a sucrose/agar mixture that acts as a substrate and contains a wheat-derived terpene volatile organic compound that stimulates the germination and growth of the spores of the yellow rust pathogen P. s. f. sp. tritici. The third layer consists of a nonenzymatic glucose sensor that produces a signal once invertase is produced by P. striiformis, which comes into contact with the second layer, thereby converting sucrose to glucose. The results show the proof that this innovative biosensor can enable the detection of yellow rust spores in 72 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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Review

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41 pages, 7602 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances on Peptide-Based Biosensors and Electronic Noses for Foodborne Pathogen Detection
by Vanessa Escobar, Natale Scaramozzino, Jasmina Vidic, Arnaud Buhot, Raphaël Mathey, Carole Chaix and Yanxia Hou
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020258 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3080
Abstract
Foodborne pathogens present a serious issue around the world due to the remarkably high number of illnesses they cause every year. In an effort to narrow the gap between monitoring needs and currently implemented classical detection methodologies, the last decades have seen an [...] Read more.
Foodborne pathogens present a serious issue around the world due to the remarkably high number of illnesses they cause every year. In an effort to narrow the gap between monitoring needs and currently implemented classical detection methodologies, the last decades have seen an increased development of highly accurate and reliable biosensors. Peptides as recognition biomolecules have been explored to develop biosensors that combine simple sample preparation and enhanced detection of bacterial pathogens in food. This review first focuses on the selection strategies for the design and screening of sensitive peptide bioreceptors, such as the isolation of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from living organisms, the screening of peptides by phage display and the use of in silico tools. Subsequently, an overview on the state-of-the-art techniques in the development of peptide-based biosensors for foodborne pathogen detection based on various transduction systems was given. Additionally, limitations in classical detection strategies have led to the development of innovative approaches for food monitoring, such as electronic noses, as promising alternatives. The use of peptide receptors in electronic noses is a growing field and the recent advances of such systems for foodborne pathogen detection are presented. All these biosensors and electronic noses are promising alternatives for the pathogen detection with high sensitivity, low cost and rapid response, and some of them are potential portable devices for on-site analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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36 pages, 2720 KiB  
Review
Paper-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Nucleic Acids from Pathogens
by Jiangshan Wang, Josiah Levi Davidson, Simerdeep Kaur, Andres A. Dextre, Mohsen Ranjbaran, Mohamed S. Kamel, Shreya Milind Athalye and Mohit S. Verma
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121094 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 4378
Abstract
Paper-based biosensors are microfluidic analytical devices used for the detection of biochemical substances. The unique properties of paper-based biosensors, including low cost, portability, disposability, and ease of use, make them an excellent tool for point-of-care testing. Among all analyte detection methods, nucleic acid-based [...] Read more.
Paper-based biosensors are microfluidic analytical devices used for the detection of biochemical substances. The unique properties of paper-based biosensors, including low cost, portability, disposability, and ease of use, make them an excellent tool for point-of-care testing. Among all analyte detection methods, nucleic acid-based pathogen detection offers versatility due to the ease of nucleic acid synthesis. In a point-of-care testing context, the combination of nucleic acid detection and a paper-based platform allows for accurate detection. This review offers an overview of contemporary paper-based biosensors for detecting nucleic acids from pathogens. The methods and limitations of implementing an integrated portable paper-based platform are discussed. The review concludes with potential directions for future research in the development of paper-based biosensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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23 pages, 2069 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Biosensors for Pathogen Detection: An Updated Review
by Morteza Banakar, Masoud Hamidi, Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad Sohail Zafar, Janak Sapkota, Reza Azizian and Dinesh Rokaya
Biosensors 2022, 12(11), 927; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12110927 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4283
Abstract
Electrochemical biosensors are a family of biosensors that use an electrochemical transducer to perform their functions. In recent decades, many electrochemical biosensors have been created for pathogen detection. These biosensors for detecting infections have been comprehensively studied in terms of transduction elements, biorecognition [...] Read more.
Electrochemical biosensors are a family of biosensors that use an electrochemical transducer to perform their functions. In recent decades, many electrochemical biosensors have been created for pathogen detection. These biosensors for detecting infections have been comprehensively studied in terms of transduction elements, biorecognition components, and electrochemical methods. This review discusses the biorecognition components that may be used to identify pathogens. These include antibodies and aptamers. The integration of transducers and electrode changes in biosensor design is a major discussion topic. Pathogen detection methods can be categorized by sample preparation and secondary binding processes. Diagnostics in medicine, environmental monitoring, and biothreat detection can benefit from electrochemical biosensors to ensure food and water safety. Disposable and reusable biosensors for process monitoring, as well as multiplexed and conformal pathogen detection, are all included in this review. It is now possible to identify a wide range of diseases using biosensors that may be applied to food, bodily fluids, and even objects’ surfaces. The sensitivity of optical techniques may be superior to electrochemical approaches, but optical methods are prohibitively expensive and challenging for most end users to utilize. On the other hand, electrochemical approaches are simpler to use, but their efficacy in identifying infections is still far from satisfactory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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Other

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23 pages, 1540 KiB  
Perspective
Prospects of Microfluidic Technology in Nucleic Acid Detection Approaches
by Zilwa Mumtaz, Zubia Rashid, Ashaq Ali, Afsheen Arif, Fuad Ameen, Mona S. AlTami and Muhammad Zubair Yousaf
Biosensors 2023, 13(6), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13060584 - 27 May 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3372
Abstract
Conventional diagnostic techniques are based on the utilization of analyte sampling, sensing and signaling on separate platforms for detection purposes, which must be integrated to a single step procedure in point of care (POC) testing devices. Due to the expeditious nature of microfluidic [...] Read more.
Conventional diagnostic techniques are based on the utilization of analyte sampling, sensing and signaling on separate platforms for detection purposes, which must be integrated to a single step procedure in point of care (POC) testing devices. Due to the expeditious nature of microfluidic platforms, the trend has been shifted toward the implementation of these systems for the detection of analytes in biochemical, clinical and food technology. Microfluidic systems molded with substances such as polymers or glass offer the specific and sensitive detection of infectious and noninfectious diseases by providing innumerable benefits, including less cost, good biological affinity, strong capillary action and simple process of fabrication. In the case of nanosensors for nucleic acid detection, some challenges need to be addressed, such as cellular lysis, isolation and amplification of nucleic acid before its detection. To avoid the utilization of laborious steps for executing these processes, advances have been deployed in this perspective for on-chip sample preparation, amplification and detection by the introduction of an emerging field of modular microfluidics that has multiple advantages over integrated microfluidics. This review emphasizes the significance of microfluidic technology for the nucleic acid detection of infectious and non-infectious diseases. The implementation of isothermal amplification in conjunction with the lateral flow assay greatly increases the binding efficiency of nanoparticles and biomolecules and improves the limit of detection and sensitivity. Most importantly, the deployment of paper-based material made of cellulose reduces the overall cost. Microfluidic technology in nucleic acid testing has been discussed by explicating its applications in different fields. Next-generation diagnostic methods can be improved by using CRISPR/Cas technology in microfluidic systems. This review concludes with the comparison and future prospects of various microfluidic systems, detection methods and plasma separation techniques used in microfluidic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Monitoring Pathogenic Agents)
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