Advanced Biosensors for Food, Environment, and Healthcare Analysis: From Science to Application

A special issue of Biosensors (ISSN 2079-6374). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors and Healthcare".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 June 2023) | Viewed by 20003

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China
Interests: biosensors; point-of-care test; food safety; environmental monitoring; healthcare
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Applications of advanced biosensors in food, environment, and healthcare analysis have attracted growing attention from scientific and industrial circles. Advanced biosensors can identify hazardous factors at trace levels and record nutrient substances in food, keeping food safe and improving food quality. Biosensors allow sensitively and specificily determining tremendous environmental contamination on-site. Healthcare analysis depends on reliable biosensors for diagnosis, drug discovery, single-cell or single-molecular analysis, and the like. Biosensors can be used in well-equipped labs or off labs. Matrix effects in solid or liquid samples need to be depressed by proper sample preparation. Robust and effective sample preparation techniques allow satisfied extraction and cleanup processes. Biosensors rely on optics, electrochemistry, electricity, magnetics, or mechanics. Minimized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunochromatographic strips, microfluidics, or wearables call for more applications in food, the environment, and healthcare. Challenges in biosensor development include their sensitivity, specificity, speediness, reliability, portability, and cost.

This Special Issue focuses on developing biosensors and their applications for food, environmental, and healthcare analysis. It collects original works for the design, fabrication, and application of advanced biosensors with new principles, strategies, and methods. Reviews reflecting cutting-edge information, challenges, and perspectives of biosensors are particularly welcome.

Dr. Zhaowei Zhang
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • enzymes
  • DNA
  • aptamer
  • antibody
  • molecularly imprinted polymers
  • optical
  • fluorescent
  • electrochemical
  • photoelectric
  • SERS
  • chemiluminescent
  • mass
  • thermal biosensors
  • ELISA
  • immunochromatographic strip
  • microfludics
  • smartphone-based biosensors
  • point-of-care test toxic ion
  • pesticide
  • veterinary drug
  • biotoxin
  • pathogenic bacteria
  • antibiotics
  • toxins
  • organic pollutants
  • food additives
  • tumor
  • biomarker
  • viruses

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 8652 KiB  
Article
A Novel and Versatile Microfluidic Device for Cell Assays under Radio Frequency Exposure
by Mengshuang Wang, Mengni Zhu, Zhenjie Zhao, Xin Li and Jie Zhang
Biosensors 2023, 13(8), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13080763 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 855
Abstract
Wound healing is a complex process composed of different stages, which involves extensive communication between the different cellular factors of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been used to accelerate the wound-healing process and it has been found [...] Read more.
Wound healing is a complex process composed of different stages, which involves extensive communication between the different cellular factors of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been used to accelerate the wound-healing process and it has been found to enhance cell alignment and mobility. The conventional methods for cell mobility analysis in an electromagnetic field generated by a radiation source are not advisable due to the low-precision, nonuniform distribution of the field, low efficiency of the analysis in batch and the lack of system integration for autonomous on-body operation. Here, a novel and versatile electromagnetic exposure system integrated with a microfluidic chip was fabricated to explore the EMF-induced response. A gradient electromagnetic field in a two-dimensional plane has been successfully established in the microchambers placed along the field line. In this work, by deploying our radiation experiments in vitro, we validated the on-chip monitoring of cell response to exposure. This electromagnetic field was simulated and human amniotic epithelial cells (HAECs) were cultured in different microchambers for continuous exposure to the electromagnetic field excited by a monopole RF antenna (1.8 GHz). New protrusions were generated and an obvious increase in filopodia with the increased field intensity was investigated. Meanwhile, the variation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration under the electromagnetic field was examined. The inhibitory effect of the Ca2+ circulation was further inspected to reveal the potential downstream signaling pathway in the RF-EMF-related bioassay, suggesting that cytoskeletal dynamics of cells under exposure are highly associated with the EGF receptor (EGFR)-cytoskeleton downstream signaling pathway. Finally, the field-induced cell elongation and alignment parallel to the field direction were observed. Additionally, the subsequent recovery (field withdrawal) and re-establishment (field re-exposure) were explored. These results indicated that this reliable and versatile exposure system for bioassay could achieve precise and high-throughput detection of the RF-EMF-induced cytoskeletal reorganization in vitro and evaluate the possible health risk from RF-EMF exposure. Full article
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13 pages, 6301 KiB  
Article
A Dye-Assisted Paper-Based Assay to Rapidly Differentiate the Stress of Chlorophenols and Heavy Metals on Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli
by Wanqing Dai, Bibi Inumbra, Po Yu Wong, Alma Sarmiento, Ying Yau, Jie Han, Guozhu Mao, Yung-Kang Peng and Jian Lin Chen
Biosensors 2023, 13(5), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13050523 - 06 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Biological toxicity testing plays an essential role in identifying the possible negative effects induced by substances such as organic pollutants or heavy metals. As an alternative to conventional methods of toxicity detection, paper-based analytical device (PAD) offers advantages in terms of convenience, quick [...] Read more.
Biological toxicity testing plays an essential role in identifying the possible negative effects induced by substances such as organic pollutants or heavy metals. As an alternative to conventional methods of toxicity detection, paper-based analytical device (PAD) offers advantages in terms of convenience, quick results, environmental friendliness, and cost-effectiveness. However, detecting the toxicity of both organic pollutants and heavy metals is challenging for a PAD. Here, we show the evaluation of biotoxicity testing for chlorophenols (pentachlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 4-chlorophenol) and heavy metals (Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+) by a resazurin-integrated PAD. The results were achieved by observing the colourimetric response of bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli) to resazurin reduction on the PAD. The toxicity responses of E. faecalis-PAD and E. coli-PAD to chlorophenols and heavy metals can be read within 10 min and 40 min, respectively. Compared to the traditional growth inhibition experiments for toxicity measuring which takes at least 3 h, the resazurin-integrated PAD can recognize toxicity differences between studied chlorophenols and between studied heavy metals within 40 min. Full article
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11 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
A Hemin–Graphene Nanocomposite-Based Aptasensor for Ultrasensitive Colorimetric Quantification of Leukaemia Cells Using Magnetic Enrichment
by Jing Su, Liqiang Zhang, Luogen Lai, Wufu Zhu and Chong Hu
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1070; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121070 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
Diagnostic blood cell counting is of limited use in monitoring a minimal number of leukaemia cells, warranting further research to develop more sensitive and reliable techniques to identify leukaemia cells in circulation. In this work, a hemin–graphene nanocomposite-based aptasensor was developed for ultrasensitive [...] Read more.
Diagnostic blood cell counting is of limited use in monitoring a minimal number of leukaemia cells, warranting further research to develop more sensitive and reliable techniques to identify leukaemia cells in circulation. In this work, a hemin–graphene nanocomposite-based aptasensor was developed for ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of leukaemia cells (CEM) using magnetic enrichment. Hemin-conjugated graphene oxide nanocomposites (HGNs) were prepared by hydrazine reduction using graphene oxide nanosheets and hemins. Hence, the prepared HGNs become able to absorb single-stranded DNA and acquire peroxidase-like activity. The aptamer sgc8c, which recognizes a specific target on leukaemia cells, was absorbed onto HGNs to capture the target CEM cancer cells. The captured target cells that associated with the HGNs were then concentrated and separated by magnetic beads (MBs) coated with sgc8c aptamers, forming a HGN–cell–MB sandwich structure. These sandwich structures can be quantified via an oxidation reaction catalysed by HGNs. By utilizing dual signal amplification effects generated by magnetic enrichment and the improved peroxidase activity of HGNs, the biosensor allowed for highly sensitive detection of 10 to 105 CEM cells with an ultra-low limit of detection (LOD) of 10 cells under optimal conditions. It is expected that the proposed aptasensor can be further employed in monitoring the minimal residual disease during the treatment of leukaemia. Full article
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17 pages, 3705 KiB  
Article
A Sensitive Immunodetection Assay Using Antibodies Specific to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Produced by Baculovirus Expression
by Ju-Hong Jang, Sungsik Kim, Seul-Gi Kim, Jaemin Lee, Dong-Gwang Lee, Jieun Jang, Young-Su Jeong, Dong-Hyun Song, Jeong-Ki Min, Jong-Gil Park, Moo-Seung Lee, Baek-Soo Han, Jee-Soo Son, Jangwook Lee and Nam-Kyung Lee
Biosensors 2022, 12(10), 787; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12100787 - 24 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent bacterial toxin that causes inflammatory stimulation and toxic shock, thus it is necessary to detect SEB in food and environmental samples. Here, we developed a sensitive immunodetection system using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our study is the [...] Read more.
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent bacterial toxin that causes inflammatory stimulation and toxic shock, thus it is necessary to detect SEB in food and environmental samples. Here, we developed a sensitive immunodetection system using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Our study is the first to employ a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) to produce recombinant wild-type SEB. BEVS facilitated high-quantity and pure SEB production from suspension-cultured insect cells, and the SEB produced was characterized by mass spectrometry analysis. The SEB was stable at 4 °C for at least 2 years, maintaining its purity, and was further utilized for mouse immunization to generate mAbs. An optimal pair of mAbs non-competitive to SEB was selected for sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based immunodetection. The limit of detection of the immunodetection method was 0.38 ng/mL. Moreover, it displayed higher sensitivity in detecting SEB than commercially available immunodetection kits and retained detectability in various matrices and S. aureus culture supernatants. Thus, the results indicate that BEVS is useful for producing pure recombinant SEB with its natural immunogenic property in high yield, and that the developed immunodetection assay is reliable and sensitive for routine identification of SEB in various samples, including foods. Full article
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13 pages, 3704 KiB  
Article
Functional Characterization and Phenotyping of Protoplasts on a Microfluidics-Based Flow Cytometry
by Xingda Dai, Shuaihua Zhang, Siyuan Liu, Hang Qi, Xuexin Duan, Ziyu Han and Jiehua Wang
Biosensors 2022, 12(9), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12090688 - 26 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1818
Abstract
A better understanding of the phenotypic heterogeneity of protoplasts requires a comprehensive analysis of the morphological and metabolic characteristics of many individual cells. In this study, we developed a microfluidic flow cytometry with fluorescence sensor for functional characterization and phenotyping of protoplasts to [...] Read more.
A better understanding of the phenotypic heterogeneity of protoplasts requires a comprehensive analysis of the morphological and metabolic characteristics of many individual cells. In this study, we developed a microfluidic flow cytometry with fluorescence sensor for functional characterization and phenotyping of protoplasts to allow an unbiased assessment of the influence of environmental factors at the single cell level. First, based on the measurement of intracellular homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a DCFH-DA dye, the effects of various external stress factors such as H2O2, temperature, ultraviolet (UV) light, and cadmium ions on intracellular ROS accumulation in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts were quantitatively investigated. Second, a faster and stronger oxidative burst was observed in Petunia protoplasts isolated from white petals than in those isolated from purple petals, demonstrating the photoprotective role of anthocyanins. Third, using mutants with different endogenous auxin, we demonstrated the beneficial effect of auxin during the process of primary cell wall regeneration. Moreover, UV-B irradiation has a similar accelerating effect by increasing the intracellular auxin level, as shown by double fluorescence channels. In summary, our work has revealed previously underappreciated phenotypic variability within a protoplast population and demonstrated the advantages of a microfluidic flow cytometry for assessing the in vivo dynamics of plant metabolic and physiological indices at the single-cell level. Full article
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14 pages, 3741 KiB  
Article
Phosphoprotein Detection in Sweat Realized by Intercalation Structure 2D@3D g-C3N4@Fe3O4 Wearable Sensitive Motif
by Yuting Qiao, Lijuan Qiao, Peize Zhao, Peng Zhang, Fanbin Wu, Jiahui Zhang, Li Gao, Bingxin Liu and Lei Zhang
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 361; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060361 - 24 May 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1891
Abstract
Abnormal protein phosphorylation in sweat metabolites is closely related to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases. The real-time monitoring of phosphoproteins in sweat is significant for early monitoring of disease biomarkers. Here, a high-efficiency electrochemical sensor for phosphoprotein in sweat was realized by [...] Read more.
Abnormal protein phosphorylation in sweat metabolites is closely related to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases. The real-time monitoring of phosphoproteins in sweat is significant for early monitoring of disease biomarkers. Here, a high-efficiency electrochemical sensor for phosphoprotein in sweat was realized by 2D@3D g-C3N4@Fe3O4 with intercalation structure. Common phosphoprotein β-Casein was selected to demonstrate the platform’s functionalities. The detection limit of g-C3N4@Fe3O4 could be as low as 9.7 μM, and the detection range was from 0.01 mg/mL to 1 mg/mL. In addition, the sensing platform showed good selectivity, reproducibility, and stability. We also investigated the effects of interface structure on adsorption properties and electronic properties of the g-C3N4 and Fe3O4 heterostructure using DFT. More electrons from Fe3O4 were transferred to g-C3N4, which increased the electrons in the energy band of N atoms and promoted the formation of stable N-H bonds with H atoms in phosphoproteins. We demonstrated phosphoprotein sensor functionality by measuring the phosphoprotein in human sweat during exercising. This work realizes a sensing platform for noninvasive and continuous detection of sweat phosphoproteins in wearable devices. Full article
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10 pages, 2405 KiB  
Communication
Carnation-like Morphology of BiVO4-7 Enables Sensitive Photoelectrochemical Determination of Cr(VI) in the Food and Environment
by Wenqin Wu, Zhao Tan, Xiao Chen, Xiaomei Chen, Ling Cheng, Huimin Wu, Peiwu Li and Zhaowei Zhang
Biosensors 2022, 12(2), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12020130 - 19 Feb 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Hexavalent chromium, namely, Cr(VI), is a significant threat to ecological and food safety. Current detection methods are not sensitive to Cr(VI). A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor based on bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was developed for sensitive detection of Cr(VI). First, BiVO4-X [...] Read more.
Hexavalent chromium, namely, Cr(VI), is a significant threat to ecological and food safety. Current detection methods are not sensitive to Cr(VI). A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor based on bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) was developed for sensitive detection of Cr(VI). First, BiVO4-X (X: the pH of the reaction precursor solution) was synthesized using a facile surfactant-free hydrothermal method. The BiVO4-X morphology was well controlled according to pH values, showing rock-like (X = 1), wrinkled bark-like (X = 4), carnation-like (X = 7), and the collapsed sheet-like morphologies (X = 9, 12). BiVO4-7 exhibited excellent photoelectric performance due to a proper band structure under visible light and a large specific surface area. Then, BiVO4-7 was used to construct a PEC sensor to detect Cr(VI), which was demonstrated to have a low detection limit (10 nM) and wide detection range (2–210 μM). The BiVO4-7 PEC sensor had a stable output signal, as well as excellent reproducibility, repeatability, and selectivity. We used the BiVO4-7 PEC sensor to detect Cr(VI) in real environmental and food samples, resulting in a satisfactory recovery of 90.3–103.0%, as determined by comparison with results obtained using a spectrophotometric method. The BiVO4-7 PEC sensor is promising for practical application to heavy metal detection in the food and environment. Full article
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Review

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20 pages, 2248 KiB  
Review
Electrochemical Biosensors as a Novel Platform in the Identification of Listeriosis Infection
by Leila Mehrannia, Balal Khalilzadeh, Reza Rahbarghazi, Morteza Milani, Gulsah Saydan Kanberoglu, Hadi Yousefi and Nevin Erk
Biosensors 2023, 13(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios13020216 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2171
Abstract
Listeria monocytogenes (L.M.) is a gram-positive bacillus with wide distribution in the environment. This bacterium contaminates water sources and food products and can be transmitted to the human population. The infection caused by L.M. is called listeriosis and is common in pregnant women, [...] Read more.
Listeria monocytogenes (L.M.) is a gram-positive bacillus with wide distribution in the environment. This bacterium contaminates water sources and food products and can be transmitted to the human population. The infection caused by L.M. is called listeriosis and is common in pregnant women, immune-deficient patients, and older adults. Based on the released statistics, listeriosis has a high rate of hospitalization and mortality; thus, rapid and timely detection of food contamination and listeriosis cases is necessary. During the last few decades, biosensors have been used for the detection and monitoring of varied bacteria species. These devices are detection platforms with great sensitivity and low detection limits. Among different types of biosensors, electrochemical biosensors have a high capability to circumvent several drawbacks associated with the application of conventional laboratory techniques. In this review article, different electrochemical biosensor types used for the detection of listeriosis were discussed in terms of actuators, bioreceptors, specific working electrodes, and signal amplification. We hope that this review will facilitate researchers to access a complete and comprehensive template for pathogen detection based on the different formats of electrochemical biosensors. Full article
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19 pages, 3203 KiB  
Review
Detection of Emerging Pollutants Using Aptamer-Based Biosensors: Recent Advances, Challenges, and Outlook
by Elda A. Flores-Contreras, Reyna Berenice González-González, Everardo González-González, Elda M. Melchor-Martínez, Roberto Parra-Saldívar and Hafiz M. N. Iqbal
Biosensors 2022, 12(12), 1078; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12121078 - 25 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2576
Abstract
The synergistic potentialities of innovative materials that include aptamers have opened new paradigms in biosensing platforms for high-throughput monitoring systems. The available nucleobase functional moieties in aptamers offer exclusive features for bioanalytical sensing applications. In this context, compared to various in-practice biological recognition [...] Read more.
The synergistic potentialities of innovative materials that include aptamers have opened new paradigms in biosensing platforms for high-throughput monitoring systems. The available nucleobase functional moieties in aptamers offer exclusive features for bioanalytical sensing applications. In this context, compared to various in-practice biological recognition elements, the utilization of aptamers in detection platforms results in an extensive range of advantages in terms of design flexibility, stability, and sensitivity, among other attributes. Thus, the utilization of aptamers-based biosensing platforms is extensively anticipated to meet unaddressed challenges of various in-practice and standard analytical and sensing techniques. Furthermore, the superior characteristics of aptasensors have led to their applicability in the detection of harmful pollutants present in ever-increasing concentrations in different environmental matrices and water bodies, seeking to achieve simple and real-time monitoring. Considering the above-mentioned critiques and notable functional attributes of aptamers, herein, we reviewed aptamers as a fascinating interface to design, develop, and deploy a new generation of monitoring systems to aid modern bioanalytical sensing applications. Moreover, this review aims to summarize the most recent advances in the development and application of aptasensors for the detection of various emerging pollutants (EPs), e.g., pharmaceutical, and personal care products (PPCPs), endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), pesticides and other agricultural-related compounds, and toxic heavy elements. In addition, the limitations and current challenges are also reviewed, considering the technical constraints and complexity of the environmental samples. Full article
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22 pages, 4592 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in the Recognition Elements of Sensors to Detect Pyrethroids in Food: A Review
by Le Zhang, Mingqi Zhao, Ming Xiao, Moo-Hyeog Im, A. M. Abd El-Aty, Hua Shao and Yongxin She
Biosensors 2022, 12(6), 402; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios12060402 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
The presence of pyrethroids in food and the environment due to their excessive use and extensive application in the agriculture industry represents a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the determination of the presence of pyrethroids in foods by simple, rapid, and sensitive [...] Read more.
The presence of pyrethroids in food and the environment due to their excessive use and extensive application in the agriculture industry represents a significant threat to public health. Therefore, the determination of the presence of pyrethroids in foods by simple, rapid, and sensitive methods is warranted. Herein, recognition methods for pyrethroids based on electrochemical and optical biosensors from the last five years are reviewed, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), chemiluminescence, biochemical, fluorescence, and colorimetric methods. In addition, recognition elements used for pyrethroid detection, including enzymes, antigens/antibodies, aptamers, and molecular-imprinted polymers, are classified and discussed based on the bioreceptor types. The current research status, the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods, and future development trends are discussed. The research progress of rapid pyrethroid detection in our laboratory is also presented. Full article
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