Neutrophils, Fast and Strong 2.0

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Immunology and Immunotherapy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2023) | Viewed by 5076

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Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
Interests: neutrophils; leukotrienes; inflammation; apoptosis; oxidative stress
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The history of medicine is also the history of our understanding of the role of neutrophils in the protection of our body. Ilya I. Mechnikov discovered that phagocytes and phagocytosis are the basis of natural cellular immunity, and macrophages and microphages (later renamed neutrophils) are the first line of defense in the host’s response to damage, infection, and tissue repair. Further research only confirmed the unique role of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) as independent defenders and acting in interaction with other cells in protecting the host. A characteristic property of neutrophils is their ability to migrate and penetrate into tissues, including inflammation loci, tumors and the central nervous system. In all places, the unique ability of neutrophils to activate and secrete aggressive products results in the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, which finally leads to the damping of inflammatory processes. A detailed understanding of the functions of neutrophils will certainly help in understanding the mechanisms of the body’s immune defense. The clinical significance of blood neutrophils, tumor-associated neutrophils, and COVID-19-associated neutrophils, as well as those associated with other pathologies, is well established. Neutrophil-associated circulating markers of NETs are associated with COVID-19 disease severity and clinical outcome, including thrombotic events and intravascular coagulation. Bioactive lipid mediator storms occurring in severe COVID-19 include eicosanoids produced by neutrophils. Neutrophils release their own chemoattractant leukotriene B4, and leukotriene B4-mediated amplification mechanism is crucial for neutrophil swarming/clustering at sites of infection. Neutrophils are fast and strong and protect the body in all pathologies. In this context, the study of the functions of neutrophils in health and disease is of great interest and importance.

Prof. Dr. Galina F. Sud’ina
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • neutrophil
  • phagocytosis
  • chemotaxis
  • secretion
  • degranulation
  • reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • leukotrienes
  • neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)
  • infection
  • inflammation
  • neutrophil swarming

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 1037 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Cerebral Edema in Children with Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis
by Alexandra-Cristina Scutca, Delia-Maria Nicoară, Niculina Mang, Iulius Jugănaru, Giorgiana-Flavia Brad and Otilia Mărginean
Biomedicines 2023, 11(11), 2976; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11112976 - 05 Nov 2023
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Abstract
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a common onset modality of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), can lead, in rare instances, to the development of cerebral edema, which is the leading cause of mortality in T1DM. Aside from the identification of several demographic and clinical risk [...] Read more.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a common onset modality of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), can lead, in rare instances, to the development of cerebral edema, which is the leading cause of mortality in T1DM. Aside from the identification of several demographic and clinical risk factors for cerebral edema, attention has also been drawn to the possible link between systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation. This single-center retrospective study of 98 children with severe DKA aimed to investigate the possible relationship between neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio NLR) levels and the presence of cerebral edema. Patients were classified into three groups: alert (n = 28), subclinical cerebral edema (n = 59), and overt cerebral edema (n = 11). Lower blood pH and elevated NLR and blood urea were correlated with the presence of cerebral edema (p < 0.001). After a multivariable risk adjustment for possible confounding factors, such as age, pH, corrected sodium, and BUN, the NLR remained positively associated with cerebral edema (p = 0.045). As such, NLR may be an additional instrument to help practitioners target patients with a higher risk of severe cerebral edema. These patients would benefit from more rigorous neurologic surveillance, enabling the prompt identification of early signs of cerebral edema. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils, Fast and Strong 2.0)
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13 pages, 2551 KiB  
Article
ROS Production by a Single Neutrophil Cell and Neutrophil Population upon Bacterial Stimulation
by Svetlana N. Pleskova, Alexander S. Erofeev, Alexander N. Vaneev, Petr V. Gorelkin, Sergey Z. Bobyk, Vasilii S. Kolmogorov, Nikolay A. Bezrukov and Ekaterina V. Lazarenko
Biomedicines 2023, 11(5), 1361; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines11051361 - 04 May 2023
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Abstract
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by a single neutrophil after stimulation with S. aureus and E. coli was estimated by an electrochemical amperometric method with a high time resolution. This showed significant variability in the response of a single neutrophil to bacterial [...] Read more.
The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by a single neutrophil after stimulation with S. aureus and E. coli was estimated by an electrochemical amperometric method with a high time resolution. This showed significant variability in the response of a single neutrophil to bacterial stimulation, from a “silent cell” to a pronounced response manifested by a series of chronoamperometric spikes. The amount of ROS produced by a single neutrophil under the influence of S. aureus was 5.5-fold greater than that produced under the influence of E. coli. The response of a neutrophil granulocyte population to bacterial stimulation was analyzed using luminol-dependent biochemiluminescence (BCL). The stimulation of neutrophils with S. aureus, as compared to stimulation with E. coli, caused a total response in terms of ROS production that was seven-fold greater in terms of the integral value of the light sum and 13-fold greater in terms of the maximum peak value. The method of ROS detection at the level of a single cell indicated the functional heterogeneity of the neutrophil population, but the specificity of the cellular response to different pathogens was the same at the cellular and population levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils, Fast and Strong 2.0)
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10 pages, 1288 KiB  
Article
High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios Are Associated with a Higher Risk of Hemodialysis Vascular Access Failure
by Edoardo Pasqui, Gianmarco de Donato, Elisa Lazzeri, Cecilia Molino, Giuseppe Galzerano, Michele Giubbolini and Giancarlo Palasciano
Biomedicines 2022, 10(9), 2218; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10092218 - 07 Sep 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1729
Abstract
Our aim was to determine the predictive role of the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in vascular access malfunctioning in patients who had undergone their first native arterio-venous fistula (AVF) for hemodialysis. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational study. [...] Read more.
Our aim was to determine the predictive role of the preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in vascular access malfunctioning in patients who had undergone their first native arterio-venous fistula (AVF) for hemodialysis. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective observational study. All patients who underwent the procedure of the creation of a first native AVF for hemodialysis from January 2019 to December 2020 were considered eligible to be part of this study. Reinterventions for AVF malfunctioning were registered and the population was subdivided into two groups with respect to AVF malfunctioning. ROC curves were obtained to find the appropriate cut-off values for the NLR and PLR. A multivariate analysis was used to identify the independent predictors for an AVF malfunction. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to evaluate the AVF patency rates. A total of 178 patients were enrolled in the study, of them 70% (n = 121) were male. The mean age was 67.5 ± 12 years. Reinterventions for AVF malfunctioning were performed on 102 patients (57.3%). An NLR > 4.21 and a PLR > 208.8 was selected as the cut-off for AVF malfunctioning. The study population was divided into two groups depending on the NLR and PLR values of the individual. For the NLR < 4.21 group, the AVF patency rates were 90.7%, 85.3%, and 84% at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively, and 77.5%, 65.8%, and 39.3% at 3, 6, and 12 months for the NLR > 4.21 group, respectively (p < 0.0001). For the PLR < 208.8 group, the patency rates were 85.6%, 76.7%, and 67.7% at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. For the PLR > 208.28 group, the patency rates were 80.8%, 71.2%, and 50.7% for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up, respectively (p = 0.014). The multivariate analysis highlighted that diabetes mellitus, the neutrophil count, the lymphocyte count, and the NLR were independent risk factors for an AVF failure. In our experience, the NLR and PLR are useful markers for the stratification of vascular access failure in hemodialysis patients. The inexpensive nature and ready availability of the values of these biomarkers are two points of strength for everyday clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophils, Fast and Strong 2.0)
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