Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials

A special issue of Biomedicines (ISSN 2227-9059). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomedical Engineering and Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2022) | Viewed by 44183

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstraße 6, 50939 Köln, Germany
Interests: 3D porous materials; bio-inspired materials; aerogels; biomaterials; 3D printing; tissue engineering; sol-gel; self-assembly
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature is riched with materials bearing exceptional properties that can provide valuable knowledge for scientists to engineer functional materials with advanced structures and functions. The outstanding properties of natural materials, mainly their outstanding mechanical properties, have been mostly attributed to their hierarchical structure.

In this Special Issue, the aim is to focus on bio-inspired porous materials, particularly those processed from sol-gel and self-assembly synthesis, accompanied by bio-inspired material processing techniques like hard templating, directional freeze-casting and 3D printed approaches. While the main emphasis will be given to the synthesis and design principles, and the problems associated with engineering aspects of fabricating advanced porous materials, including bio-ceramics, hydrogels, and composites, their in-vitro and in-vivo applications for bone and wound healing will also be highlighted.

Dr. Hajar Maleki
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • porous materials
  • bio-inspired materials
  • 3D printing
  • self-assembly
  • sol-gel
  • bone
  • wound healing

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 2879 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Cytocompatibility of Collagen–Gelatin–Elastin (CollaGee) Acellular Skin Substitute towards Human Dermal Fibroblasts: In Vitro Assessment
by Nusaibah Sallehuddin, Nur Izzah Md Fadilah, Ng Min Hwei, Adzim Poh Yuen Wen, Salma Mohamad Yusop, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Yosuke Hiraoka, Yasuhiko Tabata and Mh Busra Fauzi
Biomedicines 2022, 10(6), 1327; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10061327 - 4 Jun 2022
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2467
Abstract
Full-thickness skin wounds have become a serious burden to patients, medical care, and the socio-economic environment. The development of a safe and effective acellular skin substitute that can rapidly restore intact physiological skin is required. Natural bioactive materials including collagen, gelatin, and elastin [...] Read more.
Full-thickness skin wounds have become a serious burden to patients, medical care, and the socio-economic environment. The development of a safe and effective acellular skin substitute that can rapidly restore intact physiological skin is required. Natural bioactive materials including collagen, gelatin, and elastin possess significant advantages over synthetic biomaterials regarding biodegradability and biocompatibility. However, low mechanical strength, a faster biodegradation rate, and thermally unstable biomaterials lead to slow-healing and a high rate of post-implantation failure. To overcome these concerns, naturally occurring genipin (GNP) flavonoids were added to improve the mechanical strength, degradation rate, and thermal properties. Therefore, this study aimed to fabricate and characterize collagen–gelatin–elastin (CollaGee) biomaterials cross-linked with GNP as an acellular skin substitute potentially used in full-thickness wound healing. CollaGee at different ratios was divided into non-cross-linked and cross-linked with 0.1% GNP (w/v). The physicochemical, mechanical, and biocompatibility properties of CollaGee were further investigated. The results demonstrated that GNP-cross-linked CollaGee has better physicochemical (>50% porosity, pore size range of 100–200 µm, swelling ratio of >1000%) and mechanical properties (resilience and cross-linking degree of >60%, modulus of >1.0 GPa) compared to non-cross-linked CollaGee groups. Furthermore, both cross-linked and non-cross-linked CollaGee demonstrated pivotal cellular compatibility with no toxicity and sustained cell viability until day 7 towards human dermal fibroblasts. These findings suggest that GNP-cross-linked CollaGee could be a promising ready-to-use product for the rapid treatment of full-thickness skin loss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 4961 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Heat Treatment of β-Tricalcium Phosphate-Containing Silica-Based Bioactive Aerogels on the Cellular Metabolism and Proliferation of MG63 Cells
by Csaba Hegedűs, Zsuzsanna Czibulya, Ferenc Tóth, Balázs Dezső, Viktória Hegedűs, Róbert Boda, Dóra Horváth, Attila Csík, István Fábián, Enikő Tóth-Győri, Zsófi Sajtos and István Lázár
Biomedicines 2022, 10(3), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10030662 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2241
Abstract
β-Tricalcium phosphate was combined with silica aerogel in composites prepared using the sol–gel technique and supercritical drying. The materials were used in this study to check their biological activity and bone regeneration potential with MG63 cell experiments. The composites were sintered in 100 [...] Read more.
β-Tricalcium phosphate was combined with silica aerogel in composites prepared using the sol–gel technique and supercritical drying. The materials were used in this study to check their biological activity and bone regeneration potential with MG63 cell experiments. The composites were sintered in 100 °C steps in the range of 500–1000 °C. Their mechanical properties, porosities, and solubility were determined as a function of sintering temperature. Dissolution studies revealed that the released Ca-/P molar ratios appeared to be in the optimal range to support bone tissue induction. Cell viability, ALP activity, and type I collagen gene expression results all suggested that the sintering of the compound at approximately 700–800 °C as a scaffold could be more powerful in vivo to facilitate bone formation within a bone defect, compared to that documented previously by our research team. We did not observe any detrimental effect on cell viability. Both the alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity and the type I collagen gene expression were significantly higher compared with the control and the other aerogels heat-treated at different temperatures. The mesoporous silica-based aerogel composites containing β-tricalcium phosphate particles treated at temperatures lower than 1000 °C produced a positive effect on the osteoblastic activity of MG63 cells. An in vivo 6 month-long follow-up study of the mechanically strongest 1000 °C sample in rat calvaria experiments provided proof of a complete remodeling of the bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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15 pages, 2701 KiB  
Article
Whey-Derived Porous Carbon Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Raúl Llamas-Unzueta, Marta Suárez, Adolfo Fernández, Raquel Díaz, Miguel A. Montes-Morán and J. Angel Menéndez
Biomedicines 2021, 9(9), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9091091 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2027
Abstract
Porous carbon structures derived from whey powders are described and evaluated as potential scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. These materials have a porosity between 48% and 58%, with a hierarchical pore size distribution ranging from 1 to 400 micrometres. Compressive strength and elastic [...] Read more.
Porous carbon structures derived from whey powders are described and evaluated as potential scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. These materials have a porosity between 48% and 58%, with a hierarchical pore size distribution ranging from 1 to 400 micrometres. Compressive strength and elastic modulus are outstanding for such a porous material, being up to three times better than those of traditional HA or TCP scaffolds with similar porosities. They also present non-cytotoxic and bioactive behavior, due to their carbon-based composition that also includes some residual mineral salts content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 22669 KiB  
Article
Therapeutic Effects of the Addition of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 to Biodegradable Gelatin/Magnesium-Doped Calcium Silicate Hybrid 3D-Printed Scaffold with Enhanced Osteogenic Capabilities for Critical Bone Defect Restoration
by Wei-Yun Lai, Yen-Jen Chen, Alvin Kai-Xing Lee, Yen-Hong Lin, Yu-Wei Liu and Ming-You Shie
Biomedicines 2021, 9(7), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070712 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
Worldwide, the number of bone fractures due to traumatic and accidental injuries is increasing exponentially. In fact, repairing critical large bone defects remains challenging due to a high risk of delayed union or even nonunion. Among the many bioceramics available for clinical use, [...] Read more.
Worldwide, the number of bone fractures due to traumatic and accidental injuries is increasing exponentially. In fact, repairing critical large bone defects remains challenging due to a high risk of delayed union or even nonunion. Among the many bioceramics available for clinical use, calcium silicate-based (CS) bioceramics have gained popularity due to their good bioactivity and ability to stimulate cell behavior. In order to improve the shortcomings of 3D-printed ceramic scaffolds, which do not easily carry growth factors and do not provide good tissue regeneration effects, the aim of this study was to use a gelatin-coated 3D-printed magnesium-doped calcium silicate (MgCS) scaffold with genipin cross-linking for regulating degradation, improving mechanical properties, and enhancing osteogenesis behavior. In addition, we consider the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) loaded into an MgCS scaffold with and without gelatin coating. Furthermore, we cultured the human Wharton jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSC) on the scaffolds and observed the biocompatibility, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic-related markers. Finally, the in vivo performance was assessed using micro-CT and histological data that revealed that the hybrid bioscaffolds were able to further achieve more effective bone tissue regeneration than has been the case in the past. The above results demonstrated that this type of processing had great potential for future clinical applications and studies and can be used as a potential alternative for future bone tissue engineering research, as well as having good potential for clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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16 pages, 5532 KiB  
Article
Hemostatic and Tissue Regeneration Performance of Novel Electrospun Chitosan-Based Materials
by Volodymyr Deineka, Oksana Sulaieva, Mykola Pernakov, Viktoriia Korniienko, Yevheniia Husak, Anna Yanovska, Aziza Yusupova, Yuliia Tkachenko, Oksana Kalinkevich, Alena Zlatska and Maksym Pogorielov
Biomedicines 2021, 9(6), 588; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9060588 - 21 May 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5258
Abstract
The application of chitosan (Ch) as a promising biopolymer with hemostatic properties and high biocompatibility is limited due to its prolonged degradation time, which, in turn, slows the repair process. In the present research, we aimed to develop new technologies to reduce the [...] Read more.
The application of chitosan (Ch) as a promising biopolymer with hemostatic properties and high biocompatibility is limited due to its prolonged degradation time, which, in turn, slows the repair process. In the present research, we aimed to develop new technologies to reduce the biodegradation time of Ch-based materials for hemostatic application. This study was undertaken to assess the biocompatibility and hemostatic and tissue-regeneration performance of Ch-PEO-copolymer prepared by electrospinning technique. Chitosan electrospinning membranes (ChEsM) were made from Ch and polyethylene oxide (PEO) powders for rich high-porous material with sufficient hemostatic parameters. The structure, porosity, density, antibacterial properties, in vitro degradation and biocompatibility of ChEsM were evaluated and compared to the conventional Ch sponge (ChSp). In addition, the hemostatic and bioactive performance of both materials were examined in vivo, using the liver-bleeding model in rats. A penetrating punch biopsy of the left liver lobe was performed to simulate bleeding from a non-compressible irregular wound. Appropriately shaped ChSp or ChEsM were applied to tissue lesions. Electrospinning allows us to produce high-porous membranes with relevant ChSp degradation and swelling properties. Both materials demonstrated high biocompatibility and hemostatic effectiveness in vitro. However, the antibacterial properties of ChEsM were not as good when compared to the ChSp. In vivo studies confirmed superior ChEsM biocompatibility and sufficient hemostatic performance, with tight interplay with host cells and tissues. The in vivo model showed a higher biodegradation rate of ChEsM and advanced liver repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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Review

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16 pages, 2123 KiB  
Review
Lignin-Based Porous Biomaterials for Medical and Pharmaceutical Applications
by Nan Nan, Wanhe Hu and Jingxin Wang
Biomedicines 2022, 10(4), 747; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines10040747 - 23 Mar 2022
Cited by 30 | Viewed by 6543
Abstract
Over the past decade, lignin-based porous biomaterials have been found to have strong potential applications in the areas of drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound dressing, pharmaceutical excipients, biosensors, and medical devices. Lignin-based porous biomaterials have the addition of lignin obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. [...] Read more.
Over the past decade, lignin-based porous biomaterials have been found to have strong potential applications in the areas of drug delivery, tissue engineering, wound dressing, pharmaceutical excipients, biosensors, and medical devices. Lignin-based porous biomaterials have the addition of lignin obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. Lignin as an aromatic compound is likely to modify the materials’ mechanical properties, thermal properties, antioxidant, antibacterial property, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The size, shape, and distribution of pores can determine the materials’ porous structure, porosity, surface areas, permeability, porosity, water solubility, and adsorption ability. These features could be suitable for medical applications, especially controlled drug delivery systems, wound dressing, and tissue engineering. In this review, we provide an overview of the current status and future potential of lignin-based porous materials for medical and pharmaceutical uses, focusing on material types, key properties, approaches and techniques of modification and fabrication, and promising medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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18 pages, 3221 KiB  
Review
The Challenge of 3D Bioprinting of Composite Natural Polymers PLA/Bioglass: Trends and Benefits in Cleft Palate Surgery
by Damien Brézulier, Louis Chaigneau, Sylvie Jeanne and Ronan Lebullenger
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111553 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3529
Abstract
Cleft lip and palate is the fourth most common congenital malformation. Its prevalence is about 1 in 750 to 1 in 2000 live births. The consequences of this malformation are major: maxillary growth deficit, unaesthetic appearance, phonation disorders, difficulty in eating, and psycho-social [...] Read more.
Cleft lip and palate is the fourth most common congenital malformation. Its prevalence is about 1 in 750 to 1 in 2000 live births. The consequences of this malformation are major: maxillary growth deficit, unaesthetic appearance, phonation disorders, difficulty in eating, and psycho-social disorders. Cleft palate repair establishes the division between the oral and nasal cavities. The alveolar bone graft is a key step. Different sites of autogenous bone harvesting are used, the most common being the iliac crest. Nevertheless, the large number of complications associated with harvesting has led to the use of substitute biomaterials. Bioactive glasses, discovered in 1969, are a group of synthetic silica-based materials with bone-bonding properties. Although 45S5 granular composition is commonly used in bone surgery to repair critical defects, it is only rarely used in the repair of cleft palates because this galenic form is only moderately adapted. However, advances in bone tissue engineering allow the shaping of three-dimensional scaffolds, which support colonization by host cells. Recent advances in computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) have even led to the 3D printing of scaffolds combining 45S5 bioglass with a natural and biocompatible poly-lactic acid matrix. The shape of the parts is customized and adapted to the particular shape of the critical bone defects. The objective of this literature review is to highlight the particularities of alveolar defects subsequent to facial clefts, then to detail the characteristics of the materials and technologies used to elaborate 3D matrices by bioprinting. Finally, we will explore research directions regarding their use in reconstructive surgery of cleft palates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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46 pages, 12718 KiB  
Review
Smart and Biomimetic 3D and 4D Printed Composite Hydrogels: Opportunities for Different Biomedical Applications
by Samira Malekmohammadi, Negar Sedghi Aminabad, Amin Sabzi, Amir Zarebkohan, Mehdi Razavi, Massoud Vosough, Mahdi Bodaghi and Hajar Maleki
Biomedicines 2021, 9(11), 1537; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9111537 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 6722
Abstract
In recent years, smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels have drawn tremendous attention for their varied applications, mainly in the biomedical field. These hydrogels are derived from different natural and synthetic polymers but are also composite with various organic and nano-organic fillers. The basic functions of smart [...] Read more.
In recent years, smart/stimuli-responsive hydrogels have drawn tremendous attention for their varied applications, mainly in the biomedical field. These hydrogels are derived from different natural and synthetic polymers but are also composite with various organic and nano-organic fillers. The basic functions of smart hydrogels rely on their ability to change behavior; functions include mechanical, swelling, shaping, hydrophilicity, and bioactivity in response to external stimuli such as temperature, pH, magnetic field, electromagnetic radiation, and biological molecules. Depending on the final applications, smart hydrogels can be processed in different geometries and modalities to meet the complicated situations in biological media, namely, injectable hydrogels (following the sol-gel transition), colloidal nano and microgels, and three dimensional (3D) printed gel constructs. In recent decades smart hydrogels have opened a new horizon for scientists to fabricate biomimetic customized biomaterials for tissue engineering, cancer therapy, wound dressing, soft robotic actuators, and controlled release of bioactive substances/drugs. Remarkably, 4D bioprinting, a newly emerged technology/concept, aims to rationally design 3D patterned biological matrices from synthesized hydrogel-based inks with the ability to change structure under stimuli. This technology has enlarged the applicability of engineered smart hydrogels and hydrogel composites in biomedical fields. This paper aims to review stimuli-responsive hydrogels according to the kinds of external changes and t recent applications in biomedical and 4D bioprinting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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23 pages, 5936 KiB  
Review
Gelatin-Polyvinyl Alcohol Film for Tissue Engineering: A Concise Review
by Izzat Zulkiflee and Mh Busra Fauzi
Biomedicines 2021, 9(8), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9080979 - 9 Aug 2021
Cited by 49 | Viewed by 5436
Abstract
The field of biomaterials has been steadily expanding as a large number of pharmaceutical and manufacturing companies invest in research in order to commercialize biomaterial products. Various three-dimensional biomaterials have been explored including film, hydrogel, sponge, microspheres etc., depending on different applications. Thus, [...] Read more.
The field of biomaterials has been steadily expanding as a large number of pharmaceutical and manufacturing companies invest in research in order to commercialize biomaterial products. Various three-dimensional biomaterials have been explored including film, hydrogel, sponge, microspheres etc., depending on different applications. Thus, gelatin and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are widely used as a natural- and synthetic-based biomaterial, respectively, for tissue engineering and clinical settings. The combination of these materials has proven its synergistic effects in wound-healing applications. Therefore, this review aims to highlight the hybrid gelatin and PVA thin film development and evaluate its potential characteristics for tissue engineering applications from existing published evidence (within year 2010–2020). The primary key factor for polymers mixing technology might improve the quality and the efficacy of the intended polymers. This review provides a concise overview of the current knowledge for hybrid gelatin and PVA with the method of fabricating and mixing technology into thin films. Additionally, the findings guided to an optimal fabrication method and scrutinised characterisation parameters of fabricated gelatin-PVA thin film. In conclusion, hybrid gelatin-PVA thin film has higher potential as a treatment for various biomedical and clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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17 pages, 14367 KiB  
Review
Injectable Hydrogels for Chronic Skin Wound Management: A Concise Review
by Mazlan Zawani and Mh Busra Fauzi
Biomedicines 2021, 9(5), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9050527 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 5390
Abstract
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a predominant impediment among diabetic patients, increasing morbidity and wound care costs. There are various strategies including using biomaterials have been explored for the management of DFU. This paper will review the injectable hydrogel application as the most [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a predominant impediment among diabetic patients, increasing morbidity and wound care costs. There are various strategies including using biomaterials have been explored for the management of DFU. This paper will review the injectable hydrogel application as the most studied polymer-based hydrogel based on published journals and articles. The main key factors that will be discussed in chronic wounds focusing on diabetic ulcers include the socioeconomic burden of chronic wounds, biomaterials implicated by the government for DFU management, commercial hydrogel product, mechanism of injectable hydrogel, the current study of novel injectable hydrogel and the future perspectives of injectable hydrogel for the management of DFU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Inspired Porous Materials and Biomaterials)
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