Valorization of Agri-Food Waste Biomass for the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds

A special issue of Biomass (ISSN 2673-8783).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 January 2024) | Viewed by 8363

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is undeniably true that more and more agri-food waste is produced every year. The disposal of waste biomass is fraught with serious concerns, including economic and environmental issues. Valorizing waste biomass is extremely important, and many scientists are focusing heavily on this subject. This can be achieved by extracting useful compounds from the waste. The pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries can employ these components to replace synthetic chemicals.

Compounds with bioactivity represent a common class of such substances. Antioxidant activity, as well as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities, are some examples of the physiologically important behaviors exhibited by bioactive compounds. For example, many plant parts that are rejected during fruit and vegetable processing (e.g., leaves, branches, peels, roots, stems, and seeds) carry a significant load of such phytochemicals, including polyphenols. This makes the recovery of valuable compounds from waste biomass an appealing prospect in this regard.

This Special Issue aims to collect research articles that discuss novel approaches to valorize agri-food waste biomass. Therefore, this Special Issue will address a variety of subjects, including the employment of green technologies, the design and optimization of extraction techniques, the use of innovative solvents, and the valorization of less-discussed agri-food waste biomass.

Dr. Vassilis Athanasiadis
Dr. Theodoros G. Chatzimitakos
Dr. Dimitris P. Makris
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • agri-food waste
  • antioxidants
  • bioactive compounds
  • biomass
  • by-products
  • green extraction
  • health potentials
  • novel solvents
  • polyphenols
  • valorization

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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31 pages, 27516 KiB  
Article
Admissibility Grid to Support the Decision for the Preferential Routing of Portuguese Endogenous Waste Biomass for the Production of Biogas, Advanced Biofuels, Electricity and Heat
by Ana T. Crujeira, Maria A. Trancoso, Ana Eusébio, Ana Cristina Oliveira, Paula C. Passarinho, Mariana Abreu, Isabel P. Marques, Paula A. S. S. Marques, Susana Marques, Helena Albergaria, Filomena Pinto, Paula Costa, Rui André, Francisco Gírio and Patrícia Moura
Biomass 2023, 3(4), 336-366; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass3040021 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1495
Abstract
A methodology was developed to assess the allocation of different types of endogenous waste biomass to eight technologies for producing electricity, heat, biogas and advanced biofuels. It was based on the identification of key physicochemical parameters for each conversion process and the definition [...] Read more.
A methodology was developed to assess the allocation of different types of endogenous waste biomass to eight technologies for producing electricity, heat, biogas and advanced biofuels. It was based on the identification of key physicochemical parameters for each conversion process and the definition of limit values for each parameter, applied to two different matrices of waste biomass. This enabled the creation of one Admissibility Grid with target values per type of waste biomass and conversion technology, applicable to a decision process in the routing to energy production. The construction of the grid was based on the evaluation of 24 types of waste biomass, corresponding to 48 sets of samples tested, for which a detailed physicochemical characterization and an admissibility assessment were made. The samples were collected from Municipal Solid Waste treatment facilities, sewage sludges, agro-industrial companies, poultry farms, and pulp and paper industries. The conversion technologies and energy products considered were (trans)esterification to fatty acid methyl esters, anaerobic digestion to methane, fermentation to bioethanol, dark fermentation to biohydrogen, combustion to electricity and heat, gasification to syngas, and pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction to bio-oils. The validation of the Admissibility Grid was based on the determination of conversion rates and product yields over 23 case studies that were selected according to the best combinations of waste biomass type versus technological solution and energy product. Full article
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12 pages, 3134 KiB  
Article
Combined Effects of Deep Eutectic Solvents and Pulsed Electric Field Improve Polyphenol-Rich Extracts from Apricot Kernel Biomass
by Ioannis Makrygiannis, Vassilis Athanasiadis, Eleni Bozinou, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Dimitris P. Makris and Stavros I. Lalas
Biomass 2023, 3(1), 66-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass3010005 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Apricots are one of the most important fruits in the Mediterranean region for both their nutritional and economic value. They are widely cultivated and consumed fresh or dried or are used in the food industry for the production of jams, juices, etc. In [...] Read more.
Apricots are one of the most important fruits in the Mediterranean region for both their nutritional and economic value. They are widely cultivated and consumed fresh or dried or are used in the food industry for the production of jams, juices, etc. In any case, the seeds they contain constitute waste. The kernels are very rich in bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, a fact that makes them very appealing in cosmetology. However, the extraction of the bioactive compounds of apricot kernels is poorly examined. In this study, the preparation of polyphenol-rich extracts from apricot kernel biomass is discussed. To this end, a common extraction procedure with water as a solvent was employed. To enhance the extraction yield, the use of a deep eutectic solvent (DES) was examined. In addition, the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) either as a standalone extraction method or as a complementary step was also examined. According to the results, it was evident that when PEF was applied before the extraction procedure, an increase of 88% in the total polyphenol content (TPC) was recorded. Likewise, the use of a glycerol:choline chloride (2:1, w/w) DES increased the TPC by ~70%. When the two approaches were combined, a 173% increase was recorded. According to the above, it can be concluded that apricot kernel biomass is a very good source of polyphenols, especially using the proposed extraction procedure. Full article
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Review

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25 pages, 2816 KiB  
Review
Orange Peel Waste as a Source of Bioactive Compounds and Valuable Products: Insights Based on Chemical Composition and Biorefining
by Mariana Ortiz-Sanchez, Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate and Juan Camilo Solarte-Toro
Biomass 2024, 4(1), 107-131; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass4010006 - 02 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1067
Abstract
Few valorization pathways have been implemented as alternatives to reduce the orange peel waste (OPW) disposal in landfills. OPW can be a source of income or economic savings in juice production factories since this waste is a potential source of value-added products (e.g., [...] Read more.
Few valorization pathways have been implemented as alternatives to reduce the orange peel waste (OPW) disposal in landfills. OPW can be a source of income or economic savings in juice production factories since this waste is a potential source of value-added products (e.g., bioactive compounds) and energy vectors (e.g., biogas). Valorization alternatives should be based on (i) orange peel chemical composition, (ii) market analysis, and (iii) availability. Nevertheless, few literature papers have highlighted the chemical composition change caused by the different juice production schemes as a potential opportunity to obtain different value-added products and biorefinery schemes. Thus, the aims of this review paper are related to (i) reviewing different orange fruit processing pathways, (ii) analyzing several OPW chemical compositions reported in the open literature, (iii) providing a summary of OPW extraction pathways for bioactive compounds production, and (iv) evaluating the effect of applying different extraction methods on bioactive compound extraction performance. This review includes a description of the OPW matrix, market insights, packaging, physicochemical characterization, processing technologies, and suggested biorefinery approaches. Finally, different extraction methods for obtaining bioactive compounds from OPW are compared. As a result, the supercritical fluid extraction process has the highest extraction performance and selectivity since this method extracted a high amount of hesperidin (8.18 g/kg OPW db.). In conclusion, OPW is a source of bioactive compounds and valuable products that can be introduced in juice-producing factories to increase product portfolio or economic savings by changing the energy matrix. Full article
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15 pages, 853 KiB  
Review
The Production of High-Added-Value Bioproducts from Non-Conventional Biomasses: An Overview
by Alcilene Rodrigues Monteiro, Andrei Pavei Battisti, Germán Ayala Valencia and Cristiano José de Andrade
Biomass 2023, 3(2), 123-137; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomass3020009 - 26 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2581
Abstract
In recent decades, biomasses from different industrial segments have created new interesting perspectives, including sustainable development. Moreover, reusing waste, such as biomass, also impacts the economy, i.e., the circular economy. The main biomasses and their applications are evident in the energy, food, chemistry, [...] Read more.
In recent decades, biomasses from different industrial segments have created new interesting perspectives, including sustainable development. Moreover, reusing waste, such as biomass, also impacts the economy, i.e., the circular economy. The main biomasses and their applications are evident in the energy, food, chemistry, fine chemical, and pharmaceutical sectors. Several questions should be asked regarding the trending topic of the circular economy, including biomass availability and seasonality, energy demand (processes), and the real environmental impact. Thus, this review focuses on biomass collected from non-conventional (unusual technology at the industrial scale) food-processing residues, particularly from 2016 to 2023, to produce biomaterials and/or bioproducts for the food sector. Full article
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