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Biomass-Based Value-Added Bioactive Products: Recovery and Valorization

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 3475

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Departmento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, Mexico
Interests: food waste valorization; bioactive compounds; waste biomass; bio-based chemicals; bio-fertilizer; bio-energy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As the world’s population is rapidly expanding, resource depletion and environmental aggravation are challenges that need to be imminently addressed. The agricultural and food industries are responsible for a large share of by-products and wastes, which are generated as a result of farming practices, harvesting, and processing of raw materials. These side-streams are particularly rich in organic substances, and their uncontrolled dumping could result in environmental pollution with detrimental consequences to the neighboring eco-systems and public health. On the other hand, agri-food wastes represent a vast pool of materials, which can be used for the production of bio-based chemicals, bio-fuels, and high value-added substances. Thus, in the framework of circular economy, the rational utilization of the agri-food waste biomass within a biorefinery concept may contribute towards a fully sustainable agri-food sector.

Plant processing by-products consist mainly of peels, seeds, stems, flowers, disfigured and undersized/damaged tissues. These residues are rich in a spectrum of bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, carotenoids, oils, pectins, etc., and their valorization as cheap and abundant bioresources is a state-of-the-art for the commercialization of commodities for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industry. Thus, proper management of these by-products should target their re-introduction to the production line as raw materials, for obtaining novel products with health-related properties, and added value, through sustainable technologies of extraction. The principles pertaining to the concept of Green Chemistry are mainly focused on reducing wastes and promoting the efficient use of energy and resources. As regards extraction processes, these principles may include, but not be limited to, the use of alternative solvents, such as water or other bio-based solvents, the reduction in energy consumption by implementing innovative technologies, the reduction of unit operations for safer and more robust processes, and the targeted generation of extracts with increased/improved bioactivities.

This Special Issue addresses the concept of innovative and emerging strategies that aim at effectively implementing green technologies for the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant waste resources. Contributions pertaining to novel solvents, investigation of their properties, sustainable production of isolated bioactive compounds or whole extracts, and their utilization in the food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical industries are particularly welcome.

Dr. Ajit Kumar Passari
Dr. Dimitris P. Makris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Molecules is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactives
  • biomass
  • extraction
  • phytochemicals
  • waste valorization

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

16 pages, 1564 KiB  
Article
Hydrothermal Treatment of Wheat Bran under Mild Acidic or Alkaline Conditions for Enhanced Polyphenol Recovery and Antioxidant Activity
by Eirini Papadaki, Spyros Grigorakis, Dimitrios Palaiogiannis, Stavros I. Lalas and Paraskevi Mitlianga
Molecules 2024, 29(6), 1193; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29061193 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 444
Abstract
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of hydrothermal treatments under mild acid and alkaline conditions on polyphenol release and recovery from wheat bran (WB). After an initial screening of various food-grade substances, strong evidence was raised regarding the potency of citric [...] Read more.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of hydrothermal treatments under mild acid and alkaline conditions on polyphenol release and recovery from wheat bran (WB). After an initial screening of various food-grade substances, strong evidence was raised regarding the potency of citric acid and sodium carbonate to provide WB extracts exceptionally enriched in polyphenols. Thus, these two catalysts were tested under various time and temperature combinations, and the processes were described by linear models based on severity factor. The most effective treatments were those performed with 10% of either citric acid or sodium carbonate, at a constant temperature of 90 °C for 24 h, providing yields in total polyphenols of 23.76 and 23.60 mg g−1 dry mass of ferulic acid equivalents, respectively. Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses revealed that, while the sodium carbonate treatment afforded extracts enriched in ferulic acid, treatments with citric acid gave extracts enriched in a ferulate pentose ester. The extracts produced from those treatments also exhibited diversified antioxidant characteristics, a fact ascribed to the different polyphenolic composition. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the effective release of ferulic acid and a ferulate pentose ester from WB, using benign acid and alkali catalysts, such as citric acid and sodium carbonate. Full article
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15 pages, 3339 KiB  
Article
Combination of a Deep Eutectic Solvent and Macroporous Resin for Green Recovery of Iridoids, Chlorogenic Acid, and Flavonoids from Eucommia ulmoides Leaves
by Yunhui Liao, Feng Chen, Haishan Tang, Wubliker Dessie and Zuodong Qin
Molecules 2024, 29(3), 737; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29030737 - 05 Feb 2024
Viewed by 556
Abstract
To increase the effectiveness of using typical biomass waste as a resource, iridoids, chlorogenic acid, and flavonoids from the waste biomass of Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EULs) were extracted by deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in conjunction with macroporous resin. To optimize the extract conditions, [...] Read more.
To increase the effectiveness of using typical biomass waste as a resource, iridoids, chlorogenic acid, and flavonoids from the waste biomass of Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EULs) were extracted by deep eutectic solvents (DESs) in conjunction with macroporous resin. To optimize the extract conditions, the experiment of response surface was employed with the single-factor of DES composition molar ratio, liquid–solid ratio, water percentage, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The findings demonstrated that the theoretical simulated extraction yield of chlorogenic acid (CGA), geniposidic acid (GPA), aucubin (AU), geniposide (GP), rutin (RU), and isoquercetin (IQU) were 42.8, 137.2, 156.7, 5.4, 13.5, and 12.8 mg/g, respectively, under optimal conditions (hydrogen bond donor–hydrogen bond acceptor molar ratio of 1.96, liquid–solid ratio of 28.89 mL/g, water percentage of 38.44%, temperature of 317.36 K, and time of 55.59 min). Then, 12 resins were evaluated for their adsorption and desorption capabilities for the target components, and the HPD950 resin was found to operate at its optimum. Additionally, the HPD950 resin demonstrated significant sustainability and considerable potential in the recyclability test. Finally, the hypoglycemic in vitro, hypolipidemic in vitro, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects of EUL extract were evaluated, and the correlation analysis of six active components with biological activity and physicochemical characteristics of DESs by heatmap were discussed. The findings of this study can offer a theoretical foundation for the extraction of valuable components by DESs from waste biomass, as well as specific utility benefits for the creation and development of natural products. Full article
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18 pages, 2534 KiB  
Article
Organosolv Treatment of Red Grape Pomace for Effective Recovery of Antioxidant Polyphenols and Pigments Using a Ternary Glycerol/Ethanol/Water System under Mild Acidic Conditions
by Maria Geropoulou, Elissavet Yiagtzi, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Dimitrios Palaiogiannis and Dimitris P. Makris
Molecules 2024, 29(3), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules29030563 - 23 Jan 2024
Viewed by 647
Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was (i) the development of a novel, green tertiary solvent system, composed of water, ethanol and glycerol, and (ii) the implementation of an organosolv treatment of red grape pomace (RGP) for the efficient production of polyphenol-containing extracts with [...] Read more.
The purpose of this investigation was (i) the development of a novel, green tertiary solvent system, composed of water, ethanol and glycerol, and (ii) the implementation of an organosolv treatment of red grape pomace (RGP) for the efficient production of polyphenol-containing extracts with enhanced antioxidant properties. The treatment developed was performed under mild acidic conditions, imparted by the addition of citric acid, and it was first evaluated on the basis of severity, establishing linear models that described the correlation between treatment performance and combined severity factors. To solicit treatment optimization, response surface methodology was implemented, considering solvent acidity and residence time as the treatment variables. The optimized treatment afforded maximum total polyphenol (166 ± 6 mg GAE g−1 DM), total pigment (4.4 ± 0.2 mg MvE g−1 DM) and total flavanol (31.5 mg CtE g−1 DM) yields and extracts with particularly enhanced antioxidant activity. This might be attributed to specific constituents with high antioxidant potency, such as catechin, determined in the extract using high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, the treatment developed is proposed as a highly efficient process to generate RGP extracts enriched in polyphenolic compounds, with enhanced antioxidant activity. Such extracts might then be valorized as food additives, to provide antioxidant protection and/or pigmentation. Full article
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17 pages, 1617 KiB  
Article
Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Mass and Bioactive Compounds Production through Grape Pomace and Cheese Whey Valorization
by Vasiliki Kachrimanidou, Aikaterini Papadaki, Harris Papapostolou, Maria Alexandri, Zacharoula Gonou-Zagou and Nikolaos Kopsahelis
Molecules 2023, 28(17), 6331; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28176331 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1539
Abstract
Numerous compounds obtained from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum have evidenced renowned bioactive characteristics. Controlled fermentation to generate fungal mycelia confers several advantages, specifically when the valorization of agro-industrial streams as fermentation feedstocks is included. Submerged fermentation of a newly isolated Greek strain [...] Read more.
Numerous compounds obtained from the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum have evidenced renowned bioactive characteristics. Controlled fermentation to generate fungal mycelia confers several advantages, specifically when the valorization of agro-industrial streams as fermentation feedstocks is included. Submerged fermentation of a newly isolated Greek strain of G. lucidum was performed using conventional synthetic media and, also, grape pomace extract (GPE) and cheese whey permeate (CWP) under static and shaking conditions. Under shaking conditions, maximum biomass with GPE and supplementation with organic nitrogen reached 17.8 g/L. The addition of an elicitor in CWP resulted in a significant improvement in biomass production that exceeded synthetic media. Overall, agitation demonstrated a positive impact on biomass productivity and, therefore, on process optimization. Crude intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides were extracted and evaluated regarding antioxidant activity and polysaccharide and protein content. FTIR analysis confirmed the preliminary chemical characterization of the crude extracts. This study introduces the design of a bioprocessing scenario to utilize food industry by-products as onset feedstocks for fungal bioconversions to obtain potential bioactive molecules within the concept of bioeconomy. Full article
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