Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433). This special issue belongs to the section "Air Pollution Control".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2023) | Viewed by 7752

Special Issue Editors

College of Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, China
Interests: atmospheric chemistry; greenhouse gas; satellite observations; numerical simulation; data assimilation
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Guest Editor
Interdisciplinary Research Academy (IRA), Zhejiang Shuren University, Hangzhou 310015, China
Interests: data assimilation; atmospheric chemistry; greenhouse gas
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
College of Science and Technology, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding 071000, China
Interests: adsorption; energy; porous materials; renewable energy technologies; energy modeling; heavy metals; soil remediation
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Observations show that the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) burden surges, contrary to pathways compatible with the Paris Agreement. Emergency actions are, thus, required to bring GHG back to a climate-neutral pathway. In recent years, substantial advances have been made toward greenhouse gas monitoring from ground, air and space. Particularly, very high spatial, temporal or spectral resolution measurements can fill important observational gaps in the identification and quantification of greenhouse gas emissions. Subsequent numerical simulations constrained by emerging measurements would help re-think the greenhouse gas burden from urban and regional to global scales. Regarding anthropogenic sources, such as power plants, coal mines, landfills and other fossil fuel industries, emission reduction measures are facilitated by technical advances at an ever-increasing speed. By comparison, efforts to reduce emissions from biogenic sources, such as wetlands, have received less attention but are becoming more feasible. It should be noted that emerging advances generally fail in sound uncertainty assessments and large-scope applications, which should, thus, be verified in abundant real cases. Moreover, there is no single magic bullet, but promoting a wide array of monitoring, measures and policies for emission reductions could significantly mitigate the global greenhouse gas burden in a cost-effective way and thereby, approach the climate-neutral aim.

Dr. Pengfei Li
Dr. Liqiang Wang
Dr. Jingzhao Lu
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • measurements of greenhouse gas emissions from ground, air and space
  • estimates of greenhouse gas emission burdens from urban and regional to global scales
  • cost-effective measures for greenhouse gas emission mitigation
  • evidence for abnormal greenhouse gas emissions
  • contributions of anthropogenic/biogenic sources to greenhouse gas burdens

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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33 pages, 3066 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Influence of Instrument Parameters on the Detection Accuracy of Greenhouse-Gases Absorption Spectrometer-2 (GAS-2)
by Shizhao Li, Long Cheng, Hongchun Yang, Zengwei Wang and Lei Ding
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1418; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091418 - 08 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 950
Abstract
Satellite-based monitoring of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations has emerged as a prominent and globally recognized field of research. With the imminent launch of the Greenhouse-Gases Absorption Spectrometer-2 (GAS-2) on the FengYun3-H (FY3-H) satellite in 2024, there is a promising prospect for substantial [...] Read more.
Satellite-based monitoring of atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations has emerged as a prominent and globally recognized field of research. With the imminent launch of the Greenhouse-Gases Absorption Spectrometer-2 (GAS-2) on the FengYun3-H (FY3-H) satellite in 2024, there is a promising prospect for substantial advancements in GHG detection capabilities. Crucially, the accurate acquisition of spectral information by GAS-2 is heavily reliant on its instrument parameters. However, the existing body of research predominantly emphasizes the examination of atmospheric parameters and their impact on GHG detection accuracy, thereby leaving a discernible gap in the comprehensive evaluation of instrument parameters specifically concerning the acquisition of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration data by GAS-2. To address this knowledge gap, our study employs a radiation transfer model grounded in radiation transfer theory. This comprehensive investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the effects of various instrument parameters, encompassing crucial aspects such as spectral resolution, spectral sampling rate, signal-to-noise ratio, radiometric resolution, and spectral calibration accuracy (including instrument line shape function, central wavelength shift, and spectral resolution broadening). Based on our preliminary findings, it is evident that GAS-2 has the necessary spectral resolution, spectral sampling rate, and signal-to-noise ratio, slightly surpassing existing international instruments and enabling a significant detection accuracy level of 1 part per million (ppm). Moreover, it is essential to recognize the critical impact of instrument spectral calibration accuracy on overall detection precision. Among the five commonly used instrument line shape functions, the sinc function has the least impact on detection accuracy. Additionally, GAS-2’s radiance quantization depth is 14 bits, which is comparable to similar international payloads and maintains a root mean squared error below 0.1 ppm, thus ensuring a high level of precision. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the influence of GAS-2’s instrument parameters on detection accuracy, offering valuable insights for the future development of spectral calibration, the optimization of similar payload instrument parameters, and the overall improvement of instrument quantification capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control)
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13 pages, 2894 KiB  
Article
A Study on Greenhouse Gas (PFCs) Reduction in Plasma Scrubbers to Realize Carbon Neutrality of Semiconductors and Displays
by Bong Jae Lee, Yujin Hwang, Dong Ki Jo and Jongmoon Jeong
Atmosphere 2023, 14(8), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14081220 - 28 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used for manufacturing purposes in the semiconductor and display industries, resulting in an increased need for emission reduction due to the significant global warming potential of the associated greenhouse gases. The decomposition characteristics of etch-type and water film (WF)-type [...] Read more.
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are used for manufacturing purposes in the semiconductor and display industries, resulting in an increased need for emission reduction due to the significant global warming potential of the associated greenhouse gases. The decomposition characteristics of etch-type and water film (WF)-type plasma-wet scrubbers were investigated. The PFCs used in the study were CF4, SF6, NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8, and the destruction removal efficiency (DRE) and by-product gas generation rate were confirmed based on the changes in the parameters (total flow rate and power) of the plasma-wet scrubber. When the total flow rate reached 100 L/min and the measured maximum power (11 kW), the reduction efficiency of CF4 in the etch type was 95.60% and the DRE of other PFCs was 99.99%. Moreover, for the WF type, the DRE of CF4 was 90.06%, that of SF6 was 96.44%, and that of other PFCs was 99.99%. When the total flow rate reached 300 L/min and 11 kW, the DRE of SF6 in the etch type was 99%, and the DRE of NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8 was 95.57%, 87.06%, 70.74%, 81.45%, and 95.59%, respectively. In addition, in the WF type, the DRE of SF6 was 94.39%, and the DRE of NF3, CHF3, C2F6, C3F8, and C4F8 was 99.80%, 95.34%, 85.38%, 88.49%, and 98.22%, respectively. The decomposition efficiency was high for the etch type for gases with small flow rates or no by-product gas generation. The by-product gas generation rate was significantly lower for the WF type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control)
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Review

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16 pages, 6462 KiB  
Review
Estimation of Carbon Stocks and Carbon Sequestration Rates in Abandoned Agricultural Soils of Northwest Russia
by Vyacheslav Polyakov and Evgeny Abakumov
Atmosphere 2023, 14(9), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14091370 - 30 Aug 2023
Viewed by 833
Abstract
The fallow agricultural soils of Northwest Russia represent an evolutionary model of the development of ecosystem components in time and space with multidirectional dynamics of agrogenic impact during the long history of agricultural land development. There has been both large-scale land development and [...] Read more.
The fallow agricultural soils of Northwest Russia represent an evolutionary model of the development of ecosystem components in time and space with multidirectional dynamics of agrogenic impact during the long history of agricultural land development. There has been both large-scale land development and uncontrolled conversion of arable lands to a fallow state along with their removal in recent times. All this has led to the formation of a chrono-series of different-age soils with varying degrees of exposure of agrogenic factors. This paper presents a current review of the humus state of fallow soils in Northwest Russia, and examines the main factors (self-restoration, humus transformation, acidification) influencing the transformation of the soil cover under the process of post-agrogenesis. Effective farming techniques aimed at fixing carbon in soils as part of increasing the sequestration potential to mitigate the impact of climate change are considered. The ongoing process of the transition of lands into a fallow state could lead to organic carbon losses and changes in the main physical and chemical parameters, which negatively affects the self-restoration of fallow lands. We offer some recommendations for the effective rewetting of fallow lands in Northwest Russia with the purpose of carbon sequestration in the soil cover. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control)
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14 pages, 8323 KiB  
Review
Soil Organic Matter in Urban Areas of the Russian Arctic: A Review
by Evgeny Abakumov, Alexey Petrov, Vyacheslav Polyakov and Timur Nizamutdinov
Atmosphere 2023, 14(6), 997; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14060997 - 08 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1460
Abstract
Polar ecosystems are the most important storage and source of climatically active gases. Currently, natural biogeochemical processes of organic matter circulation in the soil-atmosphere system are disturbed in urban ecosystems of the cryolithozone. Urbanized ecosystems in the Arctic are extremely under-investigated in terms [...] Read more.
Polar ecosystems are the most important storage and source of climatically active gases. Currently, natural biogeochemical processes of organic matter circulation in the soil-atmosphere system are disturbed in urban ecosystems of the cryolithozone. Urbanized ecosystems in the Arctic are extremely under-investigated in terms of their functions in regulating the cycle of climatically active gases. The role of urban soils and soil-like bodies in the sequestration and stabilization of organic matter is of particular interest. The percentage of gravimetric concentrations of organic matter in Arctic urban soils are almost always determined by the method of dichromate oxidation and are subject to extreme variability (from tenths of a percent to more than 90% in man-made soil formations), but the average carbon content in the surface soil horizons can be estimated at 5–7%. The surface humus-accumulative horizons are represented by a variety of morphological forms with the content of organic matter of various origins. The work also focuses on those forms of organic matter, the content of which is extremely small, but very important for the biogeochemical functioning of soils-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and components of petroleum products, as well as labile forms of soil organic matter. We recommend that further studies of the organic matter system be conducted in urbanized areas since the carbon cycle there is severely disrupted, as well as carbon flows. The urbanization and industrialization processes in the Arctic are progressing, which could lead to a radical transformation of carbon ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control)
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17 pages, 1030 KiB  
Review
Environmental Analysis, Monitoring, and Process Control Strategy for Reduction of Greenhouse Gaseous Emissions in Thermochemical Reactions
by Mohamed Aboughaly and I. M. Rizwanul Fattah
Atmosphere 2023, 14(4), 655; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos14040655 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2468
Abstract
This review paper illustrates the recommended monitoring technologies for the detection of various greenhouse gaseous emissions for solid waste thermochemical reactions, including incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification. The illustrated gas analyzers are based on the absorption principle, which continuously measures the physicochemical properties of [...] Read more.
This review paper illustrates the recommended monitoring technologies for the detection of various greenhouse gaseous emissions for solid waste thermochemical reactions, including incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification. The illustrated gas analyzers are based on the absorption principle, which continuously measures the physicochemical properties of gaseous mixtures, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and methane, during thermochemical reactions. This paper illustrates the recommended gas analyzers and process control tools for different thermochemical reactions and aims to recommend equipment to increase the sensitivity, linearity, and dynamics of various thermochemical reactions. The equipment achieves new levels of on-location, real-time analytical capability using FTIR analysis. The environmental assessment study includes inventory analysis, impact analysis, and sensitivity analysis to compare the mentioned solid waste chemical recycling methods in terms of greenhouse gaseous emissions, thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency, and sensitivity analysis. The environmental impact assessment compares each technology in terms of greenhouse gaseous emissions, including CO2, NOx, NH3, N2O, CO, CH4, heat, and electricity generation. The conducted environmental assessment compares the mentioned technologies through 15 different emission-related impact categories, including climate change impact, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion. The continuously monitored process streams assure the online monitoring of gaseous products of thermochemical processes that enhance the quality of the end products and reduce undesired products, such as tar and char. This state-of-the-art monitoring and process control framework provides recommended analytical equipment and monitoring tools for different thermochemical reactions to optimize process parameters and reduce greenhouse gaseous emissions and undesired products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission: Sources, Monitoring and Control)
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