Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Civil Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2022) | Viewed by 52154

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Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
1. Unit Mobility and Built Environment, Department of Building Materials and Structure, Netherlands Organization for Applied Research (TNO), Molengraaffsingel 8, 2629 JD Delft, The Netherlands
2. Department of Materials, Mechanics, Management & Design (3Md), Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Microlab, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
Interests: self-healing technology for asphalt pavements; innovative solutions for asphalt pavement design; sustainable asphalt technologies and asphalt recycling
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Road Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, CTU Prague, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
Interests: pavement recycling; bitumen behaviour; asphalt mix design; asphalt mix testing; warm mix asphalts; cold recycling; waste materials usable for road engineering
School of Civil Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074, China
Interests: pavement materials and maintenance; simulation of engineering materials; sustainable evaluation of pavement
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Unlike other construction materials, road materials have developed minimally over the past 100 years. However, since the 1970s, the focus has been on more sustainable road construction materials such as recycled asphalt pavements. Recycling asphalt involves removing old asphalt and mixing it with new (fresh) aggregates, binder, and/or rejuvenator. For the past two decades researchers have been developing novel material and technologies, such as self-healing materials, in order to improve road design, construction, and maintenance efficiency and reduce the financial and environmental burden of road construction.

This Special Issue on “Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices” aims to curate advanced/novel work in asphalt pavement design, construction, and maintenance. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Sustainable asphalt pavement construction practices (e.g., recycling procedures).
  • Biological materials in asphalt mix design.
  • Life cycle analysis (modelling) environmental and economic risks of transport infrastructure.

Dr. Amir Tabakovic
Dr. Jan Valentin
Dr. Liang He
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • asphalt recycling—hot, warm, cold
  • rejuvenation
  • bio-based binders and rejuvenators
  • asphalt self-healing, roads construction and maintenance sustainability
  • roads durability
  • life-cycle analysis
  • economy of roads

Published Papers (22 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 180 KiB  
Editorial
Bio-Binder—Innovative Asphalt Technology
by Amir Tabaković
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8655; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238655 - 03 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The global road network spans 16 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

19 pages, 6766 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation and Experimental Measurements of Dynamic Responses of Asphalt Pavement in Dry and Saturated Conditions under Full-Scale Accelerated Loading
by Wentao Wang, Guannan Yan, Kang Zhao and Linbing Wang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12291; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312291 - 01 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 977
Abstract
Asphalt pavement presents diverse dynamic responses to vehicle loading in dry and saturated conditions, which can be systematically explored by numerical simulation. Building a numerical model based on the actual conditions of asphalt pavement is necessary, and relevant field tests should be subsequently [...] Read more.
Asphalt pavement presents diverse dynamic responses to vehicle loading in dry and saturated conditions, which can be systematically explored by numerical simulation. Building a numerical model based on the actual conditions of asphalt pavement is necessary, and relevant field tests should be subsequently conducted to monitor dynamic responses to calibrate and validate the numerical model. On the basis of strictly controlling the paths of vehicle wheels during field tests, this study numerically analyzed the dynamic responses of asphalt pavement in dry and saturated conditions under full-scale accelerated loading. The trends of the modeling results were consistent with those of field measurements. The increase in vehicle load significantly increased the magnitudes of stress, strain, and pore water pressure, while vehicle speed showed an obvious impact on pore water pressure. The dynamic responses decreased with pavement depths. Water made the dynamic responses more complex, and pore water pressure significantly decreased with depth within the upper layer of saturated asphalt pavement. Transverse distributions of indicators presented obvious compressive states in the regions in direct contact with vehicle wheels, while tensile states were found in the range of the middle vehicle axle. The numerical results provided a basis for field measurements in future studies, especially for the exploration of factors of temperature and layer depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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17 pages, 605 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Construction Asphalt Pavements Based Toposable Set Theory: A Case Study
by Junxia Cai, Hui Li, Zhiwu Li and Qingfu Li
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10614; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010614 - 20 Oct 2022
Viewed by 934
Abstract
(1) Background: Because of the unique advantages of asphalt pavements, they occupy a large part of the road system in China and worldwide. The construction of asphalt pavements has provided the necessary conditions for the efficient and rapid development of our economy. At [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Because of the unique advantages of asphalt pavements, they occupy a large part of the road system in China and worldwide. The construction of asphalt pavements has provided the necessary conditions for the efficient and rapid development of our economy. At present, the asphalt pavement is damaged prematurely before reaching the designed service life. This paper analyzes the influence of different factors on the construction quality of asphalt pavement in the process of construction control, so as to ensure that the service performance of asphalt pavement is improved and the service life is prolonged. (2) Methods: In this paper, based on the data of two-by-two relative importance comparisons between the indexes by experts, a topologizable interval judgment matrix is constructed and the weights of each index are calculated by single ranking; the model is validated by constructing a comprehensive assessment model of the topologizable set of asphalt pavement construction controls and through a case study. (3) Results: Using the model proposed in this paper, the overall construction control level for the case was calculated to be II, with a variable eigenvalue of 2.4784, which is biased towards level III. It is verified that the model can evaluate the construction control of asphalt pavement more reasonably and scientifically than previous methods. (4) Conclusions: This study can provide a reference for the evaluation of asphalt pavement construction control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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20 pages, 11547 KiB  
Article
A Coarse-Grained Molecular Model for Simulating Self-Healing of Bitumen
by Liang He, Zhiguang Zhou, Fei Ling, Alessio Alexiadis, Wim Van den Bergh, Augusto Cannone Falchetto, Romain Balieu, Jiqing Zhu, Jan Valentin, Karol J. Kowalski and Lei Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(20), 10360; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122010360 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2072
Abstract
The longevity of asphalt pavements is a key focus of road engineering, which closely relates to the self-healing ability of bitumen. Our work aims to establish a CGMD model and matched force field for bitumen and break through the limitations of the research [...] Read more.
The longevity of asphalt pavements is a key focus of road engineering, which closely relates to the self-healing ability of bitumen. Our work aims to establish a CGMD model and matched force field for bitumen and break through the limitations of the research scale to further explore the microscopic mechanism of bitumen self-healing. In this study, a CGMD mapping scheme containing 16 kinds of beads is proposed, and the non-bond potential energy function and bond potential energy function are calculated based on all-atom simulation to construct and validate a coarse-grained model for bitumen. On this basis, a micro-crack model with a width of 36.6nm is simulated, and the variation laws of potential energy, density, diffusion coefficient, relative concentration and temperature in the process of bitumen self-healing are analyzed with the cracking rate parameter proposed to characterize the degree of bitumen crack healing. The results show that the computational size of the coarse-grained simulation is much larger than that of the all-atom, which can explain the self-healing mechanism at the molecular level. In the self-healing process, non-bonded interactions dominate the molecular movement, and differences in the decreased rate of diffusion among the components indicate that saturates and aromatics play a major role in self-healing. Meanwhile, the variations in crack rates reveal that healing time is inversely proportional to temperature. The impact of increasing temperature on reducing healing time is most obvious when the temperature approaches the glass transition temperature (300 K). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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20 pages, 9231 KiB  
Article
A Multiscale Study of Moisture Influence on the Crumb Rubber Asphalt Mixture Interface
by Lan Wang, Yang Liu and Le Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 6940; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12146940 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1540
Abstract
In order to study the influence of moisture on the interface of crumb rubber–asphalt (CR) mixture, the interface bonding performance and crack resistance of a crumb rubber–asphalt mixture under dry and wet conditions were studied at three scales. At the macroscale, the characteristics [...] Read more.
In order to study the influence of moisture on the interface of crumb rubber–asphalt (CR) mixture, the interface bonding performance and crack resistance of a crumb rubber–asphalt mixture under dry and wet conditions were studied at three scales. At the macroscale, the characteristics of medium temperature fatigue cracking and low temperature fracture were studied by semi-circular bending tensile test (SCB) on the example of digital image correlation (DIC) technique. At the microscale, the surface energy of CR with basalt and limestone was measured using the contact angle measurement test, and then the adhesion work was calculated and analyzed. At the molecular scale, the model of CR, the model of basalt representative mineral (augite) and limestone representative mineral (calcite) were studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The relationship between these three scales was further explored to reveal the mechanism of the damage of moisture on the interface deterioration of the CR mixture. The results show that moisture has a certain effect on the interface of the CR mixture, which is characterized by macroscopically reducing the crack resistance of the asphalt mixture, microscopically reducing the adhesion ability between the asphalt and the aggregate and weakening the interaction between the asphalt and aggregate molecules at the molecular scale. Molecular dynamics can accurately simulate the deterioration of micro asphalt-aggregate adhesion under the damage of moisture. The decrease in microadhesion leads to the decrease in the crack resistance of the macro-CR mixture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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17 pages, 2606 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Correction Method of Asphalt Pavement Rutting Performance Prediction Model Based on RIOHTrack Long-Term Observation Data
by Yang Wu, Xingye Zhou, Xudong Wang and Zhimin Ma
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6805; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136805 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of an existing rutting performance prediction model, based on the long-term observation data of the RIOHTrack’s full-scale pavement structure, the rutting performance prediction model in China’s Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement was evaluated, [...] Read more.
In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of an existing rutting performance prediction model, based on the long-term observation data of the RIOHTrack’s full-scale pavement structure, the rutting performance prediction model in China’s Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement was evaluated, and the model correction method was proposed, which improves the model’s reliability and makes it more suitable for rutting estimation in the region. The research found that the rutting model in China’s Specifications for Design of Highway Asphalt Pavement has significant structural dependence. The model with the highest prediction accuracy and the smallest error is the semi-rigid base asphalt pavement structure with an asphalt concrete layer thickness of 12 cm; the prediction accuracy of other structures is not high. In order to improve the accuracy and reliability of the rutting prediction model, a new model is established by introducing local correction coefficients into the existing model. After local correction, the accuracy of the rutting prediction models for all structures has been greatly improved, and the determination coefficient R2 is greater than 0.87. Since the basic data has already reflected the characteristics of different pavement structures and materials, as well as the impact of local climate environment and traffic load conditions, the new model is more suitable for rutting prediction of various pavement structures in the region where the RIOHTrack is located. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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11 pages, 24331 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Unbound Granular Materials’ Resilient Moduli Determined by Cyclic Triaxial Test and Innovative FWD Device
by Dusan Stehlik, Petr Hyzl, Ondrej Dasek, Ludek Malis, Robert Kaderka, Radek Komenda, Jiri Sachr, Petr Vesely, Karel Spies and Michal Varaus
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5673; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115673 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2358
Abstract
In addition to the conventional laboratory tests of input materials and construction mixtures, the technically correct design of pavement structure involves more frequent functional tests of the input materials and mixtures. Our study summarizes findings from a long-term monitoring of pavement on selected [...] Read more.
In addition to the conventional laboratory tests of input materials and construction mixtures, the technically correct design of pavement structure involves more frequent functional tests of the input materials and mixtures. Our study summarizes findings from a long-term monitoring of pavement on selected road sections with lower traffic intensity. The research involved the comparison of resilient moduli as a design parameter of unbound pavement base layers’ unbound granular materials (UGMs), determined in a laboratory by a test device for a cyclical triaxial test and in situ by impact load test using a falling weight deflectometer (FWD). In particular, the resilient moduli determined in the laboratory by a cyclic triaxial test (Mr,CTT) were compared with the real values of resilient moduli measured by FWD (Mr,FWD). A new, unique, and innovative FWD device was used to determine the Mr,FWD of the UGMs. The innovation lay in the dual-axis deflection measurement—measurement performed not just in the axis parallel to the road, but also in the axis in the transversal direction. It was found that, especially on roads with lower traffic load, such dual-axis (spatial) determination of Mr,FWD moduli was of great importance because it often allowed the identification of local pavement sections with low bearing capacities, especially at the edges, which have a significantly lower value of Mr,FWD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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13 pages, 45218 KiB  
Article
An Application of Android Sensors and Google Earth in Pavement Maintenance Management Systems for Developing Countries
by Abdullah I. Al-Mansour and Abdulraaof H. Al-Qaili
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5636; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115636 - 01 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
Governments and road agencies face the challenging task of maintaining roads. One of the reasons this is challenging is that the maintenance process requires utilizing a substantial amount of road network condition data. There are many approaches for measuring road surface conditions which [...] Read more.
Governments and road agencies face the challenging task of maintaining roads. One of the reasons this is challenging is that the maintenance process requires utilizing a substantial amount of road network condition data. There are many approaches for measuring road surface conditions which are very costly and time-consuming, as well as requiring skillful operators. Developing countries have limited budgets for planning and monitoring road maintenance. This research aims to establish a low-cost pavement maintenance management system for intermediate and small cities in developing countries. The system utilizes low-cost sensors embedded in smartphones that can be used to measure road surface conditions. Google Earth is then used to present maintenance data, select a maintenance strategy, and view the maintenance output information. Road Lab Pro, an android application, is used to collect the data and estimate the surface condition of roads by using accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a GPS. The road network is divided into segments and the road surface conditions are estimated for each segment using the smartphone application and a suspension vehicle. The required maintenance activities for these segments are then established. A priority index is determined for each segment to decide which segments should be maintained with the available budget. This effort allows us to investigate the feasibility of assessing road surface roughness using a smartphone to determine the presence of road distresses and the overall road condition, which is taken into account when making maintenance decisions. The application of this system reveals that these new technologies can provide cost-effective, easy-handling, and efficient ways for a road agency to perform good maintenance planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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16 pages, 1596 KiB  
Article
Correlation of Pavement Distress and Roughness Measurement
by Abdullah I. Al-Mansour and Amr A. Shokri
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 3748; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12083748 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
Riyadh City established and implemented a Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS) through the General Directorate of Maintenance and operation. The system was created to address the difficulties that come with maintaining and reserving the pavement network. To evaluate pavement conditions, Riyadh (PMMS) uses [...] Read more.
Riyadh City established and implemented a Pavement Maintenance Management System (PMMS) through the General Directorate of Maintenance and operation. The system was created to address the difficulties that come with maintaining and reserving the pavement network. To evaluate pavement conditions, Riyadh (PMMS) uses visual checks, structural capacity roughness, and skid resistance. An Urban Distress Index (UDI) is calculated during the visual assessment process. Distressed pavement types, severity, and quantity are taken into account when calculating UDI values. As a result, the procedure gathers extensive data on the pavement’s condition. However, the procedure is time-consuming and very costly. The Automatic Road Analyzer car provides data on road roughness in accordance with the International Roughness Index (IRI). The IRI data are often generated quite quickly and at a cheap cost as compared to the distress survey. This study’s aim is to examine whether a sample of Riyadh city pavement sections can be connected to the IRI depending on the distress type. The research develops statistical models that correlate IRI values with several distress-types associated with roadway classes. Correlating the International Roughness Index values to distress type will eliminate the necessity to implement the manual inspection at a network- level. This saves money and time for PMMS employees when preparing annual maintenance requirements and setting priorities. The finding of the study, of the relationship between the pavement distresses and the International Roughness Index showed a statistically significant relationship between pavement roughness and some ride-quality distresses, like depression and patching, as well as some non-ride quality distresses like potholes and rutting. In addition, for both main and secondary streets, an analysis of variance shows the existence of a correlation between the two variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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15 pages, 37602 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Conductive Alginate Capsules Encapsulating Rejuvenator (HealRoad Capsules) on the Healing Properties of 10 mm Stone Mastic Asphalt Mix
by Amir Tabaković, Christopher Faloon and Declan O’Prey
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3648; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073648 - 05 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1704
Abstract
Conductive alginate capsules encapsulating a bitumen rejuvenator (HealRoad capsules) has demonstrated good healing abilities in pure bitumen and mortar mixes. HealRoad capsules can efficiently heal damage via induction heating. They also release the encapsulated rejuvenator, thereby rejuvenating aged bitumen. These findings indicate that [...] Read more.
Conductive alginate capsules encapsulating a bitumen rejuvenator (HealRoad capsules) has demonstrated good healing abilities in pure bitumen and mortar mixes. HealRoad capsules can efficiently heal damage via induction heating. They also release the encapsulated rejuvenator, thereby rejuvenating aged bitumen. These findings indicate that HealRoad capsules and induction heating systems combined could represent a possible asphalt pavement maintenance method. This paper investigated the effect of HealRoad capsules on the mechanical performance of the 10 mm stone mastic asphalt mix and measured the damage repair (healing) efficiency of the capsules in an asphalt mix. The results indicate that in small amounts, >1%, HealRoad capsules do not degrade the mix performance (indirect tensile strength and rutting resistance) and in some cases, the HealRoad capsules actually improve mix performance, e.g., in terms of the indirect tensile strength ratio (water sensitivity). However, the HealRoad capsules are unable to stimulate induction healing due to the small volume of capsules within the mix. Further investigation demonstrated that increasing the capsules in the mix to >5% can stimulate induction heating effectively. However, it also indicated that a high content of HealRoad capsules reduces the asphalt mix strength. The study has shown that HealRoad capsules are an effective healing system for high bitumen content mixtures such as mortar mixtures but is an inefficient healing system for a full asphalt mix, such as the 10 mm stone mastic asphalt mix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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15 pages, 5275 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Characteristic Master Curve and Parameters of Different Asphalt Mixtures
by Shijie Ma, Liang Fan, Tao Ma, Zhao Dong, Yuzhen Zhang and Xiaomeng Zhang
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073619 - 02 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Using an AMPT tester and based on laboratory tests, this paper performed a comparative study on the dynamic characteristics of different asphalt mixtures, analyzed the influence of different asphalt binders on the characteristic parameters of the dynamic modulus master curve and the phase [...] Read more.
Using an AMPT tester and based on laboratory tests, this paper performed a comparative study on the dynamic characteristics of different asphalt mixtures, analyzed the influence of different asphalt binders on the characteristic parameters of the dynamic modulus master curve and the phase angle master curve of asphalt mixture, and expounds the evaluation function of the phase angle master curve for mixture relaxation characteristics. The results show that the modulus master curve parameters of the asphalt mixture are closely related to voids in the mineral aggregate, mixture density, and asphalt content of the asphalt mixture. For the same kind of asphalt mixture, because the gradation of mineral aggregate is fixed and the volume parameters are almost the same, the ultimate modulus of the mixture at different temperatures is unique; when the temperature changes or the asphalt changes, the shape parameter β of the modulus master curve changes regularly, which brings different dynamic responses, and the lower β will show the characteristics of a higher modulus. Asphalt is the source of the viscoelasticity of the asphalt mixture. Although the influence of particle gradation of the mixture will bring about the change of modulus, the phase angle of the mixture depends on the viscoelastic properties of asphalt, and the initial phase angle in the main curve is positively correlated with asphalt penetration and negatively correlated with the softening point and viscosity, while the peak phase angle A is negatively correlated with penetration, and the softening point viscosity is positively correlated. The viscoelastic interval, represented by ω, is negatively correlated with penetration but positively correlated with the softening point and viscosity. The peak position, parameter ωc, of the phase angle master curve can evaluate the relaxation characteristics of the mixture, and the crack resistance of different mixtures can be compared without complex model calculation. In the comparison of the relaxation time of asphalt mixture, the relaxation time of foam cold-recycled mixture is the largest, which is significantly higher than that of other forms of cement mixture; the emulsified asphalt cold-recycled mixture is equivalent to AC20 and LSPM30 mixtures; the SBS-modified asphalt mixture has the best relaxation characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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19 pages, 5229 KiB  
Article
Bituminous Mixtures Experimental Data Modeling Using a Hyperparameters-Optimized Machine Learning Approach
by Matteo Miani, Matteo Dunnhofer, Fabio Rondinella, Evangelos Manthos, Jan Valentin, Christian Micheloni and Nicola Baldo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11710; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411710 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2684
Abstract
This study introduces a machine learning approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the prediction of Marshall test results, stiffness modulus and air voids data of different bituminous mixtures for road pavements. A novel approach for an objective and semi-automatic identification of [...] Read more.
This study introduces a machine learning approach based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for the prediction of Marshall test results, stiffness modulus and air voids data of different bituminous mixtures for road pavements. A novel approach for an objective and semi-automatic identification of the optimal ANN’s structure, defined by the so-called hyperparameters, has been introduced and discussed. Mechanical and volumetric data were obtained by conducting laboratory tests on 320 Marshall specimens, and the results were used to train the neural network. The k-fold Cross Validation method has been used for partitioning the available data set, to obtain an unbiased evaluation of the model predictive error. The ANN’s hyperparameters have been optimized using the Bayesian optimization, that overcame efficiently the more costly trial-and-error procedure and automated the hyperparameters tuning. The proposed ANN model is characterized by a Pearson coefficient value of 0.868. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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13 pages, 2888 KiB  
Article
A Rapid Method for the Determination of SBS Content Based on the Principle of Orthogonal Testing
by Gang Xu, Xiaojing Gong, Yunhong Yu and Xianhua Chen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10911; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210911 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
The performance of Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt is closely related to the content of SBS modifier. In the production process of modified asphalt, a certain amount of additive such as sulfur and rubber oil may be added to reduce the segregation and promote [...] Read more.
The performance of Styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) modified asphalt is closely related to the content of SBS modifier. In the production process of modified asphalt, a certain amount of additive such as sulfur and rubber oil may be added to reduce the segregation and promote the swelling of the polymer, but the effect of these additives on determining SBS content in asphalt is not yet clear. This paper presents the calibration curves of SBS content based on rutting factor and creep slope and points out its defects according to the temperature scanning test and the bending beam rheometer test. Subsequently, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for rapid determination of polymer content in SBS modified asphalt based on orthogonal test and then the effects of additives such as asphalt type, SBS content, rubber oil and sulfur on the accuracy of polymer content determination by FTIR were investigated. Moreover, in the orthogonal tests of adding sulfur and rubber oil, the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was firstly used to analyze the additives influence on the test accuracy of FITR. Results indicated that the influencing degree of different additives is different. The influence of sulfur on the determination accuracy is greater than that of rubber oil. Therefore, the rapid determination method needs further improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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19 pages, 3368 KiB  
Article
Using a Random Forest Model to Predict the Location of Potential Damage on Asphalt Pavement
by Xiaogang Guo and Peiwen Hao
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10396; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110396 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
Potential damage, eventually demonstrated as moisture damage on inner and in-situ road structures, is the most complex problem to predict, which costs lots of money, time, and natural resources for maintenance and even leads to safety problems. Traditional linear regression analysis cannot fit [...] Read more.
Potential damage, eventually demonstrated as moisture damage on inner and in-situ road structures, is the most complex problem to predict, which costs lots of money, time, and natural resources for maintenance and even leads to safety problems. Traditional linear regression analysis cannot fit well with this multi-factor task in such in-field circumstances. Random Forest (RF) is a progressive nonlinear algorithm, which can combine all relative factors to gain accurate prediction and good explanation. In this study, an RF model is constructed for the prediction of potential damage. In addition, relative variable importance is analyzed to obtain the correlations between factors and potential damage separately. The results show that, through the optimization, the model achieved a good average accuracy of 83.33%. Finally, the controlling method for moisture damage is provided by combining the traditional analysis method and the RF model. In a word, RF is a prospective method in predictions and data mining for highway engineering. Trained with effective data, it can be multifunctional and powerful to solve hard problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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19 pages, 4267 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Rheological, Chemical and Morphological Properties of SBS Modified Asphalt-Binder under Multiple Aging and Rejuvenation Cycles
by Xiaobing Chen, Yunfeng Ning, Yongming Gu, Ronglong Zhao, Jinhu Tong, Juntian Wang, Xiaorui Zhang and Wei Wen
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 9242; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11199242 - 04 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1744
Abstract
To investigate the influence of multiple cycles of aging and rejuvenation on the rheological, chemical, and morphological properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt-binders, the asphalt-binders were aged using two laboratory simulation methods, namely a rolling thin film oven (RTFO) test for short-term aging and [...] Read more.
To investigate the influence of multiple cycles of aging and rejuvenation on the rheological, chemical, and morphological properties of styrene–butadiene–styrene (SBS)-modified asphalt-binders, the asphalt-binders were aged using two laboratory simulation methods, namely a rolling thin film oven (RTFO) test for short-term aging and pressure aging vessel (PAV) for long-term aging. The asphalt-binders were then rejuvenated with three types of rejuvenators (Type I, II, and III) with different dosages (i.e., 6%, 10%, and 14% for the first, second, and third rejuvenation, respectively). A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) was then used to analyze the effect of rejuvenators on the rheological properties of all the asphalt-binders. The changes in the functional groups and microscopic morphology in the process of multiple aging and rejuvenation cycles were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicated that the three rejuvenators could soften the stiffness and restore the microstructures of the aged asphalt-binders in the process of repeated aging and rejuvenation from DSR and AFM testing. Considering the rutting and fatigue properties, the Type I rejuvenator exhibited the potential to achieve the desired rejuvenation effects under multiple rejuvenation cycles. During the multiple aging and rejuvenation cycles, the aging resistance of SBSMA decreased gradually from the FTIR results. This inherently limited the number of repeated rejuvenation cycles. This research is conducive to promoting the application of repeated penetrating rejuvenation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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15 pages, 3707 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation on Reflective Cracking Behavior of Asphalt Pavement
by Houzhi Wang, You Wu, Jun Yang and Haopeng Wang
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7990; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177990 - 29 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1930
Abstract
Cracks are one of the main problems that plague road workers. A correct understanding of the internal crack propagation mechanism of asphalt pavement will help road workers evaluate the road’s working status more comprehensively and make more reasonable decisions in design, construction, and [...] Read more.
Cracks are one of the main problems that plague road workers. A correct understanding of the internal crack propagation mechanism of asphalt pavement will help road workers evaluate the road’s working status more comprehensively and make more reasonable decisions in design, construction, and maintenance work. This paper established a three-dimensional asphalt pavement layered model using the software ABAQUS and fracture mechanics theory and the extended finite element method were used to explore the mechanical response of the pavement base layer’s preset reflective cracks. This paper investigated the influence of the modulus of each layer, vehicle load on the principal stress, shear stress, J-integral, and two stress intensity factors (K1, K2) during the predetermined crack propagation process of the pavement base layer, and the entropy method was used to analyze the above-mentioned mechanical response. The results show that the main factor affecting the propagation of reflective cracks on asphalt pavements is the modulus of the bottom surface layer. However, from a modeling perspective, the effect of increasing load on crack growth is obvious. Therefore, in terms of technical feasibility, the prevention of reflective cracks should still be achieved by controlling the driving load and prohibiting overloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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11 pages, 5323 KiB  
Article
Artificial Neural Network-Based Method for Real-Time Estimation of Compaction Quality of Hot Asphalt Mixes
by Zhichao Xue, Weidong Cao, Shutang Liu, Fei Ren and Qilun Wu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 7136; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11157136 - 02 Aug 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1617
Abstract
With the advancement of intelligent compaction technology, real-time quality control has been widely investigated on the subgrade, while it is insufficient on asphalt pavement. This paper aims to estimate the real-time compaction quality of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using an artificial neural network [...] Read more.
With the advancement of intelligent compaction technology, real-time quality control has been widely investigated on the subgrade, while it is insufficient on asphalt pavement. This paper aims to estimate the real-time compaction quality of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier. A field experiment of HMA compaction was designed. The vibration patterns of the drum were identified by using the ANN classifier and classified based on the compaction levels. The vibration signals were collected and the degree of compaction was measured in the field experiment. The collected signals were processed and the features of vibration patterns were extracted. The processed signals were tagged with their corresponding compaction level to form the sample dataset to train the ANN models. Four ANN models with different hidden layer setups were considered to investigate the effect of hidden layer structure on performance. To test the performance of the ANN classifier, the predictions made by ANN were compared with the measuring results from a non-nuclear density gauge (NNDG). The testing results show that the ANN classifier has good performance and huge potential for estimating the compaction quality of HMA in real-time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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16 pages, 6838 KiB  
Article
Recycling Aged Asphalt Using Hard Asphalt Binder for Hot-Mixing Recycled Asphalt Mixture
by Jian Zhou, Jing Li, Guoqiang Liu, Tao Yang and Yongli Zhao
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5698; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125698 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1882
Abstract
Increasing the content of reclaimed asphalt pavement material (RAP) in hot-mix recycled asphalt mixture (RHMA) with a satisfactory performance has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, the performances of Trinidad lake asphalt (TLA), virgin asphalt binder, and aged asphalt [...] Read more.
Increasing the content of reclaimed asphalt pavement material (RAP) in hot-mix recycled asphalt mixture (RHMA) with a satisfactory performance has been a hot topic in recent years. In this study, the performances of Trinidad lake asphalt (TLA), virgin asphalt binder, and aged asphalt binder were first compared, and then the modification mechanism of TLA on virgin asphalt and aged asphalt was explored. Furthermore, the RHMA was designed in accordance with the French norm NF P 98-140 containing 50% and 100% RAP, and their high-temperature stability, low-temperature cracking resistance, and fatigue performances were tested to be compared with the conventional dense gradation AC-20 asphalt mixture. The results show that the addition of TLA changes the component proportion of virgin asphalt binder, but no new functional groups are produced. The hard asphalt binder modified by TLA has a better rutting resistance, while the fatigue and cracking resistance is lower, compared to both aged and virgin asphalt. The high-modulus design concept of RHMA is a promising way to increase the RAP content in RHMA with acceptable performance. Generally, the RHMA with 50% RAP has similar properties to AC-20. And, when the RAP content reaches 100%, the high- and low-temperature performance and anti-fatigue performance of RHMA are better than AC-20 mixture. Thus, recycling aged asphalt using hard asphalt binder for hot-mixing recycled asphalt mixture to increase the RAP content is feasible. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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12 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
A Preliminary Laboratory Evaluation on the Use of Shredded Cigarette Filters as Stabilizing Fibers for Stone Mastic Asphalts
by Piergiorgio Tataranni and Cesare Sangiorgi
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5674; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125674 - 18 Jun 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2303
Abstract
Cigarette butts can be considered as one of the most common contemporary sources of waste, considering the large consumption of cigarettes all over the world. Despite the fact that different solutions have been developed and tested in the recent years aiming to recycle [...] Read more.
Cigarette butts can be considered as one of the most common contemporary sources of waste, considering the large consumption of cigarettes all over the world. Despite the fact that different solutions have been developed and tested in the recent years aiming to recycle them, cigarette butts are currently landfilled and incinerated. Following the circular economy principles, the experimental application proposed in this paper is an exploratory investigation on the use of shredded cigarette filters as sustainable alternative to the addition of fibers into Stone Mastic Asphalts (SMAs). This represents the preliminary step for a wider research project, aiming to find a possible recycling solution for cigarette butts as fibers in bituminous materials. The use of fibers is a common and well-established solution for the production of high bitumen content mixtures. The fibers have a double function: acting, generally, as a stabilizing agent and, where possible, improving the mechanical performance of the bituminous mixtures. In the present research, two different SMAs were produced and tested aiming to analyze the effects given by the addition of the shredded cigarette filters. The first asphalt concrete, produced with traditional cellulose fibers was taken as a reference mixture, while the experimental mixture was produced with the shredded cigarette filters. The data highlight interesting and promising results for future development, making the use of waste cigarette filters a potential eco-friendly alternative to common cellulose fibers for SMAs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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19 pages, 3172 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study of Low Temperature Performance of Porous Asphalt Mixture
by Jian Wang, Pui-Lam Ng, Yuhua Gong, Han Su and Jinsheng Du
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(9), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11094029 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2224
Abstract
Porous asphalt mixture can be used as a road surface paving material with the remarkable advantage to prevent water accumulation and ponding. However, the performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment has not been thoroughly investigated, and this forms the subject [...] Read more.
Porous asphalt mixture can be used as a road surface paving material with the remarkable advantage to prevent water accumulation and ponding. However, the performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment has not been thoroughly investigated, and this forms the subject of research in the present study. The mineral aggregate gradation of porous asphalt mixture was designed based on Bailey method, and the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture was studied by means of the low temperature bending test. The factors affecting the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture were analyzed through the orthogonal experimental design method, and the effects of porosity, modifier content, aging condition, and test temperature on the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture were evaluated. The results showed that the modifier content was the most important factor affecting the low temperature performance of porous asphalt mixture, followed by the test temperature, while the porosity and the aging condition were the least. Among the three performance evaluation indicators, namely the flexural tensile strength, maximum bending strain, and bending stiffness modulus, the maximum bending strain had the highest sensitivity to the porosity. It can be seen from the single factor influence test of porosity that there existed an approximately linear relationship between the maximum bending strain and the porosity of porous asphalt mixture, and the maximum bending strain decreased with increasing porosity. Furthermore, in order to ensure the good working performance of porous asphalt mixture in low temperature environment, the porosity should also satisfy the required limits of the maximum bending strain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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17 pages, 5096 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Warm Mix Asphalt Incorporating Coarse Steel Slag Aggregates
by Adham Mohammed Alnadish, Mohamad Yusri Aman, Herda Yati Binti Katman and Mohd Rasdan Ibrahim
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083708 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2460
Abstract
The major goal of sustainable practices is to preserve raw resources through the utilization of waste materials as an alternative to natural resources. Decreasing the temperature required to produce asphalt mixes contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing energy consumption and toxic emissions. In [...] Read more.
The major goal of sustainable practices is to preserve raw resources through the utilization of waste materials as an alternative to natural resources. Decreasing the temperature required to produce asphalt mixes contributes to environmental sustainability by reducing energy consumption and toxic emissions. In this study, warm mix asphalt incorporating coarse steel slag aggregates was investigated. Warm mix asphalt was produced at different temperatures lower than the control asphalt mixes (hot mix asphalt) by 10, 20, and 30 °C. The performances of the control and warm mix asphalt were assessed through laboratory tests examining stiffness modulus, dynamic creep, and moisture sensitivity. Furthermore, a response surface methodology (RSM) was conducted by means of DESIGN EXPERT 11 to develop prediction models for the performance of warm mix asphalt. The findings of this study illustrate that producing warm mix asphalt at a temperature 10 °C lower than that of hot mix asphalt exhibited the best results, compared to the other mixes. Additionally, the warm mix asphalt produced at 30 °C lower than the hot mix asphalt exhibited comparable performance to the hot mix asphalt. However, as the production temperature increases, the performance of the warm mix asphalt improves. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

25 pages, 2555 KiB  
Review
Influential Factors and Evaluation Methods of the Performance of Grouted Semi-Flexible Pavement (GSP)—A Review
by Xiaogang Guo and Peiwen Hao
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(15), 6700; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11156700 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 5257
Abstract
Grouted Semi-flexible Pavement (GSP) is a novel pavement composed of open-graded asphalt concrete grouted with high-fluidity cement mortar. Due to its excellent load-bearing and anti-rutting performance, it has great potential as anti-rutting overlay and surface in road construction. However, the understanding of GSP [...] Read more.
Grouted Semi-flexible Pavement (GSP) is a novel pavement composed of open-graded asphalt concrete grouted with high-fluidity cement mortar. Due to its excellent load-bearing and anti-rutting performance, it has great potential as anti-rutting overlay and surface in road construction. However, the understanding of GSP performance remains limited and pertinent findings are inconsistent. This article aims to provide a systematic literature review for the articles which were published between 2000 and 2020 on GSP, explore the problems in the recent research, identify knowledge gaps, and deliver recommendations for future research. The influential factors and the relative evaluation methods of GSP performance are summarized and discussed in this article. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Asphalt Pavement Technologies and Practices)
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