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Renewable Energy Systems 2023

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 November 2023) | Viewed by 36764
Related Special Issue: Renewable Energy Systems 2020

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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: solar thermal systems; concentrating photovoltaic/thermal photovoltaic systems; energy saving in buildings; solar heating and cooling; solar desalination; geothermal energy; dynamic simulations of energy systems; renewable polygeneration systems
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last few years, several countries have experienced a dramatic increase in overall energy demand. Simultaneously, greenhouse gas emissions are increasing, leading to an increase in meteorological catastrophic events in several parts of the world. In this framework, several countries have agreed on the necessity to develop a novel sustainable energy paradigm and to perform all the actions required to limit the increase in the Earth’s average temperature. This goal can be achieved through different strategies: developing novel efficient energy conversion systems, promoting energy efficiency and a more conscious use of energy, and promoting the development of renewable energy sources. As a consequence, during the past few decades, a special effort has been made by several countries to develop novel and innovative energy systems, mainly based on renewable sources. This effort has led to a number of positive effects, such as energy diversification, the reduction in pollutant emissions, and the development of local green economies. On the other hand, the large non-programmable amount of renewable energy delivered to the electric grid poses severe issues in terms of the management of excess energy and the balance between demand and supply. This phenomenon determines an increasing in cost for the management of electric grids, which is typically transferred to the final consumer.

In this context, this Special Issue aims at collecting the most significant and recent studies dealing with the integration of renewable technologies into new or existing water, electricity, heating, and cooling networks. You are encouraged to submit manuscripts analyzing the possible utilization of renewables for multiple purposes (power production, heating, cooling, water management, transports), aiming at increasing the diffusion of such sources into our energy systems. Papers investigating novel electrical and thermal storage systems, as well as the adoption of electrical vehicles, are also welcome.

The topics of primary interest include but are not limited to:

  1. Energy planning;
  2. Polygeneration systems based on renewables;
  3. Advanced thermal storage;
  4. Advanced electrical storage: compressed air energy storage (CAES), flying wheels, supercapacitors, etc.;
  5. District heating and cooling systems;
  6. Water pumping by renewables;
  7. Thermally driven water desalination;
  8. Electrically driven water desalination;
  9. Integration of renewables with transportation, electrical vehicles;
  10. System dynamic simulation;
  11. Integration of renewable systems in buildings;
  12. Control strategies and system management;
  13. Economical assessment and funding policies;
  14. Building dynamic simulation.

Dr. Maria Vicidomini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • renewable energy systems
  • energy saving
  • electrical and thermal storage
  • simulation
  • energy–water nexus

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

6 pages, 197 KiB  
Editorial
Renewable Energy Systems 2023
by Luca Cimmino and Maria Vicidomini
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 1918; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14051918 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
In the last few years, the adoption of renewable technologies and energy efficiency strategies has become increasingly pivotal for reaching the ambitious target of an 80–95% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

19 pages, 6326 KiB  
Article
ForecastNet Wind Power Prediction Based on Spatio-Temporal Distribution
by Shurong Peng, Lijuan Guo, Haoyu Huang, Xiaoxu Liu and Jiayi Peng
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 937; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14020937 - 22 Jan 2024
Viewed by 808
Abstract
The integration of large-scale wind power into the power grid threatens the stable operation of the power system. Traditional wind power prediction is based on time series without considering the variability between wind turbines in different locations. This paper proposes a wind power [...] Read more.
The integration of large-scale wind power into the power grid threatens the stable operation of the power system. Traditional wind power prediction is based on time series without considering the variability between wind turbines in different locations. This paper proposes a wind power probability density prediction method based on a time-variant deep feed-forward neural network (ForecastNet) considering a spatio-temporal distribution. First, the outliers in the wind turbine data are detected based on the isolated forest algorithm and repaired through Lagrange interpolation. Then, based on the graph attention mechanism, the features of the proximity node information of the individual wind turbines in the wind farm are extracted and the input feature matrix is constructed. Finally, the wind power probability density prediction results are obtained using the ForecastNet model based on three different hidden layer variants. The experimental results show that the ForecastNet model with a hidden layer as a dense network based on the attention mechanism (ADFN) predicts better. The average width of the prediction intervals at achieved confidence levels for all interval coverage is reduced by 34.19%, 35.41%, and 35.17%, respectively, when compared to the model with the hidden layer as a multilayer perceptron. For different categories of wind turbines, ADFN also achieves relatively narrow interval average widths of 368.37 kW, 315.87 kW, and 299.13 kW, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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17 pages, 4610 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Modelling and Energy, Economic, and Environmental Analysis of a Greenhouse Supplied by Renewable Sources
by Francesco Calise, Francesco Liberato Cappiello, Luca Cimmino and Maria Vicidomini
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(11), 6584; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13116584 - 29 May 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1156
Abstract
This paper regards the design and dynamic modelling of a greenhouse coupled with renewable energy technologies to obtain a hybrid renewable energy plant as an optimal solution in the green farm framework. The considered technologies are PV panels, solar thermal collectors, and a [...] Read more.
This paper regards the design and dynamic modelling of a greenhouse coupled with renewable energy technologies to obtain a hybrid renewable energy plant as an optimal solution in the green farm framework. The considered technologies are PV panels, solar thermal collectors, and a biomass auxiliary heater. The system is also coupled with a pyrogasifier, supplied by wood and agricultural waste in the framework of a biocircular economic approach. To supply the investigated user, with a “green farm” located in Castelvolturno (Naples, South of Italy) reducing the energy consumption and operating costs, all of the main components of the plant were suitably designed. The operation of the designed components was simulated by a dynamic simulation model developed by TRNSYS software and validated by means of the literature results. A comprehensive energy, economic, and environmental analysis of the greenhouse is presented. The main results suggest that the investigated renewable plant reduces the total equivalent CO2 emissions by 148.66 t/y. Considering the current high increases in energy prices as a result of the energy crisis due to the war, the system shows very significant profitability with a simple payback of only 1.7 years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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36 pages, 15708 KiB  
Article
Novel Multibus Multivoltage Concept for DC-Microgrids in Buildings: Modeling, Design and Local Control
by Heriberto Rodriguez-Estrada, Elias Rodriguez-Segura, Rodolfo Orosco-Guerrero, Cecilia Gordillo-Tapia and Juan Martínez-Nolasco
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13042405 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1491
Abstract
In this paper, a novel microgrid (MG) concept suitable for direct current (DC) multibus architectures is depicted. Multibus feature is improved in order to distribute power in DC using a number of buses at different voltage level. A teachers offices building that houses [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel microgrid (MG) concept suitable for direct current (DC) multibus architectures is depicted. Multibus feature is improved in order to distribute power in DC using a number of buses at different voltage level. A teachers offices building that houses several kinds of loads, including a charging station for electric vehicles (EV), is considered to validate the strategy. Several topologies of power electronics converters (PECs) are included in the system to perform specific tasks and providing isolation between bus and final loads. In order to develop the PECs, first, a switching function is used to obtain average model of each converter. Then, converters design is done by using well known methods that allow to obtain parameter values of all the devices in every version of each kind of converter. A hierarchical control is selected to govern the direct current microgrid (DCMG). At a lower control level, local control stage is implemented and tuned using models and designs obtained, with linear controllers in some PECs and classic strategies in others. In higher control level, there is a supervisory strategy that prioritizes the use of generated power to supply the building’s loads. This energy management system (EMS) is based in Petri net theory; it consists of a start-up test, then source condition synchronous algorithm and load condition synchronous algorithm operate the DCMG according to the mentioned priority. Finally, PECs are tested on standalone, performing in closed loop, facing load changes to verify the adequate operation. Some trajectories of a simplified version of the CDMG are tested with local control in order to validate the multibus multivoltage concept. In order to verify coordinated control, some events managed by EMS are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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18 pages, 9168 KiB  
Article
Synthesis of the Energy-Saving Dry Dual Clutch Control Mechanism
by Nikolay Sergienko, Pavel Kalinin, Ivan Pavlenko, Marek Ochowiak, Vitalii Ivanov, Anton Sergienko, Natalia Pavlova, Yevheniia Basova, Oksana Titarenko, Aleksandr Nazarov, Andżelika Krupińska, Magdalena Matuszak and Sylwia Włodarczak
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020829 - 6 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1604
Abstract
A promising direction in developing up-to-date transport vehicles is the use of transmissions, an essential element of which is a dual-clutch. Improving functional performance, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness are relevant and require appropriate research. The object of study is a dry dual-clutch [...] Read more.
A promising direction in developing up-to-date transport vehicles is the use of transmissions, an essential element of which is a dual-clutch. Improving functional performance, energy efficiency, and environmental friendliness are relevant and require appropriate research. The object of study is a dry dual-clutch working with a manual transmission with high energy efficiency. In the proposed design scheme, a rotary lever and a movable carriage can change the structural diagram of the force interaction between the pressure spring and the clutch discs. The developed mathematical model of the clutches control mechanism allowed for analyzing the process of controlling the dual-clutch transmissions (DCT) and obtaining functional dependencies between pushing forces in friction pairs and the carriage position. As a result, a method for synthesizing DCT was proposed to ensure the transmission of a given torque. Furthermore, it was determined and numerically proven that the same radial movement of the carriage when switching-on the clutches does not guarantee equal loading for the frictional discs of each clutch. This fact increases the uneven dynamics of torque and disc wear. Overall, the synthesis of the energy-saving dry dual-clutch control mechanism providing the same clutch margin for each clutch was developed. The method can be generalized and applied to designing dry dual-clutch transmissions for machines of various purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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14 pages, 1400 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Techniques for Outdoor Heat Stress Mitigation
by Aiman Mazhar Qureshi and Ahmed Rachid
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312308 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1235
Abstract
Decision making is the process of making choices by organizing relevant information and evaluating alternatives. MCDMs (Multi-Criteria Decision Methods) help to select and prioritize alternatives step by step. These tools can help in many engineering fields where the problem is complex and advanced. [...] Read more.
Decision making is the process of making choices by organizing relevant information and evaluating alternatives. MCDMs (Multi-Criteria Decision Methods) help to select and prioritize alternatives step by step. These tools can help in many engineering fields where the problem is complex and advanced. However, there are some limitations of the different MCDMs that reduce the reliability of the decision that needs to be improved and highlighted. In this study, Elimination and Choice Expressing Reality (ELECTRE) NI (Net Inferior), NS (Net Superior), Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solutions (TOPSIS), Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), VIekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje (VIKOR), Multi-Objective Optimization Ratio Analysis (MOORA), Weight Sum Method (WSM) and Weighted Product Method (WPM) are applied for the selection of urban heat mitigation measurements under certain criteria. The models were applied using weighting criteria determined by two ways, (i) the direct weighting method and (ii) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), for precise weighting factoring through pairwise comparison. This numerical research evaluated the reliability of MCDMs using the same decision matrix under different normalization techniques and shows the impact of AHP on the decision. The results show that WSM and PROMETHEE provided reliable and consistent results for all normalization techniques. The combination of AHP with applied MCDMs improved the frequency of consistent ranking, except with ELECTRE-NS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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16 pages, 4098 KiB  
Article
Development of Technology for Hydromechanical Breakdown of Mud Plugs and Improvement of Well Cleaning by Controlled Buckling of the Drill String
by Viacheslav G. Kadochnikov and Mikhail V. Dvoynikov
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(13), 6460; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12136460 - 25 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1769
Abstract
The article provides brief information about a non-standard experimental setup developed in the laboratory of the St. Petersburg Mining University Well Drilling Department. The developed technique presented makes it possible to simulate well cleaning process of cuttings by incorporating the variation of the [...] Read more.
The article provides brief information about a non-standard experimental setup developed in the laboratory of the St. Petersburg Mining University Well Drilling Department. The developed technique presented makes it possible to simulate well cleaning process of cuttings by incorporating the variation of the parameters (the zenith angle of the well, the volume flow and rheological properties of the cleaning agent, the rotation frequency, the number and length of the drill string half-waves) that cause buckling. For the first time, the positive side of the drill string (DS) buckling phenomenon is considered. A positive hydro-mechanical effect on mud plugs and improved well cleaning were revealed. The results of the experimental study confirm an intense difficulty in transporting cuttings to the surface at a critical zenith angle of the well of 55°. Regularities have been established making it possible to determine the effect of DS buckling on the cutting-carrying capacity when drilling deviated and extended reach wells. It is proposed to use hydromechanical impact on the accumulated cuttings by artificially controlling the resulting DS buckling in order to destroy the mud plug and increase the efficiency of well cleaning without the use of specialized devices. A conceptual solution aimed at implementing a method for hydromechanical destruction of mud plugs—the use of drill pipes equipped with a quasi-distributed differential measuring system of strain gauges based on a fiber-optic Bragg grating—is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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16 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Potential of Onshore Wind Turbine Inertia in Decarbonising the Future Irish Energy System
by Henning Thiesen and Clemens Jauch
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2984; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062984 - 15 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Power system inertia is an essential part for grid frequency stability and decreases due to the replacement of fossil fuel fired power plants with variable renewable energy sources. This development is not represented sufficiently in unit commitment and economic dispatch models. If considered [...] Read more.
Power system inertia is an essential part for grid frequency stability and decreases due to the replacement of fossil fuel fired power plants with variable renewable energy sources. This development is not represented sufficiently in unit commitment and economic dispatch models. If considered at all, only synchronous inertia from fossil fuel driven power plants is modelled. This results in increased CO2 emissions, curtailed renewable energy and high system costs. While wind turbines are a source for synthetic inertia and an important renewable energy source, their capability to provide inertia is not incorporated into energy system models. The work at hand closes this research gap and applies a methodology to depict synthetic inertia provided by wind turbines as part of the optimisation dispatch model. A unit commitment and economic inertia dispatch model of the the all-Island Irish power system is created. The potential of wind inertia is analysed and quantified by assessing CO2 emissions, curtailed renewable energy and system costs. Results show that synthetic inertia provided by wind turbines can save up 30.99% of the CO2 emissions, reduce curtailment by up to 39.90% and reduce system costs by 32.72%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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21 pages, 4500 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Azimuth and Tilt Angle Changes on the Energy Balance of Photovoltaic System Installed in the Southern Slovakia Region
by Monika Božiková, Matúš Bilčík, Vladimír Madola, Tímea Szabóová, Ľubomír Kubík, Jana Lendelová and Vladimír Cviklovič
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(19), 8998; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11198998 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 15030
Abstract
Energy balance of the photovoltaic system is influenced by many factors. In this article the effect of tilt and azimuth angle changes of the photovoltaic system energy production is analyzed. These parameters have significant impact on the amount of solar radiation which hits [...] Read more.
Energy balance of the photovoltaic system is influenced by many factors. In this article the effect of tilt and azimuth angle changes of the photovoltaic system energy production is analyzed. These parameters have significant impact on the amount of solar radiation which hits on the photovoltaic panel surface and therefore also on the energy absorbed by the module surface. The main aim of research was identification of the optimal position of photovoltaic system installation in the southern Slovakia regions. The experimental apparatus had two setups consisting of polycrystalline photovoltaic modules. The first setup was used for identification of the tilt angle changes in the range (0–90°). The second one was focused on the detection of the azimuth angle effect to the energy production. The measurement results were statistically processed and mathematically analyzed. Obtained dependencies are presented as two-dimensional and three-dimensional graphical relations. Regression equations characterize time relations between the tilt or azimuth angle and the energy produced by the photovoltaic system in Southern Slovakia. Obtained simplified mathematical model was verified by analytical model. Presented models can be used for the dimensioning and optimization of the photovoltaic system energy production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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18 pages, 35757 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Experimental Integration of Thermoelectric Generators in Photovoltaic–Thermal Hybrid Panels
by Mª Teresa Pintanel, Amaya Martínez-Gracia, Mª Pilar Galindo, Ángel A. Bayod-Rújula, Javier Uche, Juan A. Tejero and Alejandro del Amo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 2915; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11072915 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2159
Abstract
Photovoltaic–thermal panels (PVT) have been widely studied in the last years and have proved to be a technically viable and profitable solution. This work analyses the integration of a set of thermoelectric generators (TEG) inside these panels in order to obtain additional power. [...] Read more.
Photovoltaic–thermal panels (PVT) have been widely studied in the last years and have proved to be a technically viable and profitable solution. This work analyses the integration of a set of thermoelectric generators (TEG) inside these panels in order to obtain additional power. The thermoelectric material takes advantage of the temperature gap between the hottest part of the system, the output flow from the collector, and the cold water feeding the solar system. An experimental test bench with a PVT having integrated TEGs and the same PVT in parallel without TEGs was mounted to compare both devices. The corresponding CFD simulation was also carried out to better understand the temperature map in the arrangement. Both experimental and computational results show that the manufacture of the panel with integrated TEGs should be carefully studied before becoming a commercial product. They also gave some guidelines for the improvement of the prototype in this integrated product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

18 pages, 328 KiB  
Review
Recent Advancements in Anaerobic Digestion and Gasification Technology
by KeChrist Obileke, Golden Makaka and Nwabunwanne Nwokolo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5597; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095597 - 1 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4306
Abstract
In recent times, there has been a growing demand for the use of biomass as an alternative energy due to its sustainable nature. At present, anaerobic digestion and gasification has been proven as a promising technology for exploiting this energy from biomass. This [...] Read more.
In recent times, there has been a growing demand for the use of biomass as an alternative energy due to its sustainable nature. At present, anaerobic digestion and gasification has been proven as a promising technology for exploiting this energy from biomass. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the combination of anaerobic and gasification technology as a hybrid system for sustainable waste-to-energy generation. This review reveals that both anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification have been successfully demonstrated as technologies for energy recovery. However, to improve the conversion efficiency in both technologies, the utilization of an intensifier, additive, and enhancer will be required. Moreover, temperature has been identified as a major factor affecting the technologies and should be considered. The bibliometric study conducted revealed that China is the leading country and has set the pace for other countries to follow suit. Subsequently, waste-to-energy research could be easily implemented on a global scale. This study recommends an experimental study of anaerobic digestion and gasification as a hybrid system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
28 pages, 3972 KiB  
Review
Evaluation of Investments in Wind Energy Projects, under Uncertainty. State of the Art Review
by Benjamin Murgas, Alvin Henao and Luceny Guzman
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 10213; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112110213 - 31 Oct 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2790
Abstract
The use of renewable energy sources, especially wind energy, has been widely developed, mostly during the last decade. The main objective of the present study is to conduct a literature review focused on the evaluation under uncertainty of wind energy investment using the [...] Read more.
The use of renewable energy sources, especially wind energy, has been widely developed, mostly during the last decade. The main objective of the present study is to conduct a literature review focused on the evaluation under uncertainty of wind energy investment using the real options approach to find out whether public opposition (NIMBY projects) has been contemplated, and if so, what have been the flexible strategies applied for its intervention. Overall, 97 publications were analyzed, identifying 20 different models or approaches, which were grouped into eight categories: 1. Real options, 2. Optimization, 3. Stochastics, 4. Financial evaluation, 5. Probabilistic, 6. Estimation, 7. Numerical prediction, and 8. Others. The real options approach, present in 32% of the studies, was the most popular. Twenty-eight types of uncertainties were identified, which were grouped, for better analysis, into nine categories. In total, 62.5% of the studies included the price of electricity as a source of uncertainty; 18.8%, the velocity of wind; and 15.6%, the feed-in rates-subsidy. Both random and non-random techniques were applied to assess the real options and to model the uncertainties. When evaluating real options, the Monte Carlo simulation technique was the most preferred, with 16 (51.6%) applications, followed by non-randomized techniques, decision tree, and dynamic programming, with eight (25.8%) applications each. There is a marked tendency to use stochastic processes to model uncertainty, particularly geometric Brownian motion, which was used in 61.3% (19) of the studies in the sample. When searching for “real options AND (nimby OR public opposition)”, no study was found, which shows the possibility of developing research on this aspect to determine its impact on investments in wind energy projects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Energy Systems 2023)
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