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Experimental Development, Thermodynamic/Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Cogeneration Systems and Polygeneration Plants

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "J: Thermal Management".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 October 2021) | Viewed by 11010

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, Naples, Italy
Interests: 1D thermo-fluid dynamic modeling and analysis of two- and four-stroke internal combustion engines; engine base calibration; volumetric compressors; turbocompressors; ignition systems; biomass plants; pyrogasification; combined heat and power systems; polygeneration plants; gas-steam combined cycles; Organic Rankine Cycles; optimization procedures; concentrated solar power plants
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Guest Editor

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Guest Editor
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125 Naples, Italy
Interests: friction modeling of mechanical variable valve actuation systems; VVA systems; 1D thermo-fluid dynamic analysis of four-stroke internal combustion engines; engine base calibration; screw compressors; combined heat and power systems; polygeneration plants; Organic Rankine Cycles; optimization procedures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Although they have been investigated for many decades as stand-alone solutions, combined heat and power (CHP) and combined cooling heat and power (CCHP) systems have been objects of renewed interest in recent years. This is mainly due to their possibility of being integrated by further conventional or renewable technologies, thus constituting the main sub-systems of local, small, or medium-scale polygeneration plants. In fact, the exploitation of renewable energy sources and energy-saving techniques has become mandatory to meet the required energy demand while mitigating anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. In this context, the increasing attention given to CHP/CCHP and polygeneration plants is due to their potential to ensure significant primary energy savings in the framework of a distributed multi-energy generation system.

Therefore, the purpose of this Special Issue is to collect high-quality research papers and review articles dealing with CHP/CCHP and polygeneration systems. Original high-quality contributions that are not yet published or are not currently under review by other journals or peer-reviewed conferences will be considered.

In particular, the most significant and recent studies addressing experimental development, optimal sizing, configuration and/or operation, or detailed numerical analyses focused on CHP systems or hybrid/renewable polygeneration plants will be included in this Special Issue. Several technologies will be considered for CHP-CCHP systems (internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, etc.), while hybrid/renewable polygeneration plants may exploit solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, or other renewable energy resources to meet multiple purposes (power generation, also from waste heat recovery through ORC, heating, cooling, water management, hydrogen production, etc.). Onsite or transport (ship, rail, etc.) applications will be considered. Papers addressing the study of electrical or thermal storage systems are also welcome.

Manuscripts may be focused on, but are not limited to, the following topics and activities:

  • Energetic, exergetic, and/or economic analysis of cogeneration, trigeneration or polygeneration systems.
  • Hybrid/renewable multi-energy generation systems.
  • Smart grids.
  • Thermo-fluid dynamic modeling and analysis of cogeneration systems.
  • Prototyping and experimental developments.
  • Optimal sizing, configuration, and/or operation of cogeneration, trigeneration, or multi-energy generation plants, whether hybrid or renewable.
  • Experimental or numerical investigation of plants’ sub-systems (photovoltaic/thermodynamic solar systems, biomass or geothermal plants, ORC plants, fuel cells, internal combustion engines, gas turbines, desalination systems, thermal/electrical storage systems, or other plant components).
  • Carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions analysis or optimization.
  • Optimization methodologies.
  • Thermodynamic analysis of distributed integrated energy systems or their sub-systems.
  • Control strategies and system management.

Prof. Dr. Alfredo Gimelli
Dr. Maria Vicidomini
Dr. Massimiliano Muccillo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • CHP/CCHP systems
  • hybrid/renewable polygeneration systems
  • multi-generation systems
  • distributed integrated energy systems
  • multi-energy systems
  • smart grids
  • detailed experimental or numerical analysis of sub-systems (internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic/thermodynamic solar systems, biomass plants, geothermal plants, ORC, desalination systems, thermal/electrical storage systems, etc.)
  • experimental development
  • energetic, exergetic, and/or economic analysis
  • carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions analysis or optimization
  • thermo-fluid dynamic analysis
  • optimization methodologies
  • thermodynamic analysis
  • energy management and control strategies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 10023 KiB  
Article
Development of a 1 kW Micro-Polygeneration System Fueled by Natural Gas for Single-Family Users
by Alfredo Gimelli and Massimiliano Muccillo
Energies 2021, 14(24), 8372; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14248372 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1881
Abstract
The use of primary energy saving techniques and renewable energy systems has become mandatory to tackle the effects of global temperature rise. As a result, a transition is taking place from centralized energy generation to distributed energy generation. Starting from the experience concerning [...] Read more.
The use of primary energy saving techniques and renewable energy systems has become mandatory to tackle the effects of global temperature rise. As a result, a transition is taking place from centralized energy generation to distributed energy generation. Starting from the experience concerning a 15 kW micro-CHP plant previously designed at DII, this paper addresses the development of a 1 kW micro-CHP system fueled by natural gas for single-family users. Specifically, the paper presents a wide experimental investigation aimed at optimizing performance and emissions of a small scale two-stroke spark ignition gasoline engine properly modified to be fueled with natural gas to make the engine more suitable for cogeneration purposes. The described activity was carried out at the DII of the University of Naples Federico II. Rigorous laboratory tests were conducted with the engine in order to characterize both gasoline and CNG operation in terms of brake mechanical power, overall efficiency and exhaust gas emissions in different operating regimes. Furthermore, several physical quantities associated with the engine operation were measured through several sensors in order to optimize performance and emissions achieved when the engine is fueled with CNG. In particular, dynamic pressure variations inside the cylinder were measured and analyzed to evaluate the effect of the adopted fuel on the optimum ignition-timing angle and cyclic dispersion. Full article
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18 pages, 6029 KiB  
Article
Simulation of the Part Load Behavior of Combined Heat Pump-Organic Rankine Cycle Systems
by Bernd Eppinger, Mustafa Muradi, Daniel Scharrer, Lars Zigan, Peter Bazan, Reinhard German and Stefan Will
Energies 2021, 14(13), 3870; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14133870 - 27 Jun 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2189
Abstract
Pumped Thermal Energy Storages (PTES) are suitable for bridging temporary energy shortages, which may occur due to the utilization of renewable energy sources. A combined heat pump (HP)-Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system with suitable thermal storage offers a favorable way to store energy [...] Read more.
Pumped Thermal Energy Storages (PTES) are suitable for bridging temporary energy shortages, which may occur due to the utilization of renewable energy sources. A combined heat pump (HP)-Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system with suitable thermal storage offers a favorable way to store energy for small to medium sized applications. To address the aspect of flexibility, the part load behavior of a combined HP-ORC system, both having R1233zd(E) (Trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene) as working fluid and being connected through a water filled sensible thermal energy storage, is investigated using a MATLAB code with integration of the fluid database REFPROP. The influence on the isentropic efficiency of the working machines and therefore the power to power efficiency (P2P) of the complete system is shown by variation of the mass flow and a temperature drop in the thermal storage. Further machine-specific parameters such as volumetric efficiency and internal leakage efficiency are also considered. The results show the performance characteristics of the PTES as a function of the load. While the drop in storage temperature has only slight effects on the P2P efficiency, the reduction in mass flow contributes to the biggest decrease in the efficiency. Furthermore, a simulation for dynamic load analysis of a small energy grid in a settlement is conducted to show the course of energy demand, supplied energy by photovoltaic (PV) systems, as well as the PTES performance indicators throughout an entire year. It is shown that the use of PTES is particularly useful in the period between winter and summer time, when demand and supplied photovoltaic energy are approximately equal. Full article
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14 pages, 3025 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Study of a Microcogeneration Stirling Unit under On–Off Cycling Operation
by Gianluca Valenti, Aldo Bischi, Stefano Campanari, Paolo Silva, Antonino Ravidà and Ennio Macchi
Energies 2021, 14(4), 801; https://doi.org/10.3390/en14040801 - 3 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
Stirling units are a viable option for micro-cogeneration applications, but they operate often with multiple daily startups and shutdowns due to the variability of load profiles. This work focused on the experimental and numerical study of a small-size commercial Stirling unit when subjected [...] Read more.
Stirling units are a viable option for micro-cogeneration applications, but they operate often with multiple daily startups and shutdowns due to the variability of load profiles. This work focused on the experimental and numerical study of a small-size commercial Stirling unit when subjected to cycling operations. First, experimental data about energy flows and emissions were collected during on–off operations. Second, these data were utilized to tune an in-house code for the economic optimization of cogeneration plant scheduling. Lastly, the tuned code was applied to a case study of a residential flat in Northern Italy during a typical winter day to investigate the optimal scheduling of the Stirling unit equipped with a thermal storage tank of diverse sizes. Experimentally, the Stirling unit showed an integrated electric efficiency of 8.9% (8.0%) and thermal efficiency of 91.0% (82.2%), referred to as the fuel lower and, between parenthesis, higher heating value during the on–off cycling test, while emissions showed peaks in NOx and CO up to 100 ppm but shorter than a minute. Numerically, predictions indicated that considering the on–off effects, the optimized operating strategy led to a great reduction of daily startups, with a number lower than 10 per day due to an optimal thermal storage size of 4 kWh. Ultimately, the primary energy saving was 12% and the daily operational cost was 2.9 €/day. Full article
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19 pages, 5045 KiB  
Article
Theoretical Design and Analysis of the Waste Heat Recovery System of Turbine Exhaust Steam Using an Absorption Heat Pump for Heating Supply
by Jinshi Wang, Weiqi Liu, Guangyao Liu, Weijia Sun, Gen Li and Binbin Qiu
Energies 2020, 13(23), 6256; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13236256 - 27 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2698
Abstract
In northern China, many thermal power plants use absorption heat pump to recover low-grade heat from turbine exhaust steam due to the irreplaceable advantages of the absorption heat pump in waste heat recovery. In the process of designing a waste heat recovery system, [...] Read more.
In northern China, many thermal power plants use absorption heat pump to recover low-grade heat from turbine exhaust steam due to the irreplaceable advantages of the absorption heat pump in waste heat recovery. In the process of designing a waste heat recovery system, few researchers have considered the relationship between the design power of the heat pump and the actual heating load of the heating network. Based on the heating load characteristics, this paper puts forward a design idea which uses an absorption heat pump to recover waste heat from a steam turbine exhaust for heating supply. The operation mode of the system for different design powers of the heat pump was stated. An economic analysis model of the waste heat recovery system was proposed, and the optimal design power of the heat pump could be obtained. For a specific unit, the corresponding waste heat recovery system was designed, and various factors affecting the economy of the system were discussed and analyzed in detail. Full article
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18 pages, 8041 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Simulation and Thermoeconomic Analysis of a Trigeneration System in a Hospital Application
by Francesco Calise, Francesco Liberato Cappiello, Massimo Dentice d’Accadia, Luigi Libertini and Maria Vicidomini
Energies 2020, 13(14), 3558; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13143558 - 10 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Hospitals are very attractive for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications, due to their high and continuous demand for electric and thermal energy. However, both design and control strategies of CHP systems are usually based on an empiric and very simplified approach, and [...] Read more.
Hospitals are very attractive for Combined Heat and Power (CHP) applications, due to their high and continuous demand for electric and thermal energy. However, both design and control strategies of CHP systems are usually based on an empiric and very simplified approach, and this may lead to non-optimal solutions. The paper presents a novel approach based on the dynamic simulation of a trigeneration system to be installed in a hospital located in Puglia (South Italy), with around 600 beds, aiming to investigate the energy and economic performance of the system, for a given control strategy (electric-load tracking). The system includes a natural gas fired reciprocating engine (with a rated power of 2.0 MW), a single-stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (with a cooling capacity of around 770 kW), auxiliary gas-fired boilers and steam generators, electric chillers, cooling towers, heat exchangers, storage tanks and several additional components (pipes, valves, etc.). Suitable control strategies, including proportional–integral–derivative (PID) and ON/OFF controllers, were implemented to optimize the trigeneration performance. The model includes a detailed simulation of the main components of the system and a specific routine for evaluating the heating and cooling demand of the building, based on a 3-D model of the building envelope. All component models were validated against experimental data provided by the manufacturers. Energy and economic models were also included in the simulation tool, to calculate the thermoeconomic performance of the system. The results show an excellent economic performance of the trigeneration system, with a payback period equal to 1.5 years and a profitability index (ratio of the Net Present Value to the capital cost) equal to 3.88, also due to the significant contribution of the subsidies provided by the current Italian regulation for CHP systems (energy savings certificates). Full article
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