Advances in Structural Optimization

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Mechanical Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2024 | Viewed by 4781

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Structural, Geotechnical and Building Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, 10128 Turin, Italy
Interests: infrastructures; numerical modelling and simulation; structural design and safety; structural engineering; systems resilience; optimization; steel optimal design

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue provides a remarkable opportunity for professionals across various fields to collaborate in tackling the challenges and advancements in structural engineering optimization. The issue welcomes novel and high-quality research contributions from a diverse range of topics, such as computer-aided analysis and design, optimal tools for numerical simulation, structural shape and topology optimization, reliability-based design, stochastic structural control, elastic–plastic optimal design of structures, algorithms, and software development that connect all engineering areas. Additionally, papers focused on multi-criteria optimization in which traditional and non-traditional structural aspects are combined with sustainability goals (e.g., emission impact) and constructability issues (e.g., structural complexity and optimal management) are welcome for submission.

Dr. Raffaele Cucuzza
Prof. Dr. Bruno Briseghella
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • computer-aided analysis and design
  • numerical simulation
  • structural shape and topology optimization
  • reliability-based design
  • stochastic structural control
  • elastic-plastic optimal design
  • algorithm and software development
  • sustainability

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

21 pages, 6017 KiB  
Article
The Optimization of the Geometry of the Centrifugal Fan at Different Design Points
by Paulius Ragauskas, Ina Tetsmann and Raimondas Jasevičius
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(8), 3530; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14083530 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 546
Abstract
The optimization of the geometry of a centrifugal fan is performed at maximum power and high-efficiency design points (DPs) to improve impeller efficiency. Two design variables defining the shape of fan blade are selected for the optimization. The optimal values of the geometry [...] Read more.
The optimization of the geometry of a centrifugal fan is performed at maximum power and high-efficiency design points (DPs) to improve impeller efficiency. Two design variables defining the shape of fan blade are selected for the optimization. The optimal values of the geometry parameters of the impeller blades are identified by employing virtual flow simulations. The results of virtual experiments indicate the influence of the parameters of the blade geometry on its efficiency. With the optimization of impeller blade geometry, the efficiency of the fan is improved with respect to the reference model, as confirmed by comparing the performance curves. Herein, we discuss the results obtained in virtual tests by identifying the influence of DPs on the performance characteristics of centrifugal fans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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24 pages, 10744 KiB  
Article
Innovative Approaches to Wear Reduction in Horizontal Powder Screw Conveyors: A Design of Experiments-Guided Numerical Study
by Marko Motaln and Tone Lerher
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(7), 3064; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14073064 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 660
Abstract
Numerical simulations play a vital role in the modern engineering industry, especially when faced with interconnected challenges such as particle interactions and the structural integrity of conveyor systems. This article focuses on the handling of materials and emphasizes the importance of using parametric [...] Read more.
Numerical simulations play a vital role in the modern engineering industry, especially when faced with interconnected challenges such as particle interactions and the structural integrity of conveyor systems. This article focuses on the handling of materials and emphasizes the importance of using parametric numerical analysis to improve efficiency, reduce wear, and enhance the structural integrity of horizontal screw conveyors. Through the utilization of the Design of Experiments, we systematically investigated critical parameters such as screw pitch, clearance, wear, rotational velocity, and additional structural factors. This examination was carried out within a well-defined parametric framework, utilizing a combination of software tools provided by the Ansys suite and Minitab. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the Design of Experiments analysis in achieving improved performance and provide valuable insights for engineers and researchers involved in the design of conveyor systems. Furthermore, this comprehensive approach clarifies how conveyor systems respond to changes in parameters and highlights the complex interaction between transported particles and the conveyor system. We present a detailed analysis that clarifies the complex relationships and dependencies among different parameters, providing engineers and researchers with valuable insights. By understanding the interactions of these factors, the methodology provides not only results but also a strategic framework for advancing conveyor system design and engineering practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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13 pages, 9684 KiB  
Article
Strength Analysis of Cylindrical Shells with Tangential Nozzles under Internal Pressure
by Xiaofeng Zhao, Caifu Qian and Zhiwei Wu
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(6), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14062363 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Pressure vessels having the structure of a cylindrical shell with a tangential nozzle are often used in engineering for some process requirements. But there are no accurate methods in engineering codes for the strength design of this special structure. In this paper, the [...] Read more.
Pressure vessels having the structure of a cylindrical shell with a tangential nozzle are often used in engineering for some process requirements. But there are no accurate methods in engineering codes for the strength design of this special structure. In this paper, the limit–load analysis was performed to evaluate the weakening effects of the tangential nozzles on the strength of the cylindrical shells under internal pressure. A so-called strength–weakening coefficient was defined to reflect the weakening degree of the load-bearing capacity of the cylindrical shells by the tangential nozzles or specifically by the three dimensionless structural parameters, namely diameter ratio (do/Di), diameter-thickness ratio (Di/T) and thickness ratio (t/T). Results show that when increasing do/Di and Di/T or decreasing t/T, the strength–weakening coefficient increases, which means that the strength–weakening effect of the tangential nozzle on the cylindrical shell increases. With sufficient simulation results, regression equations for the strength–weakening coefficient were obtained which provides a reference for the strength design of cylindrical shells with tangential nozzles under internal pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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22 pages, 13940 KiB  
Article
A Tolerance Specification Automatic Design Method for Screening Geometric Tolerance Types
by Guanghao Liu, Meifa Huang and Wenbo Su
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 1302; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14031302 - 5 Feb 2024
Viewed by 896
Abstract
At present, the automatic generation of tolerance types based on rule-based reasoning has an obvious characteristic: for the same assembly feature, tolerance items are recommended that satisfy all feature characteristics, with a large number of recommendations. For this reason, automatically selecting tolerance types [...] Read more.
At present, the automatic generation of tolerance types based on rule-based reasoning has an obvious characteristic: for the same assembly feature, tolerance items are recommended that satisfy all feature characteristics, with a large number of recommendations. For this reason, automatically selecting tolerance types and reducing designer autonomy remains a challenging task, especially for complex mechanical products designed using heterogeneous CAD systems. This article proposes a tolerance specification design method for the automatic selection of assembly tolerance types. Based on the construction of a hierarchical representation model of assembly tolerance information with tolerance-zone degrees of freedom (DOFs), a semantic model of geometric tolerance information with tolerance-zone DOFs and a meta-ontology model of assembly tolerance information representation are constructed. Descriptive logic is used to express the attribute relationships between different classes in the assembly tolerance information meta-ontology model, and screening inference rules are constructed based on the mechanism for selecting assembly tolerance types based on tolerance-zone DOFs. On this basis, a process for selecting assembly geometric tolerance types based on the ontology of tolerance-zone DOFs is formed. Finally, the effectiveness and feasibility of this method were verified through examples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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22 pages, 6235 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Lightweight Structure Mesh Topology of Geodesic Domes
by Dominika Bysiec, Szymon Jaszczyński and Tomasz Maleska
Appl. Sci. 2024, 14(1), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/app14010132 - 22 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
This paper presents two methods of shaping the mesh topology of lightweight structures as spherical domes. The two given methods of dividing the initial face of the polyhedra determine the obtained structures, which differ in the way of connecting the nodal points. These [...] Read more.
This paper presents two methods of shaping the mesh topology of lightweight structures as spherical domes. The two given methods of dividing the initial face of the polyhedra determine the obtained structures, which differ in the way of connecting the nodal points. These points were obtained by applying the algorithm for calculating spherical coordinates presented in the paper, which were then converted to the Cartesian system using transformation formulas. Two models of dome structures are presented, based on a 4608-hedron according to the first division method, and on a 4704-hedron, using the second proposed method with numerical analysis. Thus, the novelty of this paper is an implementation of the formulas and algorithms from geodesic domes based on the regular dodecahedron to the regular octahedron, which has not been presented so far. The choice of the shape of the structure has impacts on sustainable development, dictated by structural and visual considerations, leading to the design of a light structure with low consumption of construction material (steel), which can undoubtedly be helpful when making the final structure shape. In addition, according to this research, it can be concluded that using the first method to create a geodesic dome mesh is more straightforward, safer, and requires less design experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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31 pages, 9475 KiB  
Article
Influence of Open Differential Design on the Mass Reduction Function
by Mirko Karakašić, Pejo Konjatić, Hrvoje Glavaš and Ivan Grgić
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(24), 13300; https://doi.org/10.3390/app132413300 - 16 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
The transmission of power and motion in road vehicles with internal combustion engines is achieved by different design variants of differential transmissions. The open differential transmission (ODT) is installed to a greater extent in passenger cars with rear-wheel drive due to its simpler [...] Read more.
The transmission of power and motion in road vehicles with internal combustion engines is achieved by different design variants of differential transmissions. The open differential transmission (ODT) is installed to a greater extent in passenger cars with rear-wheel drive due to its simpler design. Due to its robustness, it is possible to reduce its mass. Reducing the mass of the ODT, as well as reducing the mass of the other design elements of the vehicle, contributes to reducing the overall mass of the vehicle and improves the energy efficiency of the vehicle. The paper develops and proposes an algorithm that combines the design of the ODT according to ISO 23509:2006, the numerical calculation of the design elements (ring gear and drive shaft with pinion) using the finite element method (FEM) and the numerical global–local model, the topological optimization method (TOM) and the results of the FEM analysis in determining the design parameters. In addition, the proposed algorithm uses the application of the response surface method (RSM) in the construction of a mathematical model. With the proposed mathematical model, the mathematical objective function of the ODT overall mass reduction describes the influence of the previously selected design parameters on the overall mass reduction of the ODT. The mathematical model is also used to analyze the partial influence of the design parameters on the objective functions of the partial mass reduction of the ring gear and pinion drive shaft. Using the R2 and root mean square error (RMSE), an accuracy check of the proposed mathematical model was performed. According to the proposed algorithm and mathematical model, the two mentioned design elements of the ODT were optimized. After optimization, the overall mass of the ODM was reduced by 16.5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Structural Optimization)
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