Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2022) | Viewed by 30339

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Molecular Science and Nanosystems, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, 30123 Venice, Italy
Interests: metabolomics; clinical metabolomics; phytochemistry; ethnopharmacology; medicinal plants; mass spectrometry; chromatography
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Guest Editor
Regional Centre for Advanced Technologies and Materials, Department of Bioactive Complexes and Molecular Magnets, Olomouc Palaki University, Aristocrat 27, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: plants; antioxidants; flavonoids; biotechnology; pharmacogenetics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nature has always represented the richest source of food and medicines for mankind. Plants and herbs have been utilized for millennia as food and medicine and for cosmetic and ritualistic purposes. Several plant species have been well-known for their use in the treatment of pathologies and disorders since ancient times, such as Hypericum perforatum for depression, Artemisia annua for malaria, and Papaver somniferum for alleviating pain, whose bioactive components have been characterized and isolated. On the other hand, other species find their use in culinary preparations of all over the world, such as the aromatic Thymus and Salvia, or the now-famous spice Curcuma, widely used on the Indian subcontinent. Wild and cultivated plants used in food preparation are not devoid of medicinal properties, as demonstrated by a large mole of studies showing that essential oils and secondary metabolites from such species could represent potential novel drugs or food preservants. In this view, this Special Issue aims at gathering original research papers and review articles focused on the chemistry of medicinal and aromatic plants and their potential uses as novel sources of bioactive compounds or as ingredients for nutraceuticals and functional foods. Works dealing with the characterization of herbs and plants and isolated phytocompounds with potential uses in food preservation are also welcome. Papers should contribute significantly to furthering scientific knowledge in pharmacological and nutraceutical fields and food technology.

Dr. Gregorio Peron
Prof. Dr. Jan Hošek
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • medicinal plants
  • aromatic plants
  • edible plants
  • bioactive natural compounds
  • food additives
  • essential oils
  • ethnopharmacology
  • polyphenols
  • chromatography
  • mass spectrometry
  • nuclear magnetic resonance
  • metabolomics

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

3 pages, 187 KiB  
Editorial
Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications
by Gregorio Peron and Jan Hošek
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 2803; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12062803 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1054
Abstract
Historically, mankind has used plants and their derivatives as food and medicine for thousands of years [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

10 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Efficacy and Safety of a Novel Gummy Formulation for the Management of Cough in Adults: Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
by Domenico Leonardo Grasso, Kiran Narayanappa and Rosario Russo
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3427; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073427 - 28 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2020
Abstract
The cough is one of the most common medical complaints affecting the general population. It is well known that persisting cough negatively affects subjects’ quality of life (QoL) and sleep quality. The aim of the current double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study was [...] Read more.
The cough is one of the most common medical complaints affecting the general population. It is well known that persisting cough negatively affects subjects’ quality of life (QoL) and sleep quality. The aim of the current double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of a novel medical device in gummy format in reducing cough and improving QoL in adult subjects with acute persisting cough. Forty subjects were enrolled and randomized into two arms according to the treatment. Both the investigational product (IP) and placebo were administered orally, three times per day for 10 consecutive days. Cough symptoms and severity were measured by the Cough Clinical Score (CCS) consisting of a 6-point Likert scale, Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and cough severity visual analogue scale (VAS). QoL was rated using the SF-36 (short form) questionnaire. Significant improvements were seen both in the daytime and nighttime cough score after 5 days and at the end of treatment in the IP group but not in those subjects taking the placebo. QoL and sleep disturbances were ameliorated significantly in the IP group only. In conclusion, IP was found safe, well-tolerated and effective in the management of persisting cough in adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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15 pages, 7209 KiB  
Article
Metal Accumulation Properties of Eight Traditionally Utilized Nutritional Plants and Their Potential as Suitable Crops for Cultivation on Acidic Soils of the Northern Province Uíge, Angola
by Christin Baumgärtel, Thea Lautenschläger, Mazekana H. G. Panzo, Francisco Afonso, Christoph Neinhuis and Karl-Heinz Feger
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020792 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
High metal contents of acidic soils from sub-Saharan Africa often prevent the cultivation of crops and lead to a low livestock yield. The carbohydrate rich diet of the Angolan population is low in minerals and vitamins, resulting in various deficiency syndromes and a [...] Read more.
High metal contents of acidic soils from sub-Saharan Africa often prevent the cultivation of crops and lead to a low livestock yield. The carbohydrate rich diet of the Angolan population is low in minerals and vitamins, resulting in various deficiency syndromes and a high child mortality rate. Eight traditionally utilized plants (Anisophyllea quangensis, Annona stenophylla subsp. cuneata, Canarium schweinfurthii, Eugenia malangensis, Landolphia lanceolata, Raphionacme madiensis, Tristemma mauritianum, Vitex madiensis subsp. madiensis) with nutritional value for the Angolan population were analyzed for their soil and growing conditions. The species are adapted to the local conditions and can serve as crops for the unfavorable soils of the province Uíge. Chemical and physical characteristics of the uppermost soil (0–5 cm) and in 30 cm depth were analyzed. The plant-available macro-and micronutrients were determined using Mehlich 3 extraction. Data are completed with leaf tissue analyses, examining the uptake of minerals. As aluminum (Al) and manganese (Mn) are plant-available in high amounts, local plants evolved mechanisms dealing with those metals. These Al accumulators with foliar contents above 1000 mg/kg are Anisophyllea quangensis (7884 mg/kg), Landolphia lanceolata (6809 mg/kg), Tristemma mauritianum (4674 mg/kg), and Eugenia malangensis (13,989 mg/kg). All four species bear edible fruits with nutritional potential. The domestication and commercialization of those plants seem to be promising, utilizing local soils without expensive amelioration techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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17 pages, 3229 KiB  
Article
Home Gardens as a Source of Medicinal, Herbal and Food Preparations: Modern and Historical Approaches in Lithuania
by Zivile Pranskuniene, Roberta Bajoraite, Zenona Simaitiene and Jurga Bernatoniene
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9988; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219988 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3126
Abstract
The culture of home gardens in Lithuania comes from the deep traditions of agriculture. The purpose of this study was to collect and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants grown in Tauragė District home gardens and to compare it with archival sources. [...] Read more.
The culture of home gardens in Lithuania comes from the deep traditions of agriculture. The purpose of this study was to collect and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants grown in Tauragė District home gardens and to compare it with archival sources. A field survey was conducted from July 2019 to October 2020 in the Tauragė District, and the target group consisted of 27 respondents. The data obtained during the research were compared with the unpublished work of E. Šimkūnaitė, dated 1948. During the research, 100 cultivated plant species were recorded and assigned to 36 plant families (76 plant species and 38 plant families in the archival source, respectively). Many of the species grown earlier/at present in home gardens were used without EMA approved medical indications and were based solely on folk knowledge and experience in medicine. Despite the wide network of pharmacies and well-available primary health care in Lithuania, the residents of Tauragė District still grow medicinal plants in their home gardens for various purposes—from homemade medicines to food–herbal preparations. This food–medicine connection is as tight as it was in the archival study of 1948, which shows the surviving Lithuanian tradition of growing both food and medicine in home gardens. Those cultivated plants most suitable for Lithuanian climatic conditions and with ethnic heritage-based medical applications can be a source of ideas for further research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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9 pages, 885 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Geographical Location on the Chemical Compositions of Pimpinella lutea Desf. Growing in Tunisia
by Hekmat AL-Hmadi, Ridha El Mokni, Rajesh K. Joshi, Mohamed L. Ashour and Saoussen Hammami
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7739; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167739 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2632
Abstract
Essential oils are generally produced to confer the protection of medicinal plants against several natural enemies. Variations of chemical and physical environmental factors exert significant influences on plant development. They hence may affect the quality and quantity of volatile organic metabolites of interest [...] Read more.
Essential oils are generally produced to confer the protection of medicinal plants against several natural enemies. Variations of chemical and physical environmental factors exert significant influences on plant development. They hence may affect the quality and quantity of volatile organic metabolites of interest and, therefore, the economic applications of essential oils. This research focused on the effects of the harvest region on the production and analytes present in Tunisian Pimpinella lutea Desf. Apiaceae that were collected in three different growing environments (North and South Bizerta and Tabarka). Essential oils extracted from a variety of genotypes were analyzed, for the first time, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/FID and GC/MS). The determination of the percentage of essential oil components allowed the recognition of three chemotypes: α-trans-Bergamotene quantified at a percentage of 18.1% in North Bizerta (NBEO), muurola-4,10(14)-dien-1-β-ol identified in South Bizerta (10.1%, SBEO) and acora-3,7(14)-dien present in a high level of 29.1% in Tabarka population (TEO). The richness of different populations in sesquiterpenes (60.2–78.1%) suggests that Pimpinella lutea Desf. may be used in different industrial segments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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20 pages, 4580 KiB  
Article
Multi-Organ Protective Effects of Curcumin Nanoparticles on Drug-Induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rats with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
by Paul-Mihai Boarescu, Ioana Boarescu, Adriana Elena Bulboacă, Ioana Corina Bocșan, Raluca Maria Pop, Dan Gheban, Ruxandra-Mioara Râjnoveanu, Armand Râjnoveanu, Ştefan Horia Roşian, Anca Dana Buzoianu and Sorana D. Bolboacă
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5497; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125497 - 14 Jun 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2730
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardio-protective, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of curcumin nanoparticle (NC) pretreatment compared to conventional curcumin (CC) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Fifty-six Wister Bratislava rats were divided [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the cardio-protective, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects of curcumin nanoparticle (NC) pretreatment compared to conventional curcumin (CC) on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in rats with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Fifty-six Wister Bratislava rats were divided into eight groups. The first four groups—C (control group), AMI (group with AMI), T1DM (group with T1DM), and T1DM-AMI (group with T1DM and AMI)—received only saline (S) during the whole experiment. Two groups—S-T1DM-CC-AMI and S-T1DM-NC-AMI—were pretreated with S before T1DM induction. The S-T1DM-CC-AMI group received CC (200 mg/Kg bw (bw—body weight)) after T1DM induction, while the S-T1DM-NC-AMI group received NC (200 mg/Kg bw) after T1DM induction. the CC-T1DM-CC-AMI group received CC (200 mg/Kg bw) during the whole experiment. Similarly, the NC-T1DM-NC-AMI group received NC (200 mg/Kg bw) over the entire experiment. T1DM was induced on day 7 using a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ). AMI was induced with isoproterenol (ISO) on day 22. Both curcumin formulations, CC and NC, prevented the following electrocardiographic changes: prolongation of the QRS complex, enlargement of QT and QTc intervals, and ST-segment elevation. Glucose levels and lipid profile parameters were reduced up to 1.9 times, while C-peptide serum levels were increased up to 1.6 times in groups that received CC or NC. Liver function parameters (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase) and kidney function parameters (creatinine, urea) were reduced 4.8 times, and histological changes of liver and kidney tissue were improved by CC or NC administration. Pretreatment with NC proved significantly higher cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effects in the case of AMI in T1DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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10 pages, 2174 KiB  
Article
Tilia sp. Seed Oil—Composition, Antioxidant Activity and Potential Use
by Nina Poljšak and Nina Kočevar Glavač
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4932; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114932 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2615
Abstract
Research on new, untapped seed oil sources is receiving increased attention. In this study, 18 different seed samples of Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos from various locations in Slovenia were collected and oil was extracted. The compositions of triglyceride fatty acids and unsaponifiable [...] Read more.
Research on new, untapped seed oil sources is receiving increased attention. In this study, 18 different seed samples of Tilia cordata and Tilia platyphyllos from various locations in Slovenia were collected and oil was extracted. The compositions of triglyceride fatty acids and unsaponifiable compounds were determined using GC-MS, while antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH method. The oil content in the seeds varied significantly, from 9.1% to 21.7%. Linoleic acid (50–60%) was found to be the predominant fatty acid, followed by oleic acid (18–22%) and palmitic acid (8–9%). Characteristic cyclopropene fatty acids (sterculic, dihydrosterculic and malvalic acids) were present in the average range of 4–8.4%. Antioxidant activity ranged from 8.9% to 65.5%, and was higher, on average, for T. platyphyllos. Higher antioxidant activity was closely correlated with higher γ-tocopherol contents. Statistically significant correlations were confirmed between antioxidant activity and γ-tocopherol, between Δ-tocopherol and phytol, between stigmasterol and β-sitosterol and between squalene and malvalic acid. Tilia oil may be of great interest for cosmetic and dermal preparations. It is, however, not considered a good source of dietary fatty acids due to the undesired, significant content of omega-6 fatty acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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14 pages, 5924 KiB  
Article
Trimethoxycinnamates and Their Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity
by Jiri Kos, Tomas Strharsky, Sarka Stepankova, Katarina Svrckova, Michal Oravec, Jan Hosek, Ales Imramovsky and Josef Jampilek
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(10), 4691; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11104691 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2066
Abstract
A series of twelve nature-inspired 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamates were prepared and characterized. All compounds, including the starting 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, were tested for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro; the selectivity index (SI) was also determined. 2-Fluororophenyl (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoate demonstrated [...] Read more.
A series of twelve nature-inspired 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamates were prepared and characterized. All compounds, including the starting 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamic acid, were tested for their ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in vitro; the selectivity index (SI) was also determined. 2-Fluororophenyl (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-prop-2-enoate demonstrated the highest SI (1.71) in favor of BChE inhibition. 2-Chlorophenyl (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-enoate showed the highest AChE-inhibiting (IC50 = 46.18 µM) as well as BChE-inhibiting (IC50 = 32.46 µM) activity with an SI of 1.42. The mechanism of action of the most potent compound was determined by the Lineweaver–Burk plot as a mixed type of inhibition. An in vitro cell viability assay confirmed the insignificant cytotoxicity of the discussed compounds on the two cell lines. Trends between structure, physicochemical properties and activity were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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29 pages, 6003 KiB  
Article
Metabolite Profiling of Christia vespertilionis Leaf Metabolome via Molecular Network Approach
by Anis Irfan Norazhar, Soo Yee Lee, Siti Munirah Mohd Faudzi and Khozirah Shaari
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(8), 3526; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083526 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3336
Abstract
Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. is an ornamental plant with unique butterfly-shaped leaves, hence its vernacular name “butterfly wing” or “rerama” in Malay. In Malaysia, the green-leafed variety of this plant has gained popularity in recent years due to testimonial reports by local [...] Read more.
Christia vespertilionis (L.f.) Bakh. f. is an ornamental plant with unique butterfly-shaped leaves, hence its vernacular name “butterfly wing” or “rerama” in Malay. In Malaysia, the green-leafed variety of this plant has gained popularity in recent years due to testimonial reports by local consumers of its medicinal uses, which include treatment for cancer. Despite these popular uses, there is very limited information on the phytochemistry of the leaf of this plant, presenting a significant gap in the cheminformatics of the plant species. Herein, we report a substantially detailed phytochemical profile of the leaf metabolome of the green-leafed variety of C. vespertilionis, obtained by deploying an untargeted tandem mass spectrometry-based molecular networking approach. The detailed inspection of the molecular network map generated for the leaf metabolome enabled the putative identification of 60 metabolites, comprising 13 phenolic acids, 20 flavonoids, 2 benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline-type alkaloids, 4 hydroxyjasmonic acid derivatives, 2 phenethyl derivatives, 3 monoacylglycerols, 4 fatty acid amides, 2 chlorophyll derivatives, 4 carotenoids, 2 organic acids, 1 nucleoside, and 3 amino acids. Flavonoids are the major class of metabolites that characterize the plant leaves. Employing a mass-targeted isolation approach, two new derivatives of apigenin-6-C-β-glucoside, the major constituents of the plant leaf, were successfully purified and spectroscopically characterized as apigenin-6-C-β-glucoside 4′-O-α-apiofuranoside (28) and apigenin-6-C-β-[(4″,6″-O-dimalonyl)-glucoside] 4′-O-α-apiofuranoside (47). This work provides further information on the chemical space of the plant leaf, which is a prerequisite to further research towards its valorization as a potential phytopharmaceutical product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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7 pages, 1094 KiB  
Communication
Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil from Daucus reboudii Coss., an Endemic Plant of Algeria
by Tahar Smaili, Hamdi Bendif, Mehmet Öztürk, Guido Flamini and Gregorio Peron
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(4), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041843 - 19 Feb 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2124
Abstract
Plants of the Daucus genus (Apiaceae) are used worldwide as traditional medicines or culinary ingredients. In this work, in order to explore a new chemotype, the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Daucus reboudii Coss., collected from the National Park of [...] Read more.
Plants of the Daucus genus (Apiaceae) are used worldwide as traditional medicines or culinary ingredients. In this work, in order to explore a new chemotype, the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Daucus reboudii Coss., collected from the National Park of Gouraya (Bejaïa, Algeria), was analyzed by GC-MS. Twenty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for 96.6% of the total oil. (E)-anethol was the main constituent (59.4%), followed by estragol (21.2%) and dodecanal (4.4%). (E)-anethol is an uncommon constituent of Daucus genus, hence it could be considered as a marker that contributes to differentiating D. reboudii from other species. Metal chelating, ABTS•+ and DPPH assays were performed to determine the antioxidant activity. The highest activity was revealed by the DPPH method, where D. reboudii essential oil showed a significantly higher activity compared to the reference standard BHT at doses of 50 and 100 µg/mL. Results suggest that the essential oil from D. reboudii could have a potential use in the food industry as food preservative. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to assess its applicability, and to elucidate also the composition of non-volatile compounds of this plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

55 pages, 5178 KiB  
Review
There Is Not Only Cupressus sempervirens L.: A Review on the Phytochemistry and Bioactivities of the Other Cupressus L. Species
by Claudio Frezza, Daniela De Vita, Fabio Sciubba, Chiara Toniolo, Lamberto Tomassini, Marcello Nicoletti, Marco Franceschin, Marcella Guiso, Armandodoriano Bianco, Mauro Serafini and Sebastiano Foddai
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(14), 7353; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12147353 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2907
Abstract
This review article reports for the first time phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of all Cupressus L. species other than Cupressus sempervirens L. Indeed, the literature survey showed how many other Cupressus species are rich of important phytochemical compounds, widely used in [...] Read more.
This review article reports for the first time phytochemistry, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities of all Cupressus L. species other than Cupressus sempervirens L. Indeed, the literature survey showed how many other Cupressus species are rich of important phytochemical compounds, widely used in the ethnobotanical field for several purposes and endowed with interesting biological activities, even if they are somehow neglected by the scientific community. This review aims to continue the study of these other Cupressus species and promote more research on them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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10 pages, 2057 KiB  
Review
Multi-target Natural and Nature-Inspired Compounds against Neurodegeneration: A Focus on Dual Cholinesterase and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
by Giovanni Ribaudo, Maurizio Memo and Alessandra Gianoncelli
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5044; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115044 - 29 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2380
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is a memory-related neurodegenerative condition leading to cognitive impairment. Cholinergic deficit, together with other underlying mechanisms, leads the to onset and progression of the disease. Consequently, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used for the symptomatic treatment of dementia, even if limited efficacy is [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is a memory-related neurodegenerative condition leading to cognitive impairment. Cholinergic deficit, together with other underlying mechanisms, leads the to onset and progression of the disease. Consequently, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used for the symptomatic treatment of dementia, even if limited efficacy is observed. More recently, some specific phosphodiesterase isoforms emerged as promising, alternative targets for developing inhibitors to contrast neurodegeneration. Phosphodiesterase isoforms 4, 5 and 9 were found to be expressed in brain regions that are relevant for cognition. Given the complex nature of Alzheimer’s disease and the combination of involved biochemical mechanisms, the development of polypharmacological agents acting on more than one pathway is desirable. This review provides an overview of recent reports focused on natural and Nature-inspired small molecules, or plant extracts, acting as dual cholinesterase and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In the context of the multi-target directed ligand approach, such molecules would pave the way for the development of novel agents against neurodegeneration. More precisely, according to the literature data, xanthines, other alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins and polyphenolic acids represent promising scaffolds for future optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plants: From Farm to Food and Biomedical Applications)
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