Natural Antioxidants: Determination in Food and Nutraceuticals and Implications on Human Health

A special issue of BioTech (ISSN 2673-6284). This special issue belongs to the section "Agricultural and Food Biotechnology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2024 | Viewed by 3620

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Via Francesco Marzolo, 5, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: phytochemicals; chromatography; natural product chemistry; metabolomics; polyphenols; gut microbiota
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In recent years, the use of natural products around the world has increased. Vegetable-based diets are spreading as a consequence of people’s higher conscience concerning matters of animal wellbeing, climate change, and the nutritional/health properties of food. Nutraceuticals are also gaining wide attention, due to their supposed beneficial effects on health. Several botanicals that are currently used as ingredients in food supplements are known for their antioxidant properties and can exert preventive activity against aging-related diseases such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, the mechanism of action of antioxidants is a long-term matter of debate among scientists. It has been demonstrated that these compounds can neutralize reactive molecular species and prevent direct oxidative damage to biological macromolecules. Alternatively, antioxidants can induce the endogenous redox defense, for example, by up-regulating the expression of detoxifying enzymes and modulating their activity. Several antioxidants can elicit other biological roles in the human organism after ingestion, and in this context, their interaction with the gut microbiota is of high relevance. Intestinal microbes can degrade these compounds, producing lower-molecular-weight metabolites that can exert their activity on the intestinal wall or in other districts of the body, upon absorption.

Antioxidants are also important for food quality because they can prevent oxidative degradation, thus delaying the deterioration of foods and preserving their nutritional and functional properties. For instance, the characteristic polyphenols of olive oil such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol are important for both product quality and consumer health. Several food processing techniques and storage methods can cause the modification (typically oxidation) of antioxidants contained in food, leading to significant losses of these compounds. For this reason, optimization of all the procedures involved in the preparation, transformation, and conservation of foods is needed.

This Special Issue will be dedicated to chemical, biological, and technological aspects related to antioxidants in foods, natural products, and nutraceuticals. Scientific works dedicated to the chemical characterization of antioxidants in products destined for human use are welcome, as well as works dealing with their extraction, isolation, and formulation in nutritional supplements. Articles focused on the optimization of laboratory and larger-scale procedures intended to prevent the degradation and loss of antioxidants in food and other products will also be of high interest, as well as others dealing with the assessment of their bioactivity and toxicity in cellular, animal, and human models. 

Dr. Gregorio Peron
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • natural antioxidants
  • antioxidants in food
  • nutraceuticals
  • chemical characterization
  • NMR
  • mass spectrometry
  • chromatography
  • bioassays
  • food quality
  • animal models

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

11 pages, 1436 KiB  
Article
Assessing Curcumin Uptake and Clearance and Their Influence on Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Drosophila melanogaster
by Tammy R. Hoffman, Sarah A. Emsley, Jenna C. Douglas, Kaela R. Reed, Abigail R. Esquivel, Marc J. Koyack, Brie E. Paddock and Patrick Videau
BioTech 2023, 12(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech12030058 - 08 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1171
Abstract
While normal levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are required for proper organismal function, increased levels result in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be managed via the scavenging activities of antioxidants (e.g., curcumin) and the action of enzymes, including superoxide dismutase [...] Read more.
While normal levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are required for proper organismal function, increased levels result in oxidative stress. Oxidative stress may be managed via the scavenging activities of antioxidants (e.g., curcumin) and the action of enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD). In this work, the uptake and clearance of dietary curcuminoids (consisting of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) was assessed in Drosophila melanogaster larvae following chronic or acute exposure. High levels of curcuminoid uptake and loss were observed within a few hours and leveled off within eight hours post treatment onset. The addition or removal of curcuminoids from media resulted in corresponding changes in SOD activity, and the involvement of each of the three SOD genes was assessed for their contribution to total SOD activity. Taken together, these data provide insight into the uptake and clearance dynamics of curcuminoids and indicate that, while SOD activity generally increases following curcuminoid treatment, the individual SOD genes appear to contribute differently to this response. Full article
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15 pages, 2946 KiB  
Article
Metabolites Potentially Determine the High Antioxidant Properties of Limosilactobacillus fermentum U-21
by Yelena V. Grishina, Aleksey A. Vatlin, Dilara A. Mavletova, Maya V. Odorskaya, Alexey M. Senkovenko, Rustem A. Ilyasov and Valeriy N. Danilenko
BioTech 2023, 12(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech12020039 - 17 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1841
Abstract
Many kinds of Lactobacillus are common occupants of humans’ digestive tract that support the preservation of a balanced microbial environment that benefits host health. In this study, the unique lactic acid bacterium strain Limosilactobacillus fermentum U-21, which was isolated from the feces of [...] Read more.
Many kinds of Lactobacillus are common occupants of humans’ digestive tract that support the preservation of a balanced microbial environment that benefits host health. In this study, the unique lactic acid bacterium strain Limosilactobacillus fermentum U-21, which was isolated from the feces of a healthy human, was examined for its metabolite profile in order to compare it to that of the strain L. fermentum 279, which does not have antioxidant (AO) capabilities. By using GC × GC−MS, the metabolite fingerprint of each strain was identified, and the data were then subjected to multivariate bioinformatics analysis. The L. fermentum U-21 strain has previously been shown to possess distinctive antioxidant properties in in vivo and in vitro studies, positioning it as a drug candidate for the treatment of Parkinsonism. The production of multiple distinct compounds is shown by the metabolite analysis, demonstrating the unique characteristics of the L. fermentum U-21 strain. According to reports, some of the L. fermentum U-21 metabolites found in this study have health-promoting properties. The GC × GC−MS-based metabolomic tests defined strain L. fermentum U-21 as a potential postbiotic with significant antioxidant potential. Full article
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