Recent Advances in Cereals, Legumes and Oilseeds Grain Products Rheology and Quality

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Science and Technology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2021) | Viewed by 82577

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Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The issue focuses on research advances related to rheology and quality of grain products from cereals as wheat, barley, millet, oats, rice, sorghum, etc, legumes (lentils, peas, beans, etc.), oilseeds (flax, hemp, sunflower, etc.), pseudocereals (quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat) and others. In the last decade a huge development has been noticed in the grain products rheology field measurements due to their impact on their quality. Nowadays, rheological parameters are an important key in quality control during grain products processing and preservation being related to the functional and compositional quality of grains and their products. The issue focuses on papers advancing original research and review papers at the interface between rheological properties of grain products and other aspects such as grains or products composition, functional and nutritional characteristics, microstructure, textural and sensorial analysis along with new instrumentation and methodologies relating to these areas.

Prof. Dr. Georgiana Gabriela Codină
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • grain cereals
  • grain legumes
  • grain oilseeds
  • pseudocereales
  • rheological properties
  • microstructure analysis
  • textural properties
  • processing
  • health benefits
  • nutritional value
  • new products development-derived products
  • consumer acceptance

Published Papers (17 papers)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

4 pages, 207 KiB  
Editorial
Recent Advances in Cereals, Legumes and Oilseeds Grain Products Rheology and Quality
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031035 - 20 Jan 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Grains and the products obtained from them have a central importance in human nutrition, representing the main source of food for humans [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

15 pages, 2041 KiB  
Article
Nutritional Improvement of Bean Sprouts by Using Chitooligosaccharide as an Elicitor in Germination of Soybean (Glycine max L.)
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7695; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167695 - 21 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1981
Abstract
Soybean sprouts are among the healthiest foods consumed in most Asian countries. Their nutritional content, especially bioactive compounds, may change according to the conditions of germination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of chitooligosaccharide with different molecular weight and [...] Read more.
Soybean sprouts are among the healthiest foods consumed in most Asian countries. Their nutritional content, especially bioactive compounds, may change according to the conditions of germination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of chitooligosaccharide with different molecular weight and dosage on nutritional quality and enzymatic and antioxidant activities of soybean sprouts. The chitooligosaccharide elicitor strongly stimulated the accumulation of vitamin C, total phenolics, and total flavonoid. The stimulation effect was correlated with the molecular weight and concentration of chitooligosaccharide. With treatment of 0.01% of 1 kDa chitooligosaccharide, the nine phenolic constituents and six isoflavone compounds were significantly increased. The antioxidant capacity (DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity) and antioxidase activities (catalase and peroxidase) of soybean sprouts were also enhanced after treatment with chitooligosaccharide. The degree of chitooligosaccharide-induced elicitor activity increased as the molecular weight of chitooligosaccharide decreased. These results suggest that soaking soybean seeds in a solution of chitooligosaccharide, especially in 0.01% of 1 kDa chitooligosaccharide, may effectively improve the nutritional value and physiological function of soybean sprouts. Full article
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20 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Nutritional and Functional Properties of Gluten-Free Flours
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6283; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146283 - 07 Jul 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 6614
Abstract
This study characterized and compared 13 gluten-free (GF) flours (rice, brown rice, maize, oat, millet, teff, amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, chickpea, gram, tiger nut, and plantain) for their nutritional and functional properties. For all GF flours investigated, starch was the major component, except for [...] Read more.
This study characterized and compared 13 gluten-free (GF) flours (rice, brown rice, maize, oat, millet, teff, amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, chickpea, gram, tiger nut, and plantain) for their nutritional and functional properties. For all GF flours investigated, starch was the major component, except for gram, chickpea, and tiger nut flours with lower starch content (<45%), but higher fiber content (8.8–35.4%). The higher amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc, potassium, phosphorus, similar values for iron and lower content of sodium in gram, makes this flour a good alternative to chickpea or other GF flour to develop healthier food products. Amaranth flour had a high protein digestibility, while tiger nut and millet flours were less digestible. Gram, chickpea, quinoa, buckwheat, and oat flours fulfilled amino acids recommendation for daily adult intake showing no limiting amino acid. Total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity showed higher values for buckwheat, followed by quinoa and maize flours. Gram, chickpea, maize, and quinoa flours are good candidates to improve health conditions due to lower saturated fatty acid content. The findings of this study provide useful insights into GF flours and may contribute to the development of novel gluten-free products like bread, cookies, or pasta. Full article
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13 pages, 2101 KiB  
Article
Type and Amount of Legume Protein Concentrate Influencing the Technological, Nutritional, and Sensorial Properties of Wheat Bread
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11010436 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2953
Abstract
Plant protein concentrates are used to enhance the nutritional quality of bread and to respond to the demand of consumers with respect to increased protein intake. In the present study, bread samples were produced using pea protein concentrate (PP) and soy protein concentrate [...] Read more.
Plant protein concentrates are used to enhance the nutritional quality of bread and to respond to the demand of consumers with respect to increased protein intake. In the present study, bread samples were produced using pea protein concentrate (PP) and soy protein concentrate (SP) substituting wheat flour by 5%, 10%, and 15%. The protein levels were between 1.2- and 1.7-fold (PP) and 1.1- and 1.3-fold (SP) higher than the control bread. The incorporation of 10% and 15% PP allowed for the achievement of a “high protein” claim. Water absorption was correlated with the protein contents of the breads (r = 0.9441). The decrease in bread volume was higher for the PP than SP incorporations, and it was highly negatively correlated with the protein content (r = −0.9356). Soy breads had a softer crumb than pea breads. The total change in crumb colour was higher in the PP than SP breads. The soy breads had an overall acceptability between 6.3 and 6.8, which did not differ (p > 0.05) from the control. PP breads were statistically less liked (p < 0.05). The results underlined that the choice of the type and amount of protein concentrates influenced the bread properties differently. Full article
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16 pages, 2451 KiB  
Article
Sorghum Flour: A Valuable Ingredient for Bakery Industry?
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8597; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238597 - 30 Nov 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
The information from this study may provide opportunities for industrial application of sorghum seed flour as a useful bakery ingredient and a suitable alternative source of functional compounds to whole wheat flour. The chemical composition of sorghum was evaluated compared to that of [...] Read more.
The information from this study may provide opportunities for industrial application of sorghum seed flour as a useful bakery ingredient and a suitable alternative source of functional compounds to whole wheat flour. The chemical composition of sorghum was evaluated compared to that of wheat whole flour, showing high contents of mineral and fibers. Next were evaluated the dough rheological properties of flour mixtures using Mixolab equipment, “Chopin+” protocol. Finally, six bread samples were obtained from wheat flour with addition of sorghum seed flour in various percentages, in which three samples were fortified with Lactobacillus plantarum compared to the other three bread samples without the addition of any lactic acid bacteria. All six bread sample were compared to a control bread sample with wheat flour type 550. The results show the fat and raw fiber were higher in sorghum compared to whole wheat flour. Also, the content of magnesium, potassium, and iron were much higher than in whole wheat flour. A significant improvement of the sensorial characteristics was observed in bread samples in which lactic acid bacteria was used. Full article
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21 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Influence of Buckwheat and Buckwheat Sprouts Flours on the Nutritional and Textural Parameters of Wheat Buns
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(22), 7969; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10227969 - 10 Nov 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2638
Abstract
In recent years, food products manufactured with buckwheat and sprouts flours have attracted widespread interest due to their high nutritional value with various health benefits, becoming more and more popular. The purpose of this study was to assesses the influence of buckwheat and [...] Read more.
In recent years, food products manufactured with buckwheat and sprouts flours have attracted widespread interest due to their high nutritional value with various health benefits, becoming more and more popular. The purpose of this study was to assesses the influence of buckwheat and sprouts flours on the nutritional, sensorial and textural characteristics on the final baked products. In order to achieve these goals, methods like HPLC-RID (High-Perfomance Liquid Chromatography with Refractive Index Detection), aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, Folin-Ciocalteu and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) were used to determine fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose; total flavonoids, total phenols and antioxidant activity. Sensorial analysis was realized by using hedonic test and texture profile was performed on a CT 3 Texture Analyzer. The results proved that wheat flour could be successfully replaced by 20% buckwheat and 10% sprouts flours, respectively, improving their nutritional value, without negative influence on texture parameters and sensorial features. The obtained buns were accepted by consumers with a total hedonic score of 9.1 and 8.7, respectively. Hardness, gumminess and adhesiveness were improved by using Magimix improver, meanwhile cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and adhesiveness were improved by using guar gum. Full article
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22 pages, 7284 KiB  
Article
Production of Cellulosic Ethanol from Enzymatically Hydrolysed Wheat Straws
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7638; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217638 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2149
Abstract
The aim of this study is to find the optimal pretreatment conditions and hydrolysis in order to obtain a high yield of bioethanol from wheat straw. The pretreatments were performed with different concentrations of sulphuric acid 1, 2 and 3% (v/ [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to find the optimal pretreatment conditions and hydrolysis in order to obtain a high yield of bioethanol from wheat straw. The pretreatments were performed with different concentrations of sulphuric acid 1, 2 and 3% (v/v), and were followed by an enzymatic hydrolysis that was performed by varying the solid-to-liquid ratio (1/20, 1/25 and 1/30 g/mL) and the enzyme dose (30/30 µL/g, 60/60 µL/g and 90/90 µL/g Viscozyme® L/Celluclast® 1.5 L). This mix of enzymes was used for the first time in the hydrolysis process of wheat straws which was previously pretreated with dilute sulfuric acid. Scanning electron microscopy indicated significant differences in the structural composition of the samples because of the pretreatment with H2SO4 at different concentrations, and ATR-FTIR analysis highlighted the changes in the chemical composition in the pretreated wheat straw as compared to the untreated one. HPLC-RID was used to identify and quantify the carbohydrates content resulted from enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the potential of using wheat straws as a raw material for production of cellulosic ethanol in Romania. The highest degradation of lignocellulosic material was obtained in the case of pretreatment with 3% H2SO4 (v/v), a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1/30 and an enzyme dose of 90/90 µL/g. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, and for monitoring the fermentation process a BlueSens equipment was used provided with ethanol, O2 and CO2 cap sensors mounted on the fermentation flasks. The highest concentration of bioethanol was obtained after 48 h of fermentation and it reached 1.20% (v/v). Full article
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12 pages, 2055 KiB  
Article
Impact of Germination and Fermentation on Rheological and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Wheat and Triticale Flours
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7635; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217635 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2724
Abstract
Common cereal processing through germination and fermentation usually has an important impact on the technological performance of the flours, mainly because of the activation of endogenous enzymes acting on macromolecules. The aim of the present study is to estimate the effect of germination [...] Read more.
Common cereal processing through germination and fermentation usually has an important impact on the technological performance of the flours, mainly because of the activation of endogenous enzymes acting on macromolecules. The aim of the present study is to estimate the effect of germination and fermentation, using a mixture of Lactobacillus casei and Kluyveromyces marxianus subsp. marxianus, on the rheological properties of different wheat and triticale varieties. Moreover, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the white wheat flour-based dough, including germinated grain flour or sourdough was also tested. Grains germination and sourdough fermentation exerted a high influence on the rheological behaviour of the flour-based suspensions. Germination affected the structure and stability of the suspensions, resulting in samples with viscous behaviour prevailing over the elastic one. The temperature ramp tests revealed that germination together with fermentation lead to higher resistance to temperature changes. In agreement with the results of the rheological investigations on rheometer, the Mixolab test performed on flour obtained from germinated grains revealed lower dough stability and protein weakening at temperature increase. On the other hand, a significant improvement of the pasting properties of the dough was obtained when adding sourdoughs to the wheat flour. Full article
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21 pages, 2882 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Quinoa Seeds Milling Fractions and Their Effect on the Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Dough
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7225; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207225 - 16 Oct 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Replacement of refined wheat flour with milling fractions of quinoa seeds represents a useful way for the formulation of value-added baked products with beneficial characteristics to consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition and physical properties of different [...] Read more.
Replacement of refined wheat flour with milling fractions of quinoa seeds represents a useful way for the formulation of value-added baked products with beneficial characteristics to consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the chemical composition and physical properties of different particle sizes of quinoa flour on Falling number index (FN) and dough rheological properties determined by Mixolab in a planned research based on design of experiment by using full factorial design. The ash and protein contents were higher in medium particle size, whereas the carbohydrates presented a lower value, this fraction having also the highest water absorption and water retention capacity. The reduction of particles led to an increased swelling capacity and a decreased bulk density. The particle size significantly influenced the FN values in linear and quadratic terms (p < 0.05), showing a decrease with the particle size increasing. Particle size decrease significantly increased water absorption and the rate of protein weakening due to heat (C1–2), whereas starch gelatinization rate (C3–2), starch breakdown rate related to amylase activity (C3–4) and starch retrogradation speed (C5–4) decreased. By increasing the amount of quinoa flour (QF) in wheat flour, the dough stability and the torques C2, C3, C4 and C5 followed a decreased trend, whereas water absorption and dough development time rose. Optimization, determined by particle size and level of QF added in wheat flour based on which of the combination gives the best rheological properties, showed that the composite flour containing 8.98% quinoa flour of medium particle size was the most suitable. Full article
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23 pages, 3779 KiB  
Article
Quinoa Sourdough Fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 Designed for Gluten-Free Muffins—A Powerful Tool to Enhance Bioactive Compounds
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7140; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207140 - 14 Oct 2020
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 4199
Abstract
Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was used to ferment quinoa flour, in order to evaluate its influence on the nutritional and rheological characteristics of both the sourdough and muffins. The quantification of carbohydrates and organic acids was carried out on a HPLC-RID system (high-performance [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 was used to ferment quinoa flour, in order to evaluate its influence on the nutritional and rheological characteristics of both the sourdough and muffins. The quantification of carbohydrates and organic acids was carried out on a HPLC-RID system (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with with refractive index detector), meanwhile HPLC-UV-VIS (high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV-VIS detector), AAS (Atomic absorption spectrophotometry), aluminum chloride colorimetric assay, Folin–Ciocalteu, and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH) methods were used to determine folic acid, minerals, flavonoids, total phenols, and radical scavenging activity, respectively. Two types of sourdough were used in this study: quinoa sourdough fermented with L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and quinoa sourdough spontaneous fermented. The first one influenced the chemical composition of muffins in terms of decreased content of carbohydrates, higher amounts of both organic acids and folic acid. Furthermore, higher amounts of flavonoids, total phenols and increased radical scavenging activity were recorded due to the use of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 strain. These results indicate the positive effect of quinoa flour fermentation with the above strain and supports the use of controlled fermentation with lactic acid bacteria for the manufacturing of gluten free baked products. Full article
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16 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Assessment of the Baking Quality of Hybrid and Population Wheat Cultivars
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(20), 7104; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10207104 - 13 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
The study assessed the quality parameters of grain and flour, the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread prepared from flour of hybrid cultivars of wheat in comparison with population cultivars of wheat. As the interest in wheat hybrids cultivars from [...] Read more.
The study assessed the quality parameters of grain and flour, the rheological properties of dough and the quality of bread prepared from flour of hybrid cultivars of wheat in comparison with population cultivars of wheat. As the interest in wheat hybrids cultivars from the agricultural and milling industry is growing, their technological value of grain and flour was evaluated at two levels of nitrogen fertilisation (N1—110 kg/ha, N2—150 kg/ha). Increasing the fertilisation (N2) produced a significant influence on the crude protein and gluten content in the flour, as well as the moisture of the crumb and the yield of the dough without impacting other rheological traits and parameters of bread baking process. The performed principal component analysis (PCA) allowed for identification of the best cultivars among the studied wheat cultivars (Hybery and Hyvento). The hybrid cultivar Hyvento was characterised by favourable qualitative traits of the grain (vitreousness, crude protein content) and rheological parameters of the dough (bread volume), however, it had lower baking quality parameters. Among the hybrid cultivars, the best applicability for baking purposes was Hybery due to the favourable values of the baking process parameters and bread quality (bread yield, bread volume, Dallmann porosity index of crumb). Hybrid cultivars of wheat can therefore be used for the production of bread and be an alternative in agricultural production for population cultivars, which will contribute to filling the knowledge gap for the hybrid wheat cultivars. Full article
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15 pages, 1975 KiB  
Article
Karl Fischer Water Titration—Principal Component Analysis Approach on Bread Products
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6518; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186518 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7772
Abstract
(1) Background: The water content and the way of bonding in the food matrices, including bread, can be easily and simply evaluated by Karl Fischer titration (KFT). The goal was to identify the main KFT parameters that influence the similarity/dissimilarity of commercial bread [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The water content and the way of bonding in the food matrices, including bread, can be easily and simply evaluated by Karl Fischer titration (KFT). The goal was to identify the main KFT parameters that influence the similarity/dissimilarity of commercial bread products, using multivariate statistical analysis. (2) Methods: Various commercial bread samples were analyzed by volumetric KFT and the water content, parameters from titration process and KFT kinetics were used as input for principal component analysis (PCA). (3) Results: The KFT water content was in the range of 35.1–44.2% for core samples and 19.4–22.9% for shell samples. The storage and transportation conditions consistently influence the water content of bread. The type of water molecules can be evaluated by means of KFT water reaction rates. The mean water reaction rates up to 2 min are consistently higher for bread core samples, which indicates a high fraction of “surface” water. PCA reveals the similarity of core samples and various bread types, as well as dissimilarity between bread parts, mainly based on KFT kinetic parameters. (4) Conclusions: KFT kinetics can be a useful tool for a rapid and simple differentiations between various types of bread products. Full article
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13 pages, 2730 KiB  
Article
Use of Response Surface Methodology to Investigate the Effects of Sodium Chloride Substitution with Potassium Chloride on Dough’s Rheological Properties
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 4039; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10114039 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2515
Abstract
Bakery products are one of the main sources of dietary sodium intake of the world’s population. During the last decade, sodium intake has increased worldwide and nowadays the World Health Organization recommends reducing sodium intake by up to 2 g Na/day. KCl is [...] Read more.
Bakery products are one of the main sources of dietary sodium intake of the world’s population. During the last decade, sodium intake has increased worldwide and nowadays the World Health Organization recommends reducing sodium intake by up to 2 g Na/day. KCl is the leading substitute for reducing sodium in bakery products. Therefore, the main purpose of our study was to investigate the impact of sodium reduction on dough’s rheological properties by reformulating the dough recipe using two types of salts, namely NaCl and KCl, with different amounts added to wheat flour. In order to establish their combination for obtaining the optimum rheological properties of dough, the response surface methodology (RSM) by the Design Expert software was used. The effect of combined NaCl and KCl salts were made on mixing, viscometric and fermentation process by using Farinograph, Extensograph, Amylograph and Rheofermentometer devices. On dough’s rheological properties, KCl and NaCl presented a significant effect (p < 0.01) on water absorption, stability, energy, dough resistance to extension, falling number and all Rheofermentometer-analyzed values. Mathematical models were achieved between independent variables, the KCl and NaCl amounts, and the dependent ones, dough rheological values. The optimal values obtained through RSM for the KCl and NaCl salts were of 0.37 g KCl/100 g and 1.31 g NaCl/100 g wheat flour, which leads to a 22% replacement of NaCl in the dough recipe. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

24 pages, 806 KiB  
Review
Maize and Sorghum as Raw Materials for Brewing, a Review
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3139; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073139 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 11987
Abstract
Brewing is among the oldest biotechnological processes, in which barley malt and—to a lesser extent—wheat malt are used as conventional raw materials. Worldwide, 85–90% of beer production is now produced with adjuvants, with wide variations on different continents. This review proposes the use [...] Read more.
Brewing is among the oldest biotechnological processes, in which barley malt and—to a lesser extent—wheat malt are used as conventional raw materials. Worldwide, 85–90% of beer production is now produced with adjuvants, with wide variations on different continents. This review proposes the use of two other cereals as raw materials in the manufacture of beer, corn and sorghum, highlighting the advantages it recommends in this regard and the disadvantages, so that they are removed in technological practice. The use of these cereals as adjuvants in brewing has been known for a long time. Recently, research has intensified regarding the use of these cereals (including in the malted form) to obtain new assortments of beer from 100% corn malt or 100% sorghum malt. There is also great interest in obtaining gluten-free beer assortments, new nonalcoholic or low-alcohol beer assortments, and beers with an increased shelf life, by complying with current food safety regulations, under which maize and sorghum can be used in manufacturing recipes. Full article
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30 pages, 481 KiB  
Review
Oil Press-Cakes and Meals Valorization through Circular Economy Approaches: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(21), 7432; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10217432 - 22 Oct 2020
Cited by 98 | Viewed by 10783
Abstract
The food industry generates a large amount of waste every year, which opens up a research field aimed at minimizing and efficiently managing this issue to support the concept of zero waste. From the extraction process of oilseeds results oil cakes. These residues [...] Read more.
The food industry generates a large amount of waste every year, which opens up a research field aimed at minimizing and efficiently managing this issue to support the concept of zero waste. From the extraction process of oilseeds results oil cakes. These residues are a source of bioactive compounds (protein, dietary fiber, antioxidants) with beneficial properties for health, that can be used in foods, cosmetics, textile, and pharmaceutical industries. They can also serve as substrates for the production of enzymes, antibiotics, biosurfactants, and mushrooms. Other applications are in animal feedstuff and for composites, bio-fuel, and films production. This review discusses the importance of oilseed and possible valorization methods for the residues obtained in the oil industry. Full article
15 pages, 331 KiB  
Review
Perspectives on the Use of Germinated Legumes in the Bread Making Process, A Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(18), 6244; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10186244 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 3574
Abstract
Nowadays, it may be noticed that there is an increased interest in using germinated seeds in the daily diet. This high interest is due to the fact that in a germinated form, the seeds are highly improved from a nutritional point of view [...] Read more.
Nowadays, it may be noticed that there is an increased interest in using germinated seeds in the daily diet. This high interest is due to the fact that in a germinated form, the seeds are highly improved from a nutritional point of view with multiple benefits for the human body. The purpose of this review was to update the studies made on the possibilities of using different types of germinated legume seeds (such as lentil, chickpea, soybean, lupin, bean) in order to obtain bakery products of good quality. This review highlights the aspects related to the germination process of the seeds, the benefits of the germination process on the seeds from a nutritional point of view, and the effects of the addition of flour from germinated seeds on the rheological properties of the wheat flour dough, but also on the physico–chemical and sensory characteristics of the bakery products obtained. All these changes on the bread making process and bread quality depend on the level and type of legume seed subjected to the germination process which are incorporated in wheat flour. Full article
17 pages, 506 KiB  
Review
Brewer’s Spent Grains: Possibilities of Valorization, a Review
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(16), 5619; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10165619 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 60 | Viewed by 11314
Abstract
This review was based on updated research on how to use brewer’s spent grains (BSG). The use of BSG was considered both in food, as an ingredient or using value-added components derived from brewer’s spent grain, or in non-food products such as pharmaceuticals, [...] Read more.
This review was based on updated research on how to use brewer’s spent grains (BSG). The use of BSG was considered both in food, as an ingredient or using value-added components derived from brewer’s spent grain, or in non-food products such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, construction, or food packaging. BSG is a valuable source of individual components due to its high nutritional value and low cost that is worth exploiting more to reduce food waste but also to improve human health and the environment. From the bioeconomy point of view, biological resources are transformed into bioenergetically viable and economically valuable products. The pretreatment stage of BSG biomass plays an important role in the efficiency of the extraction process and the yield obtained. The pretreatments presented in this review are both conventional and modern extraction methods, such as solvent extractions or microwave-assisted extractions, ultrasonic-assisted extractions, etc. Full article
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