Carotenoids in Fresh and Processed Food: Between Biosynthesis and Degradation

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical and Molecular Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 12202

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Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Currently, there is a general trend in food science to link food and health in line with consumers’ concern about what is in their food and how what they eat can promote well-being. Thus, food is considered today not only a source of energy but also an affordable way to prevent future diseases. In this context, studying carotenoids content in food is very relevant; indeed, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the consumption of diets rich in carotenoids is associated with a lower incidence of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and age-related macular degeneration, mainly due to their antioxidant and provitamin A activity. Although many works have been conducted about the presence and properties of carotenoids in food, some challenges must be still faced in this research field: The role of carotenoids as antioxidants and its mechanism of action are needed to be investigated further; detailed qualitative and quantitative composition of carotenoids in underutilized fruits and vegetables is required for contributing significant information to select nutrient rich plants for food formulation; how emerging packaging and processing techniques (i.e., high electric field pulse, high-pressure CO2, etc.) can preserve the content of carotenoids in processed food products; the complete understanding of carotenoid biosynthesis, regulation, and roles of various carotenoid derivatives for edible plants and animals is still not well established; and detailed studies for identifying the pre- and post-harvesting favorable factors (i.e. elicitors, cooking methods, etc.), which improve the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of carotenoids from different foods, are necessary.

The Special Issue of the journal Applied Sciences “Carotenoids in Fresh and Processed Food: Between Biosynthesis and Degradation” aims to group original research articles and review articles that can improve the knowledge in the aforementioned fields.

Dr. Pasquale Crupi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Carotenoids chemistry
  • Apocarotenoids chemistry
  • Fruits and vegetable
  • Nonvegetable food
  • Post-harvest physiology
  • Biosynthesis
  • Isomerization and degradation
  • Bioavailability and bioaccesibility
  • Methods of analysis

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Editorial

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3 pages, 175 KiB  
Editorial
Carotenoids in Fresh and Processed Food: Between Biosynthesis and Degradation
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1689; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031689 - 07 Feb 2022
Viewed by 870
Abstract
Currently, there is a general trend in food science to link food and health in line with consumers’ concern about what is in their food and how what they eat can promote well-being [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

7 pages, 1283 KiB  
Communication
Clove Oil Protects β-Carotene in Oil-in-Water Emulsion against Photodegradation
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 2667; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11062667 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
β-Carotene degrades rapidly in a 2% oil-in-water emulsion, made from food-grade soy oil with 7.4 mg β-carotene/mL oil, during storage and when exposed to light. Added clove oil (2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 µL/mL of emulsion) protects against the photodegradation of β [...] Read more.
β-Carotene degrades rapidly in a 2% oil-in-water emulsion, made from food-grade soy oil with 7.4 mg β-carotene/mL oil, during storage and when exposed to light. Added clove oil (2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 µL/mL of emulsion) protects against the photodegradation of β-carotene, regardless of the ratio between clove oil and β-carotene in the concentration range studied, suggesting that the regeneration of β-carotene is caused by eugenol, the principal plant phenol of clove oil to occur in the oil-water interface. Therefore, clove oil in low concentrations may find use as a natural protectant of provitamin A in enriched foods during retail display. Full article
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13 pages, 3536 KiB  
Article
Effects of Salicylic Acid and Methyl Jasmonate Treatments on Flavonoid and Carotenoid Accumulation in the Juice Sacs of Satsuma Mandarin In Vitro
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(24), 8916; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10248916 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are two important plant hormones that trigger the plant defense responses and regulate the accumulation of bioactive compounds in plants. In the present study, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on flavonoid and carotenoid [...] Read more.
Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid are two important plant hormones that trigger the plant defense responses and regulate the accumulation of bioactive compounds in plants. In the present study, the effects of salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on flavonoid and carotenoid accumulation were investigated in the juice sacs of Satsuma mandarin in vitro. The results showed that SA treatment was effective to enhance the contents of eriocitrin, narirutin, poncirin, and β-cryptoxanthin in the juice sacs (p < 0.05). In contrast, the MeJA treatment inhibited flavonoid and carotenoid accumulation in the juice sacs (p < 0.05). Gene expression results showed that the changes of flavonoid and carotenoid contents in the SA and MeJA treatments were highly regulated at the transcriptional level. In addition, a transcriptional factor CitWRKY70 was identified in the microarray analysis, which was induced by the SA treatment, while suppressed by the MeJA treatment. In the SA and MeJA treatments, the change in the expression of CitWRKY70 was consistent with that of flavonoid and carotenoid biosynthetic key genes. These results indicated that CitWRKY70 might be involved in the regulation of flavonoid and carotenoid accumulation in response to SA and MeJA treatments in the juice sacs of citrus fruit. Full article
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15 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
Modelling of Carotenoids Content in Red Clover Sprouts Using Light of Different Wavelength and Pulsed Electric Field
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(12), 4143; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10124143 - 16 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2223
Abstract
The paper presents the results of influence the light of different wavelengths and pulsed electric fields on the content of carotenoids. Seeds germination was carried out in a climatic chamber with phytotron system. The experiment was carried out under seven growing conditions differing [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of influence the light of different wavelengths and pulsed electric fields on the content of carotenoids. Seeds germination was carried out in a climatic chamber with phytotron system. The experiment was carried out under seven growing conditions differing in light-emitting diode (LED) wavelengths and using pulsed electric fields (PEFs) with different strength applied before sowing. Cultivation of the sprouts was carried out for seven days at relative humidity 80% and 20 ± 1 °C. Different light wavelengths were used during cultivation: white light (380–780 nm), UVA (340 nm), blue (440 nm), and red (630 nm). In addition, the pulsed electric field (PEF) with three values of strength equal to 1, 2.5 and 5 kV/cm, respectively, was applied to three series of sprouts before sowing. Sprouts treated with the PEF were grown under white light (380–780 nm). The light exposure time for all experimental series of sprouts was 12/12 h (12 h light, 12 h dark for seven days). Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in germinating red clover seeds, the content of which varies from 743 mg/kg in sprouts grown in red light, 862 mg/kg in sprouts grown in UVA, to 888 mg/kg in sprouts grown in blue light. Blue light in the cultivation of red clover sprouts had the most beneficial effect on the increase of carotenoids content and amounted to 42% in β-carotene, 19% in lutein, and 14% in zeaxanthin. It confirms that modelling the content of carotenoids is possible using UVA and blue light (440 nm) during seed cultivation. An increase in the content of β-carotene and lutein in red clover sprouts was obtained in comparison to the test with white light without PEF pre-treatment, respectively by 8.5% and 6%. At the same time a 3.3% decrease in the content of zeaxanthin was observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that PEF pre-treatment may increase mainly the content of β-carotene. Full article
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18 pages, 1600 KiB  
Article
Bunch Microclimate Affects Carotenoids Evolution in cv. Nebbiolo (V. vinifera L.)
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 3846; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10113846 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2111
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of bunch microclimate on the evolution of some relevant carotenoids in Nebbiolo grapes. Four bunch-zone microclimates, defined by different vineyard aspect and vine vigor, were characterized by radiation and temperature indices. Berry samples were collected from green phase [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of bunch microclimate on the evolution of some relevant carotenoids in Nebbiolo grapes. Four bunch-zone microclimates, defined by different vineyard aspect and vine vigor, were characterized by radiation and temperature indices. Berry samples were collected from green phase up to harvest, during two consecutive seasons and carotenoid determination was assessed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). High carotenoid concentrations were highlighted in Nebbiolo. Lutein and neoxanthin contents (μg berry−1) varied similarly in both seasons achieving a concentration peak after veraison especially in the cooler plots while a variety effect on the lutein seasonal trend was presumed. Conversely, β-carotene content remained generally constant during ripening, with the exception of the south plots showing dissimilar evolution between the seasons. Furthermore, higher temperature in the less vigorous and south facing vineyards led to lower amounts of carotenoids, both during ripening and at harvest. Bunch zone temperature and light condition may affect both synthesis and degradation of grape carotenoids determining their amount and profile at harvest. These findings add further knowledge about the influence of climate changes on grape aroma precursors, and are useful to adapt cultural strategies and preserve grape quality consequently. Full article
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15 pages, 3533 KiB  
Article
How Pre-Harvest Inactivated Yeast Treatment May Influence the Norisoprenoid Aroma Potential in Wine Grapes
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 3369; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10103369 - 13 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1873
Abstract
Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites in wine grapes and play a key role as potential precursors of aroma compounds (i.e., C13-norisoprenoids), which have a high sensorial impact in wines. There is scarce information about the influence of pre-harvest inactivated yeast treatment [...] Read more.
Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites in wine grapes and play a key role as potential precursors of aroma compounds (i.e., C13-norisoprenoids), which have a high sensorial impact in wines. There is scarce information about the influence of pre-harvest inactivated yeast treatment on the norisoprenoid aroma potential of grapes. Thus, this work aimed to study the effect of the foliar application of yeast extracts (YE) to Negro Amaro and Primitivo grapevines on the carotenoid content during grape ripening and the difference between the resulting véraison and maturity (ΔC). The results showed that β-carotene and (allE)-lutein were the most abundant carotenoids in all samples, ranging from 60% to 70% of total compounds. Their levels, as well as those of violaxanthin, (9′Z)-neoxanthin, and 5,6-epoxylutein, decreased during ripening. This was especially observed in treated grapes, with ΔC values from 2.6 to 4.2-fold higher than in untreated grapes. Besides this, a principal components analysis (PCA) demonstrated that lutein, β-carotene, and violaxanthin and (9′Z)-neoxanthin derivatives principally characterized Negro Amaro and Primitivo, respectively. Thereby, the YE treatment has proved to be effective in improving the C13-norisoprenoid aroma potentiality of Negro Amaro and Primitivo, which are fundamental cultivars in the context of Italian wine production. Full article
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